The Mexican Army is the combined land and air branch and is the largest of the Mexican Armed Forces. It was the first army to use a self-loading rifle, the Mondragón rifle; the Mexican Army has an active duty force of 183,562 with 76,000 men and women of military service age. In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico; the most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan, which comprised populations of the same ethnic origin and were politically linked by an alliance known as the Triple Alliance. They had a center for higher education called the Calmecac in Nahuatl, this was where the children of the Aztec priesthood and nobility receive rigorous religious and military training and conveyed the highest knowledge such as: doctrines, divine songs, the science of interpreting codices, calendar skills, memorization of texts, etc. In Aztec society, it was compulsory for all young males, nobles as well as commoners, to join part of the armed forces at the age of 15.
Recruited by regional and clan groups the conscripts were organized in units of about 8,000 men. These were broken down into 400 strong sub-units. Aztec nobility led their own serfs on campaign. Itzcoatl "Obsidian Serpent", fourth king of Tenochtitlán, organized the army that defeated the Tepanec of Atzcapotzalco, freeing his people from their dominion, his reign began with the rise of. Moctezuma Ilhuicamina "The arrow to the sky" came to extend the domain and the influence of the monarchy of Tenochtitlán, he began to organize trade to the outside regions of the Valley of Mexico. This was the Mexica ruler who organized the alliance with the lordships of Texcoco and Tlacopan to form the Triple Alliance; the Aztec established the Flower Wars as a form of worship. Combat orders were given by kings using drums or blowing into a sea snail shell that gave off a sound like a horn. Giving out signals using coats of arms was common. For combat outside of cities, they would organize several groups, only one of which would be involved in action, while the others remained on the alert.
When attacking enemy cities, they divided their forces into three equal-sized wings, which assaulted different parts of the defences – this enabled the leaders to determine which division of warriors had distinguished themselves the most in combat. During the 18th century the Spanish colonial forces in the greater Mexico region consisted of regular "Peninsular" regiments sent from Spain itself, augmented by locally recruited provincial and urban militia units of infantry and artillery. A few regular infantry and dragoon regiments were recruited within Mexico and permanently stationed there. Mounted units of soldados de cuera patrolled frontier and desert regions. In the early morning of 16 September 1810, the Army of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the independence movement. Hidalgo was followed by his loyal companions, among them Mariano Abasolo, a small army equipped with swords, spears and sticks. Captain General Ignacio Allende was the military brains of the insurgent army in the first phase of the War of Independence and secured several victories over the Spanish Royal Army.
Their troops were about 5,000 strong and were joined by squadrons of the Queen's Regiment where its members in turn contributed infantry battalions and cavalry squadrons to the insurrection cause. The Spaniards saw that it was important to defend the Alhóndiga de Granaditas public granary in Guanajuato, which maintained the flow of water, weapons and ammunition to the Spanish Royal Army; the insurgents proceeded to lay siege to the Alhóndiga. The insurgents suffered heavy casualties until Juan Jose de los Reyes, the Pípila, fitted a slab of rock on his back to protect himself from enemy fire and crawled to the large wooden door of the Alhóndiga with a torch in hand to set it on fire. With this stunt, the insurgents managed to bring down the door and enter the building and overrun it. Hidalgo headed to Valladolid, captured with little opposition. While the Insurgent Army was, by over 60,000 strong, it was formed of poorly armed men with arrows and tillage tools – it had a few guns, taken from Spanish stocks.
In Aculco, the Royal Spanish forces under the command of Felix Maria Calleja, Count of Calderón, Don Manuel de Flon defeated the insurgents, who lost many men as well as the artillery they had obtained at Battle of Monte de las Cruces. On 29 November 1810, Hidalgo entered Guadalajara, the capital of Nueva Galicia, where he organized his government and the Insurgent Army. At Calderon Bridge near the city of Guadalajara Jalisco, insurgents held a hard-fought battle with the royalists. During the fierce fighting, one of the insurgents' ammunition wagons exploded, which led to their defeat; the insurgents lost much of their equipment and the lives of many men. At the Wells of Baján near Monclova, Coahuila, a former royalist named Ignacio Elizondo, who had joined the insurgent cause, betrayed them a
Brand New Unit was a Canadian hardcore punk band from Vancouver, British Columbia. The band formed in 1991 near Surrey. and were known as the acronym B. N. U. in the early years, as a band name logo was needed to post on a playbill. They started by playing locally in Vancouver, they were featured on Thrasher Skate Rock Vol. 11 and in 1992 they were winners of CITR-FM's 1882 SHiNDiG live performance contest, which awarded them some studio time. By 1998 the band had released several EPs. Influences of 7 Seconds and Dag Nasty can be heard in early recordings on the Three Minute Mile 7inch with original drummer Garnet Kulhavy, while recordings feature a more post-hardcore feel with hard hitting live elements; some of these tracks were collected and released through BYO Records as the album Looking Back Again. In 1998 the band released the album Diddly Squat through the Creative Man label. With CD and Vinyl releases on HeartFirst Records, BYO Records, Burning Heart Records, the band disbanded in 2000.
In February, 2010, the band played a reunion show in Vancouver. The band's latest lineup was singer Gary Lavallee, guitarist Jinx Stringer, bassist Ben Hughes, drummer Gabe Mantle. Summertime 7" Three Minute Mile Records Under The Big Top CD Excursion Records All For Nothing 7" HeartFirst Records No Heroes CD EP HeartFirst Records Looking Back Again CD BYO Records Diddley Squat CD/LP Creative Man Disc BNU / Kill Sadie Split 7" Modern Radio Empty Useless Air CD EP Burning Heart Records teenage wasteland answers.com
Hendon railway station was the only station on the Hendon branch line in the western Adelaide suburb of Hendon. Used for industrial purposes in the mid 20th century, the line diverged from Albert Park station and ran for 1.1 kilometres. The station opened in November 1940 to serve Small Arms Ammunition Factories Nos. 3 and 4 at Hendon during World War II. The station was located east of Tapleys Hill Road and was an island platform with sidings but the track was single for the entire length. After the war, rail traffic declined and passenger services at Hendon were reduced to morning and afternoon peak-hours only, providing services to residents and workers of factories established in the old munitions factories, including Philips Electrical Industries and the South Australian Brush Company. Ownership was transferred from the Commonwealth Government to South Australian Railways in 1951. Passenger trains to and from Hendon ran through to Woodville or Adelaide, after the end of World War II, the Hendon trains only operated at industrial shift-change times.
In spite of low passenger numbers the service continued operation until 1 February 1980, after which the line was closed and removed. There is no evidence of the station or track left, the trackbed of the Hendon branch now forms part of the eastern end of West Lakes Boulevard, a main approach road to the suburb of West Lakes and the Westfield West Lakes shopping mall. Sampson R, Rails round Adelaide, Mile End Railway Museum, Walkerville, 1978 Thompson, Malcolm. Publications, ISBN 978-0-9595073-6-2
Mama Africa is the sixth studio album by Peter Tosh. It was released in 1983. All tracks composed by Peter Tosh. "Johnny B. Goode" 6:55 11. "Where You Gonna Run" 6:35 12. "Mama Africa" 4:00 Peter Tosh - lead and backing vocals, clavinet Leebert "Gibby" Morrison, George "Fully" Fullwood, Robbie Shakespeare - bass guitar Carlton "Santa" Davis, Sly Dunbar - drums Geoffrey Chung, Lancelot "Maxie" McKenzie - engineer Darryl Thompson, Donald Kinsey - lead guitar Mikey Chung, Steve Golding - rhythm guitar Byron Allred, Peter Couch - keyboards Robert Lyn - organ Skully, Uziah "Sticky" Thompson - percussion Keith Sterling - piano Dean Fraser - saxophone Ronald "Nambo" Robinson - trombone Arnold Breckenridge, David Madden, Junior "Chico" Chin - trumpet Jon Paris - harmonica Audrey Hall, Betty Wright, Chris Kimsey, Donald Kinsey, Doret Myers, Pam Hall, Raymond Hall, The Tamlins - backing vocalsTechnicalChris Kimsey, Peter Tosh - mixing John "Jellybean" Benitez - mixing on "Johnny B. Goode" On 1984-1986, Tosh from producing songs.
He died from a home invasion
Suspicious Activity? is the fourth studio album by the American jazz band The Bad Plus. The band had garnered attention for covering well-known rock songs in an "acoustic power trio" style, but Suspicious Activity? Includes only one cover version: the theme to the 1981 movie Chariots of Fire. Instead, the album focuses on the band's original music, including the track "O. G.", a tribute to the legendary jazz drummer Elvin Jones. This would be The Bad Plus' final album for Columbia Records, as the band and the label parted ways in 2006. Several cover versions from the Suspicious Activity? Recording sessions are available on iTunes and other major online services, including Led Zeppelin's "Immigrant Song," Queen's "We Are the Champions," and Björk's "Human Behaviour." In November 2005, it was revealed that Sony was distributing albums with Extended Copy Protection, a controversial feature that automatically installed rootkit software on any Microsoft Windows machine upon insertion of the disc. In addition to preventing the CDs contents from being copied, it was revealed that the software reported the users' listening habits back to Sony and exposed the computer to malicious attacks that exploited insecure features of the rootkit software.
Though Sony refused to release a list of the affected CDs, the Electronic Frontier Foundation identified Suspicious Activity? as one of the discs with the invasive software. Brent Burton of JazzTimes stated, "...much of the solid new album is about modern-day contrast. King and bassist Reid Anderson were raised on rock and hip-hop and they show it off with the muscular thwap and throb of their accompaniment... Iverson and Co. need not have slaughtered a sacred cow to remind us that it’s 2005, not 1955. But, would they be where they are today if they never tried?" Brian P. Lonergan of All About Jazz wrote, "The trio's third major-label album, Suspicious Activity?, will do little to quell the arguments the previous two have fueled in the jazz community. And though the approach here is not a radical departure from that on These Are the Vistas or Give, the music does advance the trio's adventurous conceptions of form and rhythmic variation." John L. Walters of The Guardian gave the album a negative review, commenting, "So why is listening to their new album such a trial?
Maybe they have no taste." "Prehensile Dream" – 8:12 "Anthem for the Earnest" – 6:38 "Let Our Garden Grow" – 6:57 "The Empire Strikes Backwards" – 5:38 "Knows the Difference" – 6:58 "Lost of Love" – 8:38 "Rhinoceros Is My Profession" – 5:44 "O. G." – 6:37 " Chariots of Fire" – 4:57 "Forces" – 7:43 Ethan Iverson – piano Reid Anderson – bass David King – drums Tchad Blake – producer
In modern computer memory, a sense amplifier is one of the elements which make up the circuitry on a semiconductor memory chip. A sense amplifier is part of the read circuitry, used when data is read from the memory. Modern sense-amplifier circuits consist of two to six transistors, while early sense amplifiers for core memory sometimes contained as many as 13 transistors. There is one sense amplifier for each column of memory cells, so there are hundreds or thousands of identical sense amplifiers on a modern memory chip; as such, sense amplifiers are one of the only analog circuits in a computer's memory subsystem. Sense amplifier is required during the data refresh operation from the memory concerned; the data in a semiconductor memory chip is stored in tiny circuits called memory cells. Sense Amplifiers are applied in Volatile memory cells; the memory cells are either DRAM cells which are laid out in rows and columns on the chip. Each line is attached to each cell in the row; the lines which run along the rows are called wordlines which are activated by putting a voltage on it.
The lines which run along the columns are called bit-line and two such complementary bitlines are attached to a sense amplifier at the edge of the array. Number of sense amplifiers are of that of the "bitline' on the chip; each cell lies at the intersection of a particular wordline and bitline, which can be used to "address" it. The data in the cells is read or written by the same bit-lines which run along the top of the rows and columns. To read a bit from a particular memory cell, the wordline along the cell's row is turned on, activating all the cells in the row; the stored value from the cell comes to the Bit-lines associated with it. The sense amplifier at the end of the two complementary bit-lines amplify the small voltages to a normal logic level; the bit from the desired cell is latched from the cell's sense amplifier into a buffer, put on the output bus. The sense amplifier operation in DRAM is quite similar to the SRAM, but it performs an additional function; the data in DRAM chips is stored as electric charge in tiny capacitors in the memory cells.
The read operation depletes the charge in a cell, destroying the data, so after the data is read out the sense amplifier must write it back in the cell by applying a voltage to it, recharging the capacitor. This is called memory refresh; as part of their designs, sense amplifiers aim at a minimum sense delay, required level of amplification, minimum power consumption, fit into restricted layout areas, high reliability and tolerance. Differential amplifier Shunts Current Sense Amplifiers High-speed sense amplifier for SRAM applications Data caching in DRAM row buffers