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Metropolitan Toronto

The municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was an upper tier level of municipal government in Ontario, from 1954 to 1998. It was made up of the old city of Toronto and numerous townships and villages that surrounded Toronto, which were starting to urbanise after World War II, it was referred to as "Metro Toronto" or "Metro". Passage of the 1997 City of Toronto Act caused the 1998 amalgamation of Metropolitan Toronto and its constituents into the current City of Toronto; the boundaries of present-day Toronto are the same as those of Metropolitan Toronto upon its dissolution: Lake Ontario to the south, Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north, the Rouge River to the east. Prior to the formation of Metropolitan Toronto, the municipalities surrounding the central city of Toronto were all independent townships and villages within York County. After 1912, the city no longer annexed suburbs from York Township. At times, the suburbs asked to be annexed into Toronto. In 1924, Ontario cabinet minister George S. Henry was the first to propose a'metropolitan district' with its own council, separate from the city and the county, to administer shared services.

He wrote a draft bill. The Great Depression saw all of the towns and villages of the county become insolvent; when that happened, they were, taken over by the province. In 1933, now the premier, appointed a formal inquiry into forming a metropolitan district. A proposal was made for Toronto to provide several of its services to the suburbs as well; the inquiry died with the defeat of Henry in 1934. In the 1930s, a Liberal Ontario government named the first minister of municipal affairs, David A. Croll, introduced a draft bill to amalgamate Toronto and the built-up suburbs; the draft bill was withdrawn. The government started its own inquiry into issues of the suburbs surrounding Toronto. Through consensus, it came to the conclusion; the inquiry reported in September 1939, its conclusions were put aside for the duration of World War II. Two factors changed in the 1940s. A Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario government was elected in 1943, with a changed policy, intending to promote economic growth through government action.

In 1943, the first Master Plan was adopted in Toronto. It recognized. Planning would have to take into account the whole metropolitan area. Forest Hill reeve Fred Gardiner, politically well-connected to newly elected PC premier George Drew, now promoted the idea of ambitious new programs to lay the capital infrastructure for growth. In 1946, the province passed the Planning Act, which required each urban municipality to have its own Planning Board. A Toronto and Suburban Planning Board was founded, under the chairmanship of James P. Maher, the vice-chairmanship of Fred Gardiner; the Board promoted specific projects, promoted a suburban'green belt', a unified system of arterial roads and the creation of a single public transit network. The Board was ineffective. Projects such as a bridge across the Don River Valley and the Spadina Road Extension were rejected by the local municipalities. Gardiner, elected as chairman of the board in 1949, wrote to Premier Leslie Frost that only a unified municipality could measure up to the problems.

In 1950, the City of Toronto Council voted to adopt an amalgamated city, while nearly all of the suburbs rejected the amalgamation. From 1950 until 1951, the Ontario Municipal Board held hearings on the proposal, under the chairmanship of Lorne Cumming; the Board worked until 1953, releasing its report on January 20, 1953. Cumming's report proposed a compromise solution: a two-tiered government, with the formation of a Metropolitan government, governed by a Metropolitan Council, to provide strategic functions, while existing municipalities would retain all other services, he rejected full amalgamation, citing a need to preserve'a government, close to the local residents.' The Frost government moved and on February 25, 1953, introduced the bill to create the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. The new municipality would have the power to borrow funds on its own, it would be responsible for arterial roads, major sewage and water facilities, regional planning, public transportation, administration of justice, metropolitan parks and housing issues as needed.

The municipalities retained their individual fire and police departments, business licensing, public health and libraries. The Council would have its own chairman, selected by the province then to be elected by the Council itself after 1955. Premier Frost convinced Fred Gardiner, who still preferred amalgamation, over the metro scheme, to take the job. Gardiner was well known to Frost through the Conservative Party, was well-off, was felt to be beyond personal corruption. Gardiner accepted the position due to his friendship with Frost, he demanded that he retain his corporate connections, he felt that the job would be "bigger than anything he had tried before." The bill to form Metro was passed on April 2, 1953. The Gardiner appointment was announced on April 7. In Canada, the creation of municipalities falls under provincial jurisdiction, thus it was provincial legislation, the Metropolitan Toronto Act, that created this level of government in 1953. When it took effect in 1954, the portion of York Township not yet annexed by Toronto, as well as all of Scarborough and Etobicoke Townships were incorporated as part of the Municipality of Metropolitan


Manganaro's Grosseria Italiana referred to as Manganaro's, was an Italian market and deli on Ninth Avenue in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. It operated for 119 years, helping to introduce the hero sandwich to Americans; the family closed the business and put the property up for sale in 2012. The business was founded in 1893 by Ernest Petrucci as a wine and spirits store, Petrucci's Wines & Brandies, that sold groceries, its location at 488 Ninth Avenue near 37th Street was on a stretch of the avenue that remained lined with exotic food stores for decades. After the enactment of Prohibition in the U. S. in 1919, Petrucci's nephew James Manganaro, an immigrant from Naples, took over the store in the 1920s and changed the name. Manganaro may have invented the hero sandwich, played a role in introducing it to Americans. On his death in 1953, Manganaro's passed to his brother Louis and sister Nina Manganaro Dell'Orto and their spouses. In 1962 Louis Manganaro retired and two of his four nephews took over the grocery store and the other two the sandwich shop, Manganaro's Hero-Boy, the businesses were separated.

Sal Dell'Orto, who bought out his brother's half ownership of the grocery store, James Dell'Orto, who bought out his brother's half ownership of the sandwich shop, fell out over rights to the "Manganaro's Hero-Boy" name, trademarked by the sandwich shop in 1969, advertising for party sandwich telephone hotlines, which led to two separate court cases. The business' neon sign installed in the early 1930s, which became blinking in the 1960s, was turned off in 2000 so that Manganaro's Hero-Boy could not benefit from it; the grocery store was found at fault over the hotline and was ordered to pay damages to the sandwich shop, the financial drain plus waning popularity, some of it due to the declining neighborhood, led to the decision to sell the building and close. This was first announced early in 2011. Anthony Bourdain featured the store in an episode of No Reservations in 2009. List of Italian restaurants

Schumann document

The Schumann Document on the Middle East or Schumann Secret Report was an internal document of the European Political Cooperation approved on 13 May 1971 by the six member states' Ministers of Foreign Affairs that for the first time defined a collective position of the EPC countries on the Israeli-Arab conflict. It is named after the French Minister of Foreign Affairs Maurice Schumann. In May 1967, the leaders of the six founding EC Member States convened at an EC summit in Rome, overshadowed by growing tensions in the Middle East. Though several leaders felt that the events necessitated a common response, the Six failed to reach agreement as to how to proceed with discussions on the matter. While Germany was in favor of debating the situation at the summit, France favoured a four-power summit consisting of the UK, the USA, the Soviet Union, themselves; when the crisis escalated into the Six-Day War shortly after the summit, the national responses differed considerably. The EC's failure to deliver coordinated action in the midst of a major international crisis like the Six-Day War was an embarrassment to the Europeans.

Economic integration had transformed the EC into a formidable economic power - yet its economic weight stood in sharp contrast to its political sway. The inability to speak with one voice in the days leading up to the Six-Day War and its aftermath together with the resignation of Charles de Gaulle in April 1969 led the EC to develop a new instrument for foreign policy coordination; the EPC was introduced in The Hague summit of December 1969 and placed the Middle East high on its agenda. This led to the drafting of the so-called Schumann document two years later; the document outlined six principles: the establishment of demilitarized zones, in which international forces would be stationed. When its contents were leaked to the German press it was contested what the status of the document was. France claimed it represented the official policy of the Community while Germany and the Netherlands maintained it was no more than a working paper, prepared for discussion

Lutz Tavern

Lutz Tavern is a bar in the Woodstock neighborhood of Portland, Oregon, in the United States. It was established by the Lutz family in 1947, who maintained ownership until the business was purchased by the Barisich family in 1954. Working-class locals and Reed College students frequent the bar, known for popularizing the beer Pabst Blue Ribbon. Lutz closed in 2010 after being run by the Barisich family for 56 years re-opened under new ownership and management in 2011. Lutz Tavern, established in 1947, is located at 4639 Southeast Woodstock Boulevard in Portland's Woodstock neighborhood; the Lutz family owned the bar until 1954. Lilias Barisich, who shared ownership with her brothers after their parents handed it over to them, said of the bar and her mother's operating style: "It's always been a homey place because my mom would kick people out if they acted different. She'd tell them they wouldn't act that way if they were invited to our home for dinner, so there was no call to act like that at the Lutz."For many years, Lutz attracted a mixture of working-class men and Reed College students.

The Portland Mercury said the bar served "cheap swill to blue-collar folks and Reed kids that didn't mind walking those extra few blocks." Barisich recalled that "at one time, it was a favorite of city crews and the like. You couldn't keep the floor clean on a Friday afternoon; every muddy workboot in the city was here." It served beer only, accepted cash only, offered the "bare minimum of food that the OLCC required". The crowd became younger over time. In the 1990s, when her parents still operated the bar, Barisich asked if she could sell a case of what was considered premium beer, she recalled, "I convinced them to let me buy a case of Heineken's, which at that time sold for unheard-of price of a buck a bottle. My dad said that people would never pay that much for a bottle of beer, they'd only let me buy the case if I promised to drink what didn't sell." Her introduction of premium beer proved to be successful. Lutz would soon be recognized by Blitz-Weinhard for serving more Blitz beer than any other establishment.

In 1999, Lutz served BridgePort IPA, Sierra Nevada Pale Ale and Widmer Hop Jack and Hefeweizen for $2.60 per pint, but still offered Blitz and Pabst Blue Ribbon for $1 per can. The Oregonian's John Foyston said of the bar "The floor stays cleaner, but the decor remains minimal: beer signs, a pool table, handwritten signs advertising the famous hot pickles and ham sandwiches." Willamette Week called Lutz a "true dive, but one with outsize influence among bike messengers and other curators of cool". Though the claim is disputed, Lutz is known nationally for being the origin of Pabst Blue Ribbon's recent popularity. In 2015, Willamette Week's Matthew Singer invited representatives from Lutz and EJ's, the former bar, strip club, music venue in northeast Portland which claims to have re-introduced Pabst, to explain their competing claims. Layne Martin, who managed Lutz from 1994 to 2000, said: There was this absolute scorching deal on cases of PBR and kegs. We were one of the few outlets in Portland that sold kegs to go, so we could sell them at a good deal.

So we started the PBR dollar-can special. I'd say it was around 1997 or 1998. At one point, I know they said we were the largest distributor of Pabst in the state, if not the country. We got written up in The New York Times about it. We were going through hundreds of dozens of kegs a week. Mike Thrasher, EJ's talent buyer from 1995 to 1999, recalled: I started working at EJ's when it was a strip club in about October 1994. A couple of the key staff and I convinced the owner we would do better as a rock-'n'-roll bar, decided to launch the new format on Jan. 1, 1995. As a future rock club, we decided. While comparing the prices of the domestic beers, we found; the club gained popularity, Pabst became the drink of choice. On Tuesdays, Pabst was sold at the full price of $1.75. Things kept getting busier, it was suggested that Thursdays become a'beer bust,' where a patron could get unlimited Pabst between opening at 6 pm and 8 pm, when the room was cleared for the show. By this time mid-1996, EJ's had achieved some recognition from touring bands and had a steady influx of national talent, which again increased sales.

During busy months, we were moving more than 40 kegs a month. Years Pabst became known as the'hipster' beer of Portland. There is no way for me to warrant that EJ's decision to make PBR its house beer caused this impact, but I have done so nonetheless, for years. Matt Slessler, the field marketing manager for Pabst's Pacific region, weighed in on the debate as well, saying: We've always thought Lutz was the first one to sell it, but it's like how people claim they were at Woodstock. The landscape is littered with salesmen who say,'Oh yeah, I was the first one to bring that in.' The first PBR I had was at the Jockey Club, this old-school punk-rock bar on Killingsworth. As far as the first ones, there was the Lutz and EJ's, it's always been our thought that Lutz was first. In 2003, Willamette Week published an image of a man drinking Pabst at Lutz with a caption making fun of "middle-class, college-educated, salaried Portland hipsters" for drinking that brand of beer, noting its relation to MillerCoors.

In September 2010, after operating Lutz for 56 years, the owners held a "farewell bash" and closed its doors after deciding that they could no longer borrow money to stay open. However, the bar was re-opened

River Till, Wiltshire

The River Till is a river that rises near Tilshead on Salisbury Plain, which flows south and south-east to join the River Wylye near Stapleford. It flows through Shrewton and Winterbourne Stoke, it has been designated as a SSSI site. The name ‘River Till’ is a double misnomer, firstly because this is not a river but a winterbourne – i.e. a winter stream that only flows for three months in a year. Secondly because the name ‘Till’ is a Victorian misunderstanding. At some point the false leap of logic was made that because the winterbourne flows from the village of Tilshead this meant it was the head of the Till. In fact Tilshead arises from Tydolfshide; as as the early 20th century the winterbourne was known, in Shrewton at least, as ‘the Waterlake’, rather than the Till

Ampelopsis glandulosa var. brevipedunculata

Ampelopsis glandulosa var. brevipedunculata, with common names creeper, porcelain berry, Amur peppervine, wild grape, is an ornamental plant, native to temperate areas of Asia. It is similar to, confused with, grape species and other Ampelopsis species. Ampelopsis glandulosa is a deciduous, perennial climbing vine with flowers and tendrils opposite the palmately lobed leaves; the leaves are white-shiny underneath with a coarsely toothed margin. Porcelain berry climbs via tendrils to a height of 4-6m. Flowers are small, green-white, born in umbels opposite the leaves, appear in June through August. Fruits are 4-8mm in diameter, containing 2-4 seeds, may be many colors including green, purple, pink or yellow with black or brown speckles. Porcelain berry can be confused with native grapes based on leaf shape but can be differentiated by cutting the stem and observing the pith. Grapes have brown or tan pith but porcelain berry has white pith. Ampelopsis glandulosa var. brevipedunculata has distinctive medium blue fruit, is an ornamental plant used in gardens.

Porcelain berry is still cultivated despite knowledge of its invasiveness. It is a major invasive plant species in parts of the Eastern United States, it is invasive in urban settings as well as in more pastoral settings. Porcelain berry is found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, old fields, floodplains where sunlight is abundant Birds consume the seeds of porcelain berry and act as a vector to transport it. See Zoochory; the unusual blue color of the berries is due to an anthocyanidins-flavonols copigmentation phenomenon. Ampelopsin A, B and C are stilbene oligomers found in A. glandulosa var hancei (formerly A. brevipedunculata var. hancei. Pink, A.. Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation