A metronome, from ancient Greek μέτρον and νέμω, is a device that produces an audible click or other sound at a regular interval that can be set by the user in beats per minute. Musicians use the device to practice playing to a regular pulse. Metronomes include synchronized visual motion. A kind of metronome was among the inventions of Andalusian polymath Abbas ibn Firnas. In 1815, Johann Maelzel patented his mechanical, wind-up metronome as a tool for musicians, under the title "Instrument/Machine for the Improvement of all Musical Performance, called Metronome". In the 20th century, electronic metronomes and software metronomes were invented. Musicians practice with metronomes to improve their timing the ability to stick to a regular tempo. Metronome practice helps internalize a clear sense of tempo. Composers and conductors use a metronome as a standard tempo reference—and may play, sing, or conduct to the metronome; the metronome is used by composers to derive beats per minute if they want to indicate that in a composition.

Conductors use a metronome to note their preferred tempo in each section. When interpreting emotion and other qualities in music, performers play on every beat; every beat of a musically expressive performance does not align with each click of a metronome. This has led some musicians to criticize use of a metronome, because metronome time is different from musical time; some go as far as to suggest that musicians should not use metronomes at all, have leveled criticism at metronome markings as well. The word metronome first appeared in English c. 1815 and is Greek in origin: metron "measure" and nomos "regulating, law". According to Lynn Townsend White Jr. the Andalusian inventor, Abbas Ibn Firnas, made an attempt at creating a metronome. Galileo Galilei first studied and discovered concepts involving the pendulum in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In 1696, Etienne Loulié first used an adjustable pendulum to make the first mechanical metronome—however, his design produced no sound, did not have an escapement to keep the pendulum in motion.

To get the correct pulse with this kind of visual device, the musician watches the pendulum as if watching a conductor's baton. The more familiar mechanical musical chronometer was invented by Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel in Amsterdam in 1814. Through questionable practice, Johann Maelzel, incorporating Winkel's ideas, added a scale, called it a metronome and started manufacturing the metronome under his own name in 1816: "Maelzel's Metronome." The original text of Maelzel's patent in England can be downloaded. Ludwig van Beethoven was the first notable composer to indicate specific metronome markings in his music; this was done in 1817. Musicians practice playing to metronomes to develop and maintain a sense of timing and tempo. For example, a musician fighting a tendency to speed up might play a phrase while slowing the BPM setting each time. Pieces that do not require a constant tempo sometimes provide a BPM marking to indicate the general tempo. Tempo is always measured in beats per minute. A metronome's tempo is adjustable from 40 to 208 BPM.

Another mark that denotes tempo is M. M. or Mälzel's Metronome. The notation M. M. is followed by a note value and a number that indicates the tempo, as in M. M. = 60. Specific uses include: Learning to play tempos and beats Practising technique Click tracks that recording musicians use to help audio-engineers synchronize audio tracks To maintain desired cadence in different physiological laboratory based tests Metronome makers mark the speed adjustment for these common tempos: 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 63 66 69 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 104 108 112 116 120 126 132 138 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 Tempos can be expressed by a number or through a tempo marking. A tempo marking is a term that conveys a narrow range of an associated character. For example, the term Vivace can indicate a tempo between 156 and 176 BPM, but it communicates that the music should be played with a lively character. Metronomes will include both BPM and tempo markings. A mechanical metronome uses an adjustable weight on the end of an inverted pendulum rod to control tempo.

The weight slides up the pendulum rod to down to increase tempo. The pendulum swings back and forth in tempo, while a mechanism inside the metronome produces a clicking sound with each oscillation. Mechanical metronomes run from a spring-wound clockwork escapement. Most modern metronomes are electronic and use a quartz crystal to maintain accuracy, comparable to those used in wristwatches; the simplest electronic metronomes have buttons to control the tempo. Sophisticated metronomes can produce two or more distinct sounds. Tones can differ in pitch, and/or timbre to demarcate downbeats from other beats, as well as compound and complex time signatures. Many electronic musical keyboards have built-in metronome functions. Software metronomes run either as stand-alone applications on computers and smart phones, or in music sequencing and audio multitrack software packages. In re

Andrew Gamble

Andrew Michael Gamble is a British academic and author. He was Professor of Politics at the University of Cambridge and Fellow of Queens' College from 2007 to 2014, he was a member of the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield, for many years as a professor and rejoined the department in 2014. A former pupil of Brighton College, he graduated from Cambridge University with a degree in economics, before gaining his MA in political theory from the University of Durham, he returned to Cambridge for his doctorate in Social and Political Sciences. While at Sheffield University, he was a founder and Director of the Political Economy Research Centre, Chairman of the Department of Politics, Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University, he received his Chair in Politics in 1986. In 2005 he was awarded the Sir Isaiah Berlin Award for Lifetime Contribution to Political Studies by the PSA, his 2003 book, Between Europe and America, won the W. J. M. Mackenzie prize for the best book published in political science in 2003.

He is co-editor of the academic journal The Political Quarterly, he sits on the editorial board of another academic journal, Representation. The main themes of his recent research have been asset-based welfare and'Anglo-America', his most recent book, an analysis of the politics of recession and capitalist crises, is entitled The Spectre at the Feast. Gamble was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2000, a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in 2002. Single-authored books: Can the Welfare State Survive? Crisis Without End?: The Unravelling of Western Prosperity The Spectre at the Feast Between Europe and America: The Future of British Politics Politics and Fate Hayek: The Iron Cage of Liberty The Free Economy and the Strong State Britain in Decline An Introduction to Modern Social and Political Thought The Conservative Nation Co-authored books: Ideas, Interests & Consequences The British Party System and Economic Policy 1945–1983 Capitalism in Crisis From Alienation to Surplus Value Books edited/ co-edited: Labour, the State, Social Movements and the Challenge of Neo-liberal Globalisation Restating the State?

The Political Economy of the Company Marxism and Social Science The New Social Democracy Fundamentals in British Politics Stakeholder Capitalism Regionalism & World Order The Social Economy and the Democratic State Developments in British Politics The Political Quarterly Staff profile, Sheffield University review of Politics and Fate by Bernard Crick recent paper on Anglo-America April 2007 PSA conference paper, on Hegemony and Empire: British Exceptionalism and the Myth of Anglo-America paper on Gamble's work on Hayek PERC website

Minotaur and Little Nerkin

Minotaur and Little Nerkin is a 1999 British animated short film created by Aardman Animations. Its full name appears, according to the film itself, to be Minotaur and Little Nerkin in Bait, suggesting that its name is in fact "Bait", as an episode of a suggested series of films called Minotaur and Little Nerkin, of which no other episodes were made, or that the name of the film is Bait and is stating it stars Minotaur and Little Nerkin. Regardless and Little Nerkin is the name used on the packaging for the Aardman Classics DVD. Imdb explains the synopsis: "What could tempt the tastebuds of an anthropomorphized bull and his tiny duck-like friend? A severed hand! Dee-lish! But be careful - we've heard that baked hand causes heartburn!" A green duck, Little Nerkin, passes the house of the Minotaur who invites him in, while dancing to music. After Nerkin walks in the house, he sees a severed hand bouncing on the table and convinces Minotaur to cook it for him. After heating the hand in the microwave, Minotaur serves the hand to Nerkin.

However, the hand causes heartburn. It is revealed that it was all a part of Minotaur's plan to cook and eat Nerkin. Minotaur Little Nerkin Severed hand Films at 59 was responsible for the sound; the film is in CGI, was produced in Softimage 3D and Photoshop 5. The film was included in the 2004 DVD Aardman Classics. On imdb and Little Nerkin received a rating of 4.4/10 from 94 users as of February 2016. Dr. Grob's Animation Review gave the film two stars out of five, saying whilst the film is "remarkable for its morbid humor and original technique, it is nonetheless an ugly and unfunny film, that fails to entertain, let alone impress the viewer." However, Aardman had included it on their compilation release of Aardman Classics, composed of some of their short films they consider to be classic