India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
A train ticket is a ticket issued by a railway operator that enables the bearer to travel on the operator's network or a partner's network. Tickets can authorize the bearer to travel a set itinerary at a specific time, a set itinerary at any time, a set itinerary at multiple times, or an arbitrary itinerary at specific times; the last two categories are called passes: the former is sold as a discounted block of trips for commuters. In some countries, like Italy, some local railways in Germany, conductors are not used. Instead passengers are expected to validate tickets in a special stamping machine before entering the train. A system of coupons that are validated with a special machine exists on the Mumbai Suburban Railway where combinations of coupons of different denominations are used to get the corresponding ticket value. There may or may not be a conductor on double-checking that correct tickets are held, yet further systems are possible, for example in Japan, the London Underground and in local traffic in Stockholm, the platforms are physically blocked, forcing the acquisition of a ticket before entering the platform.
Some train tickets are available with an option to add bus travel at either end of the train ticketed journey, as part of a wider transport network. For instance, the PLUSBUS scheme in the United Kingdom offers bus travel on an integrated ticket for an additional fee. In Germany, most long distance train tickets include a "city ticket" valid on the public transit system of origin and destination; this is automatically included at no extra charge in all tickets purchased by Bahn Card holders and is indicated on the ticket. Early tickets were similar to a form of currency issued by individual railroads, sold by agents and collected by conductors who were audited by the railroad to be sure ticket inventories matched reported passenger earnings; as continuous travel over several connected railways became common, Coupon tickets with serrated portions for each railway company might be issued at the origin of travel and sequentially collected by conductors of the railways providing travel to avoid the necessity for purchasing additional tickets at each transfer point.
In the USA, a conductor may provide the passenger with a seat check — another voucher indicating how far the passenger may travel on the system — or attach it over the seat punched by the conductor showing the passenger's destination. Some systems have two-part tickets. Seat checks are changed to ensure that passengers cannot retain and reuse them from journey to journey. Electronic tickets are being used as replacements for paper tickets. Amtrak, as of June 30, 2012 offers electronic tickets on all train routes which have QR codes to identify the ticket's validity and can be printed out or shown to a conductor on a smartphone screen. Similar systems are used by Eurostar, Chiltern Railways Goeuro and Virgin Trains in the UK. In India, an SMS sent by the Indian Railways, along with a valid proof of identity is considered equivalent to a ticket. CIV, European train rules Edmondson railway ticket, format of printed ticket National Rail Conditions of Travel, UK Rail pass Reservation against Cancellation, India Gordon Fairchild: "Local Tickets of Global Lands."
Barteld Publishing 2008, ISBN 978-3-935961-11-0
A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type, as opposed to a ligature, two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today synonymous with its trademark or brand. Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals, trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, silver hallmarks, the development of printing technology; as the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
Typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were organizing. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists who performed less important jobs. Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, Jules Chéret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.
As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere; the visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s dictum, "Less is more." Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, digital innovations.
The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, brands, services and other entities use an ideogram or an emblem or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo; as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. An effective logo may consist of both an ideogram and the company name to emphasize the name over the graphic, employ a unique design via the use of letters and additional graphic elements. Ideograms and symbols may be more effective than written names for logos translated into many alphabets in globalized markets. For instance, a name written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general proprietary nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name; the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos. Branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color and "ribbon wave" design of its logo; the text was written in Spencerian Script, a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design. A logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization. Therefore, the design of logos and their incorporation in a visual identity system is one of the most difficult and important areas of graphic design. Logos fall into three classifications. Ideographs, such as Chase Bank, are abstr
The Canada Line is the third rapid transit line built in the SkyTrain metro system in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The line is owned by TransLink and InTransitBC and operated by ProTrans BC, links Vancouver and the Vancouver International Airport, it is coloured turquoise on route maps. The Canada Line comprises 19.2 kilometres of track. It had been scheduled to open on November 30, 2009, but opened three months ahead of schedule, well in advance of the 2010 Winter Olympics the following February; the Canada Line was anticipated to have 100,000 boardings per day in 2013 and 142,000 boardings per day by 2021, but it has exceeded early targets. Ridership has grown since opening day, with average ridership of 83,000 per day in September 2009, 105,000 per day in March 2010, over 136,000 passengers per weekday in June 2011. During the 17 days of the 2010 Winter Olympics, the line carried an average of 228,190 passengers per day. Governance of the project was through Canada Line Rapid Transit Inc. RAV Project Management Ltd. a reflection of the original "Richmond-Airport-Vancouver" name).
The line was built by SNC-Lavalin, InTransitBC will manage the line for 35 years under a contract with TransLink. The Canada Line is operationally independent from British Columbia Rapid Transit Company, which operates SkyTrain's Expo and Millennium lines, but is considered a part of the SkyTrain network. Like the other two SkyTrain lines in Metro Vancouver, it is light metro rapid transit, using automated trains on grade-separated guideways. However, the trains are powered by conventional motors rather than the linear induction system used on the other SkyTrain lines; the Canada Line begins in Downtown Vancouver at Waterfront Station in a cut-and-cover subway tunnel beneath Granville Street. It goes into twin-bored tunnels, heading southwest beneath Granville Street curving southeast to follow Davie Street through Yaletown; the tunnels dive deeper to pass below False Creek before rising back up to Olympic Village Station. There, the line transitions back to a cut-and-cover tunnel heading south under Cambie Street, some portions of which have the two sets of tracks stacked vertically.
The line emerges from the ground just south of 64th Avenue, climbing to an elevated guideway. The line continues elevated across the North Arm Bridge over the North Arm of the Fraser River, leaving Vancouver and entering Richmond. Just beyond Bridgeport Station, the line splits, with the Richmond branch heading south on elevated tracks along No. 3 Road and terminating at Richmond–Brighouse Station. The airport branch turns west and crosses the Middle Arm Bridge over the Middle Arm of the Fraser River, connecting to stations on Sea Island and terminating at YVR–Airport Station. Portions of the airport branch are at grade in order to accommodate a future elevated taxiway for aircraft over the line. Both branches narrow to a single track. Just before Bridgeport Station is the OMC facility, which houses the trains when not in use. Station construction was designed as a two-stage process. Sixteen original stations opened at the same time. Three additional stations are planned, may be built in the future.
The stations are listed below. Each Canada Line station is different in appearance, designed to blend in with the surrounding neighbourhood. For example, Langara – 49th Avenue Station is designed to fit into the area's low-density residential neighbourhood; the five busiest stations have platforms 50 metres long, while the rest of the stations have 40-metre platforms that can be extended to 50 metres. The YVR terminus and the Richmond-Brighouse terminus are single-tracked, whereas the Waterfront Station terminus is double-tracked; the double tracking is necessary to accommodate the 3-minute headways between trains on the Waterfront-Bridgeport portion of the line. King Edward Station is the only station with a stacked configuration, Broadway – City Hall Station is the only station with a double-height ceiling over the platforms. Vancouver City Centre Station is linked to Pacific Centre mall and Vancouver Centre Mall, in addition to having street level access. All direct transfers to the Expo and Millennium Lines must be made at Waterfront Station.
However, it is possible to transfer between those two stations via a short walk through Pacific Centre or Vancouver Centre Mall. Stations were configured to allow for the future installation of fare gates, received fare gates in 2013 as part of full implementation throughout all SkyTrain stations; every station has an up escalator and an elevator, but only the three terminal stations have down escalators. All Vancouver stations are underground except Marine Drive, elevated. Waterfront Vancouver City Centre Yaletown–Roundhouse Olympic Village Broadway–City Hall King Edward Oakridge–41st Avenue Langara–49th Avenue Marine Drive Trains outbound to Richmond's commercial
Paulista Avenue is one of the most important avenues in São Paulo, Brazil. It runs northwest to southeast, its northwest point is Praça Marechal Cordeiro de Farias at its intersection with Rua da Consolação and its southeast point is Praça Oswaldo Cruz at its intersection with Treze de Maio, Bernardino de Campos, Desembargador Eliseu Guilherme, Dr. Rafael de Barros avenues. Major crossroads on the street are Rua Augusta, Rua Haddock Lobo and Avenida Brigadeiro Luis Antonio. Parallel to it are Cincinato Braga, Joaquim Eugenio de Lima on the Bela Vista/Paraíso side and Alameda Santos and Coronel Oscar Freire on the Jardins side. Paulista Avenue crosses sections of the neighborhoods of Paraíso, Bela Vista, Jardim Paulista, Cerqueira César and Jardim América, ending in Higienópolis; the headquarters of a large number of financial and cultural institutions are located on Paulista Avenue. As a symbol of the center of economic and political power of São Paulo it has been the focal point of numerous political protests beginning in 1929 and continuing into the 21st century.
It is home to an extensive shopping area and to South America's most comprehensive fine-art museum, MASP. Being one of the highest points in São Paulo, it is clustered with radio and TV stations antennae, most notably that of Rede Gazeta. Paulista Avenue is a major hub of the bus lines of the city. Paulista Avenue was constructed in 1891 by Joaquim Eugênio de Lima, a Uruguayan-Brazilian civil engineer. Once a residential neighbourhood thoroughfare flanked by lavishly ornate mansions with Arabesque and European themes of the city's coffee barons and industry entrepreneurs such as the Matarazzo family. Paulista Avenue Number One belonged to the Von Bülow family and operators of the Antarctica brewery, it became the first paved street in São Paulo in 1909. Asphalt was imported from Germany to complete the project. A master plan for the avenue titled Plano de Avenida was devised by Mayor Francisco Prestes Maia in 1930 during the regime of President Getúlio Vargas, it was based on David Burnham's master plan for Chicago, attempted to control urban growth of São Paulo.
The plan promoted the decentralization of urban areas, development of automobile routes, construction low-cost and high-density housing. The first multi-story building on the avenue was a seven-story structure at the corner of Paulista and Frei Caneca constructed in 1939; the most important of the ones which still stand to this day is Casa das Rosas, near Praça Osvaldo Cruz in the beginning of the long avenue. It was turned into a cultural center in the late 1980s; the house has oil/hydraulic heat radiators, a luxury only the millionaire could afford. Paulista Avenue underwent a massive renovation and verticalization beginning in the 1950s, a trend that followed president Juscelino Kubitschek's vision of a rapid economic expansion of Brazil. Developers pressured legislators to allow for the removal of Neo-Classic, Hindu-style and Middle Eastern structures along the street; these and other buildings were torn down overnight to avoid popular resistance. The avenue became home to financial institutions and a symbol of the economic power of State of São Paulo.
The concentration of commerce on Paulista Avenue in the 1950s attracted a new population of middle class residents in the area, both at the expense of the city's historic downtown area. The change in economic and cultural status of São Paulo, as exemplified by Paulista Avenue, attracted migration from poorer areas of Brazil and the subsequent appearance of favelas at the perimeter of the city. Paulista Avenue again underwent significant structural renovation in 1972 The "Novo Paulista" master plan of Mayor José Vicente Faria Lima tripled the vehicle capacity from 20,000 vehicles per day to more than 100,000 at present. All trees along the avenue, numbering 182 on the right and 140 on the left, were declared eyesores and removed to accommodate the increase in transportation routes. Current trees on the avenue, which number 390, are the result of replanting between 2007 and 2008, it is estimated. The avenue is served by the city's subway system, with the Line 2 of the Metrô running underneath the avenue from one end to the other.
This line connects the East and West sides of the metropolis having transfers to the Line 1, the Line 4, the Subway Line 5 to the south side, the train Line 10 and the monorail line 15. Paulista is home to a small native forest park, the Parque Siqueira Campos called Trianon, to the São Paulo Museum of Art. MASP is known not only for its excellent collection of European and national paintings and sculptures by Renoir and Modernist Brazilian authors, but for the modern architecture of its building, whose exhibition room is made of a single block of concrete and glass windows suspended and supported by two vertical concrete columns so the view of 9 de Julho Avenue and the Cantareira mountain range north of here is not spoiled; the empty space or vault covered by cobblestones is used by the Feira de Antiguidade—Antique fair—every Sunday, open movie projections and other cultural and public events. Dedicated in 1968 by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, MASP is, due to conformity, a city landmark.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade in May/June, the largest in the world, the Saint Silvester Road Race on New Year's Eve take place on this avenue yearly. Celebrations of local soccer teams and World Cup championships and political demonstrations have
HUDA City Centre metro station
The HUDA City Centre is a terminal station on the Yellow Line of the Delhi Metro. It is located in Gurgaon in the National Capital Region of India; the station was inaugurated on 21 June 2010 as part of the Qutub Minar—HUDA City Centre corridor. List of available ATM at HUDA City Centre metro station are HDFC Bank, Yes Bank, State Bank of India, IndusInd Bank Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. Delhi Metro Annual Reports "Station Information". Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. UrbanRail. Net – Descriptions of all metro systems in the world, each with a schematic map showing all stations. Google. "HUDA City Centre metro station". Google Maps. Google
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona