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Metrication

Metrication or metrification is the act or process of converting the system of measurement traditionally used in a country to the metric system. Worldwide, there has been a process of nations transitioning from their various local and traditional units of measurement, to the metric system; this process first began in France during the 1790s and has continued extensively world-wide over the following two centuries, but the metric system has not been adopted in all countries and sectors. While most countries have the metric system as their official system of weights and measures, some countries have not committed to adopting it, or have adopted it as their official system but have not completed the process of full metrication. Most countries adopted the metric system with a transitional period in which the country switched to the metric system; some countries such as Guyana, adopted the metric system, but have had some trouble over time implementing it. Antigua and Barbuda "officially" metric, is moving toward total implementation of the metric system, but slower than expected.

The government had announced that they have plans to convert their country to the metric system by the first quarter of 2015. Other Caribbean countries such as Saint Lucia are metric but are still in the process toward full conversion. In the United Kingdom the metric system is the official system for most regulated trading by weight or measure purposes, but some imperial units remain the primary official unit of measurement; as of 2018 the UK has only metricated. According to the US Central Intelligence Agency's online The World Factbook, the metric system has not been adopted by Myanmar and the US; the United States use US customary units as does Liberia. Myanmar uses the Burmese units of measurement. According to The Observer, Liberia is committed to adopting the metric system in the future; some sources now identify Liberia as metric, the government of Myanmar has stated that the country would metricate with a goal of completion by 2019. Both Myanmar and Liberia are metric countries, trading internationally in metric units.

Sierra Leone switched to selling fuel by the litre in May 2011. The European Union used the Units of Measure Directive to attempt to achieve a common system of weights and measures and to facilitate the European Single Market. Throughout the 1990s, the European Commission helped accelerate the process for member countries to complete their metric conversion processes. Among them is the United Kingdom where laws in some or all contexts mandate or permit many imperial measures, such as miles and yards for road-sign distances, road speed limits in miles per hour, pints of beer, inches for clothes; the United Kingdom secured permanent exemptions for the mile and yard in road markings, for the pint of draught beer sold in pubs. In 2007, the European Commission announced that it was to abandon the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods, to allow dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely; the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada have some active opposition to metrication where updated weights and measures laws would make obsolete historic systems of measurement.

Other countries, like France and Japan, that once had significant popular opposition to metrication now have complete acceptance of metrication. The Roman empire used the pes measure; this was divided into 12 unciae. The libra was another measure that had wide effect on European weight and currency long after Roman times, e.g. lb, £. The measure came to vary over time. Charlemagne was one of several rulers who launched reform programmes of various kinds to standardise units for measure and currency in his empire, but there was no real general breakthrough. In medieval Europe, local laws on weights and measures were set by trade guilds on a city-by-city basis. For example, the ell or elle was a unit of length used in Europe, but its length varied from 40.2 centimetres in one part of Germany to 70 centimetres in The Netherlands and 94.5 centimetres in Edinburgh. A survey of Switzerland in 1838 revealed that the foot had 37 different regional variations, the ell had 68, there were 83 different measures for dry grain, 70 measures for fluids and 63 different measures for "dead weights".

When Isaac Newton wrote Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687, he quoted his measurements in Parisian feet so readers could understand the size. Examples of efforts to have local intercity or national standards for measurements include the Scottish law of 1641, the British standard imperial system of 1824, still used in the United Kingdom. At one time Imperial China had standardised units for volume throughout its territory, but by 1936 official investigations uncovered 53 values for the chi varying from 200 millimetres to 1250 millimetres. However, revolutionary France was to produce the definitive International System of Units which has come to be used by most of the world today; the desire for a single international system of measurement came from growing international trade and the need to apply common standards to goods. For a company to buy a product produced in another country, they need to ensure that the product would arrive as described; the medieval ell was abandoned in part because its value could not be standardise

Ross Montgomery

Ross Montgomery is a Scottish professional darts player who plays for the British Darts Organisation tournaments. His nickname is The Boss. Montgomery played american football in his native Scotland, having spent eleven years with Glasgow Diamonds, he took up the game of darts instead. His only major success to date was winning the Zuiderduin Masters in 2010. Montgomery is a former finalist at the BDO World Trophy and WDF World Cup, quarter-finalist at the BDO World Championship, he has captained Scotland at the WDF World Cup, WDF Europe Cup and Six Nations Cup. Montgomery plays in the Glasgow Premier League, he is a multiple time. As of 2014, Montgomery has represented Scotland at four WDF World Cups, four WDF Europe Cups and six BDO Six Nations Cups, he has played in thirty-six matches for winning twenty-four of them. Montgomery qualified for the 2006 BDO World Championships along with players like Brian Woods and eventual champion Jelle Klaasen of the Netherlands. Montgomery was drawn in the first round with another Dutchman Vincent van der Voort, losing 3–1 in sets.

He followed this, however, by reaching the final of the Scottish Open, beating Gary Robson and Michael van Gerwen before losing in the final to Sweden's Göran Klemme, runner-up in the 2005 World Masters. He played in the 2007 International Darts League, beating PDC player Chris Mason, Belgium's Dirk Hespeels and avenged his Lakeside defeat by van der Voort to win Group 4 with a 100% record, he wasn't able to repeat his performances in the Last 32 Group stage, losing all 3 of his games in Group D to Martin Atkins, Scott Waites and group winner Raymond van Barneveld. Montgomery produced a good run in the Winmau World Masters, reaching the last 16 of the tournament, losing to Atkins. In 2008, Montgomery won the newly created EDO England Open, run by the newly formed English Darts Organisation, he scored wins over Johnny Nijs, Ted Hankey, Gary Robson and Edwin Max before beating another Scotsman Gary Anderson in the final. He reached the final of the inaugural BDO International Open, an event known as the BDO England Open, losing to Davy Richardson.

On 26 July 2008 Montgomery won his second event of the year, winning the British Classic, again beating Anderson in the final. Montgomery regained the British Classic crown in 2010. Montgomery ended; these performances helped Montgomery earn automatic qualification for the 2009 BDO World Championships as the number 10 seed. He defeated Welshman Martin Phillips in the first round but lost in round two to eventual champion Ted Hankey, he entered the tournament the following year as the Number 6 seed, but wasted six darts to win his first round match and lost to Garry Thompson. Montgomery won the 2010 British Classic as well as the 2010 Zuiderduin Masters, his inaugural major title, where he came from 4–0 down in sets to win 5–4 against Robbie Green surviving three match darts. Montgomery finished as the year end number one in WDF Working Rankings Europe for 2010. At the 2011 BDO World Darts Championship, Montgomery was beaten 3–1 in sets by Alan Norris. Montgomery reached the semi-finals of the 2011 Winmau World Masters where he was beaten in a deciding leg by Dean Winstanley.

Following his victory at 2010 edition, Montgomery had another decent run reaching the semi-finals of the Zuiderduin Masters in 2011. At the 2012 BDO World Darts Championship, Montgomery reached the second round for only the second time courtesy of a 3–1 win over Fabian Roosenbrand in the first round, but was subsequently defeated 4–1 by eventual runner-up Tony O'Shea. Montgomery was defeated in the first round of the 2013 BDO World Darts Championship 3–1 by Paul Jennings, having had four darts to lead 2–1. Montgomery captained Scotland to silver behind England in the overall team competition at the 2013 WDF World Cup, while alongside team-mates Gary Stone, Craig Baxter and Alan Soutar, Scotland defeated America 9–7 in the men's team final. Montgomery again reached the semi-finals of the Zuiderduin Masters, losing to eventual champion James Wilson, he followed this with a narrow 3–2 first round win at the 2014 World Championship over qualifier Michael Meaney, after Meaney missed seven darts to take a 2–0 lead in the deciding set.

He was beaten in the second round by Martin Adams. Montgomery showed good form to lift the Dutch Open with victory over Scott Waites and reach the final of the newly reinstated BDO World Trophy, where he was defeated 13–11 by James Wilson. At the 2015 World Championship, Monty defeated Pip Blackwell 3–1 in the first round, before dispatching Scott Waites 4–0 in the second to reach the quarter finals at Lakeside for the first time in his career, he was beaten 5–1 in the quarter finals by Martin Adams. After a quiet year on the circuit, Montgomery still managed to qualify for the 2016 World Championship but was unseeded for the first time in 10 years, He lost in the first round to Jamie Hughes 3–0. While Montgomery played american football for the Glasgow Diamonds he met his wife Dorothy, a cheerleader for the team at the time, he and his wife Dorothy have a son daughters Alisha and Gemma. Montgomery is a supporter of Scottish Premiership club Glasgow Rangers. 2006: 1st Round 2009: 2nd Round 2010: 1st Round 2011: 1st Round 2012: 2nd Round 2013: 1st Round 2014: 2nd Round 2015: Quarter Finals 2016: 1s

Jörn Renzenbrink

Jörn Renzenbrink is a retired professional tennis player from Germany. A right hander, Renzenbrink had his best Grand Slam performance in the 1994 US Open, when he made it into the fourth round, he started his campaign with a straight sets victory over South African Grant Stafford, followed by a four-sets defeat of Morocco's Karim Alami and a win over Italian Andrea Gaudenzi. In the fourth round he took him to five sets, but lost. Renzenbrink never won a singles tournament on the ATP Tour but was runner-up on one occasion, at the 1994 KAL Cup Korea Open, he did however win a doubles title, with fellow German Markus Zoecke, as qualifiers, at the 1995 Hall of Fame Tennis Championships in Newport, Rhode Island. He won two ATP Challenger Series tournaments during his career, the first in Andorra in 1993 and the other at Aachen in his home country. Jörn Renzenbrink at the Association of Tennis Professionals Jörn Renzenbrink at the International Tennis Federation

10th Ward of New Orleans

The 10th Ward is a division of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. The 10th Ward is one of the 17 wards of New Orleans; the ward is one of the city's Uptown wards the old Faubourg Lafayette annexed by New Orleans in the 1850s. The wedge-shaped Ward stretches back from the Mississippi River; the lower boundary is Felicity Street, across, the 1st Ward Martin Luther King Boulevard, across, the 2nd Ward. The upper boundary is First Street, across. Near the river the ward includes part of the Lower Garden District and the former location of America's first experiment with large-scale public housing, started here in 1937, when, as part of the New Deal, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the loan to commence construction of the St. Thomas Housing Project. In Central City it includes the Oretha Castle Haley commercial district; the 10th Ward has been home to such notables as jazz musicians Buddy Bolden and George Brunies In 1718, the City of New Orleans was established. The city was divided into many neighborhoods and squares.

Faubourg Lafayette is one of the many neighborhoods of New Orleans. Faubourg Lafayette was united by an act of legislation, prior to being classified as an official neighborhood. However, unlike most of the other neighborhoods in the city, Faubourg Lafayette once belonged to another region of Louisiana before it united with the great city of New Orleans; this area was part of the city of Lafayette, Louisiana before New Orleans and Lafayette’s legislation consolidated in making it great one big city. Many other neighborhoods like Faubourg Nuns and Faubourg Delassize were a part of Lafayette, Louisiana prior to this consolidation. In 1818, Faubourg Lafayette was bought as a neighborhood and became a subdivision in 1824. In its newborn years as a city, it was cut into squares by John Poultney. Poultney acquired this neighborhood from Madame Rousseau, who like Samuel Herman bought his neighborhood from the heirs of Valery Delaissize. Both of these neighborhoods started as plantations, but the new owners decided to downsize them in order to make more living space available for the growing population.

In 1796, Bertrand Gravier helped enlarge Faubourg by including Phillipa St., now called Poydress Street. Years in 1997, Gravier died and Jean Gravier, his brother, was appointed to be the new owner of this prosperous estate, he continued in his brother’s footsteps by further extending the Faubourg to Circus Street, regarded to as Rampart Street. As Jean Gravier continued to expand the Faubourg region, he included land, located near Poydras St. and 40 feet in width, for a Canal. This canal linked with an agency in Bayou St. John, flowed into an area, called Hagan Avenue. In addition, to these expansions, Jean Gravier designated a tract for a basin that linked to Canal St. During this time, the basin was an uninhabited district of land, allocated for the community, he called this Basin “Place Gravier”. Jean Gravier didn’t realize that the canal and Place Gravier would become the basis of a dispute between the City of New Orleans and the Carrollton Railroad Company. At this time, the Carrollton Railroad company possessed the canal, the basin, asserted ownership of segments of Place Gravier.

The dispute between the City of New Orleans, the railroad company concluded when the Supreme Court of the Territory of Orleans announced a judgement in support of Jean Gravier, on May 23, 1805. In 1841, the Supreme Court of the state of Louisiana, pronounced that the Canal and Basin were property of to the Railroad Company. However, years in 1876, the Supreme Court altered their judgement and decided that the “Place Gravier” would be owned by the City of New Orleans and be a location for the general public. In 1897, the City of New Orleans took legal action against Philip Werlien for possession of this basin; this location was declared to be public property as stated by the judgment the Supreme Court announced in 1841. The City of New Orleans won the lawsuit against Werlien and the Supreme Court of the state of Louisiana. Werlein took the litigation to the Supreme Court of the United States and it rendered a judgment in support of him; the Supreme Court of the United States reasoned that the City of New Orleans had lost ownership of Place Gravier.

Philip Werlien was able to obtain possession of this disputed property, now the site of the Hotel de Sotoe. Faubourg Lafayette is distinctive in its perimeters because of its unique history from vast contributors. Faubourg Lafayette is part of the upper section of New Orleans; the perimeters of Faubourg Lafayette are Saint Charles Street, Calliope Street, Jackson Avenue, Simon Bolivar Avenue. This area is known for its diverse mixture of businesses, personal homes and many main attractions for tourist

Grade II listed buildings in Liverpool-L2

Liverpool is a city and port in Merseyside, which contains many listed buildings. A listed building is a structure designated by English Heritage of being of architectural and/or of historical importance and, as such, is included in the National Heritage List for England. There are three grades of listing, according to the degree of importance of the structure. Grade I includes those buildings that are of "exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important". Few buildings are included in Grade I — only 2.5% of the total. Grade II* buildings represent 5.5% of the total, while the great majority, 92%, are included in Grade II. Liverpool contains more than 1,550 listed buildings, of which 28 are in Grade I, 109 in Grade II*, the rest in Grade II; this list contains. This area of the city formed the major commercial hub of the city during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the great majority of the buildings in this list result from that historical period, being office buildings or warehouses.

Most of these are located in the major commercial streets. The other structures in the list include a church and associated structures, public houses, a monument, a fountain, ventilation stations for one of the Mersey Road Tunnels, a former fruit exchange, a war memorial, two telephone kiosks. Grade II listed buildings from other areas in the city can be found through the box on the right, along with the lists of the Grade I and Grade II* buildings in the city. Architecture of Liverpool Notes Citations Sources Pye, Discover Liverpool, Liverpool: Trinity Mirror Media, ISBN 978-1-906802-90-5 Sharples, Joseph.

Ager Gallicus

The expression Ager Gallicus defines the territory of the Senone Gauls after it was devastated and conquered by Rome in 284 BC or 283 BC, either after the Battle of Arretium or the Battle of Lake Vadimon. According to Polybius, unspecified Gauls besieged the city of Arretium and defeated a Roman force which had come to the aid of the city, their commander, the praetor Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter died in the battle. This would place the battle in 283 BC because Denter was a consul in 284 BC. Denter was replaced by Manius Curius Dentatus, who sent envoys to negotiate the release of Roman hostages, but they were killed; the Romans marched on Gaul and they were met by the Senones who were defeated in a pitched battle. Polybius used the generic term Gaul, he meant Gallia Cisalpina, the name the Romans gave the area of the Gauls of northern Italy. It can be assumed that this clash with the Senones occurred in the ager Gallicus, because Polybius wrote that "the Romans invaded the territory of the Senones, killed most of them and drove the rest out of the country and founded the colony of Sena Gallia".

Polybius did not specify. He wrote that "ereupon the Boii, seeing the Senones expelled from their territory, fearing a like fate for themselves and their own land, implored the aid of the Etruscans and marched out in full force; the united armies gave battle to the Romans near Lake Vadimon, in this battle most of the Etruscans were cut to pieces while only quite a few of the Boii escaped." He wrote that the next year the Boii and the Etruscans engaged the Romans in battle again and "were utterly defeated and it was only now that their courage at length gave way and that they sent an embassy to sue for terms and made a treaty with the Romans." According to Appian, the Romans sent their ambassadors to the Senones and for a different reason. The Senones had provided mercenaries to forces which had fought against Rome despite the fact that they had a treaty with Rome; the Romans sent ambassadors to remonstrate against this. Appian wrote that "Britomaris, the Gaul, being incensed against them on account of his father, killed by the Romans while fighting on the side of the Etruscans in this war, slew the ambassadors" while they were still holding the herald’s staff.

He added some details which are most fictive and reflections of prejudice towards barbarians. He wrote that Britomaris wore their official garments and "cut their bodies in small pieces and scattered them in the fields." Publius Cornelius Dolabella, "while he was on the march, moved with great speed" to the ager Gallicus "by way of the Sabine country and Picenum" and laid it to waste: "He ravaged them all with fire and sword. He reduced the women and children to slavery, killed all the adult males without exception, devastated the country in every possible way, made it uninhabitable for anybody else." Appian added that " little the Senones, having no longer any homes to return to, fell boldly upon the consul Domitius, being defeated by him killed themselves in despair. Appian's text is confusing, he does not link the ambassadors' event to the battle at Arretium. He does not mention; the fact his father was killed by the Romans while fighting on the side of the Etruscans in the same war could suggest that this previous fighting was the battle of Lake Vadimon, which involved a combined Etruscan and Gallic army.

The second battle mentioned by Polybius, in which the Etruscans and Gauls were defeated again and sued for peace, may well correspond with the second battle mentioned by Appian. However, while Polybius places this second battle against an Etrusco-Gallic force in the previous year, Appian claims that it was won by Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus Maximus, the other consul for 283 BC. Appian did not mention the Boii Gauls in the second battle, it does not seem that there is a reference to the battle of Arretium as there is no mention of a siege, of a battle between Romans and Gauls only, or Roman prisoners, the purpose of the Roman embassy was different. The lack of mention of where the battles were fought compounds the problem; the territory corresponds to the portion of the modern Marche region lying north of the Esino river, on the coast Adriatic Sea. In order to control the population and mercantile activities of the Ager, the Romans founded the coastal colonies of Sena Gallica, Ariminum and Fanum Fortunae.

The administration of the inland was organized in 232 BC by the Lex Flaminia de agro Gallico et Piceno viritim dividendo, which created a network of prefectures, some of which, in the mid-1st century BC, were granted the status of municipia: Aesis, Suasa and Forum Sempronii. The construction, in 220 BC, of the Via Flaminia shifted the relative position of the Ager, now connected to the seat of power by the consular road that traversed it along the Metauro river valley. After the Augustan administrative reorganization of the Italian peninsula, the Ager Gallicus was united with Umbria and became part of the Regio VI Umbria et ager Gallicus; the Diocletian reform of 300 AD split the Ager from Umbria, combined with the Picenum to become the province Flaminia et Picenum. Under emperor Theodosius I, the territory was split again (this time from Picenum, which became the province of Pi