Nanshi railway station
Nanshi is a railway station on the Taiwan Railways Administration West Coast line located in Miaoli City, Miaoli County, Taiwan. The station was opened on 1 July 1903. National United University Wu Zhuo-liu Art and Cultural Hall List of railway stations in Taiwan
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang and Guizhou. The Chinese characters for Hakka mean "guest families". Unlike other Han Chinese groups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city, in China. Modern day Hakka are identified by different degrees of Hakka ancestry and speak the Hakka language; the Hakkas are thought to have originated from the lands bordering the Yellow River. In a series of migrations, the Hakkas moved and settled in their present areas in Southern China, from there, substantial numbers migrated overseas to various countries throughout the world; as the most diasporic among the Chinese community groups, the worldwide population of Hakkas is about 75 million to 120 million. The Hakkas moved from northern China into southern China at a time when the Han Chinese people who lived there had developed distinctive cultural identities and languages from their northern Han Chinese counterparts.
The Tunbao and Chuanqing people are other Han Chinese subgroups that migrated from north China to south China while maintaining their northern Han Chinese traditions which differentiated them from their southern Han neighbours. The Hakka people have had significant influence on the course of modern Chinese and overseas Chinese history; the Hakka language was the national language of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, which had, at one stage, occupied one-third of China in the 19th century. Today, it is one of the official languages of the Republic of China. Migrants were referred to as no specific people were referred to as Hakka at first. Northern China's Yellow River area was the homeland of the Hakka. Since the Qin dynasty, the ancestors of the Hakka people have migrated southwards several times because of social unrest and invasions. Subsequent migrations occurred at the end of the Tang dynasty in the 10th century and during the end of the Northern Song dynasty in the 1120s, the last of which saw a massive flood of refugees fleeing southward when the Jurchens captured the northern Song capital of Bianliang in the Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song Wars.
The precise movements of the Hakka people remain unclear during the 14th century when the Ming dynasty overthrew the Yuan dynasty and subsequently fell to the Manchus who formed the Qing dynasty in the 17th century. During the 16th century, in response to an economic boom, the Hakka moved into hilly areas to mine for zinc and lead, moved into the coastal plains to cultivate cash crops. After an economic downturn, many of these ventures failed and many people had to turn to pillaging to make ends meet. During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty, the coastal regions were evacuated by imperial edict for a decade, due to the dangers posed by the remnants of the Ming court who had fled to the island of Taiwan; when the threat was eliminated, Kangxi Emperor issued an edict to re-populate the coastal regions. To aid the move, each family was given monetary incentives to begin their new lives. Although different in some social customs and culture from the surrounding population, they belong to the Han Chinese majority.
Historical sources shown in census statistics relate only to the general population, irrespective of particular districts, provinces, or regions. These census counts were made during imperial times, they did not distinguish. Therefore, they do not directly document Hakka migrations; the study by Lo Hsiang-lin, K'o-chia Yen-chiu Tao-Liu / An Introduction to the Study of the Hakkas used genealogical sources of family clans from various southern counties. According to the 2009 studies published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, Hakka genes are tilted towards northern Han people compared with other southern Han people; the study has shown a strong common genetic relationship between all Han Chinese with only a small difference of 0.32%. Lingnan Hakka place names indicate a long history of the Hakka being culturally Han Chinese. Unlike other Han Chinese groups, the Hakkas are not named after a geographical region, e.g. a province, county or city. The Hakka people have a distinct identity from the Cantonese people.
As 60% of the Hakkas in China reside in Guangdong province, 95% of overseas Hakkas ancestral homes are in Guangdong. Hakkas from Chaozhou and Fujian are mistaken to be Chaoshanese and Hokkiens. Strangers who find out that the other party is a Hakka will affectionately acknowledge each other as "zìjiārén" meaning "all's in the same family", it is held that the Hakkas are a subgroup of the Han Chinese that originated in Northern China. To trace their origins, three accepted theories so far have been brought forth among anthropologists and historians: The Hakkas are Han Chinese originating from the Central Plain in China; the latter two theories are the most and are together supported by multiple scientific studies. Clyde Kiang stated that the Hakkas' origins may be linked with
Miaoli County is a county in western Taiwan. Miaoli is adjacent with Hsinchu County and Hsinchu City to the north, Taichung to the south, borders the Taiwan Strait to the west; the Council for Economic Planning and Development of Taiwan classifies Miaoli as a county of Central Taiwan, while the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau classifies Miaoli as a county of the North. Miaoli City is the capital of the county, is known as "Mountain Town", owing to the number of mountains nearby, making it a destination for hiking; the name Miaoli was coined using two Hakka Chinese words, meu and li to phonetically approximate Pali from the Taokas language. The resulting word is a non-orthodox variant referring to Viverridae. In 1889, during late Qing rule, the name was modified from various forms to its current form. Evidence of settlement in Miaoli dates back a thousand years. Many archaeological artifacts have been found showing that during the prehistoric era, people lived in the river terrace, they led an agriculture life and engaged in hunting and fishing for their extra food source.
About a thousand years ago, an indigenous group Taokas settled here. In the mid-17th century, Han Chinese began to migrate into the area, beginning a gradual process of deforestation and establishment of permanent settlement sites; the prior inhabitants of Miaoli were either assimilated into the dominant Han population, or migrated deeper into the mountainous range. After several hundred years, Miaoli had become the home of people from different origins, such as Hakka, Hoklo and Saisiyat. After Koxinga took over Taiwan from the Netherlands, he placed Miaoli into Tian-Sing County and started an immigration plan to develop this area. After the last Tungning Ruler Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing Dynasty, Tian-sing County was renamed Zhuluo County. In 1889, Miaoli Hsien was established as an independent county under Taiwan Prefecture. At the end of the 19th century, thousands of acres of high-quality fertile fields had been reclaimed in the area of Nanzhuang, Shitan and Zhuolan. Public and private schools were established all over Miaoli which made the area a place of gathering intellectuals and elites in northern Taiwan.
The county was at first eliminated under Japanese Imperial rule. Byōritsu Chō existed from ca. 1901 to 1908, but was split over Shinchiku Chō and Taichū Chō in 1909. From 1920 to 1945, Byōritsu Town, Enri Town and six villages were under the jurisdiction of Byōritsu District, under Shinchiku Prefecture. After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, the present day area of Miaoli County was incorporated to Hsinchu County. On 16 August 1950, the government re-established Miaoli county on 16 August 1950 with Miaoli township as the county seat. On 25 December 1981, Miaoli Township was upgraded from township to a county-controlled city. Miaoli County is considered to be located in the central northern part of the island of Taiwan, contiguous with Hsinchu county, Hsinchu City, Taichung City; the Xueshan Range is located on the border between Taichung City. Miaoli county north to south averages about 50 kilometers and east to west averages about 64 kilometers, it is diamond-shaped in appearance.
The overall coastline of Miaoli is about 50 kilometers long. Miaoli has little flat lands and mountainous due to the Xueshan Range. Miaoli has rich rainfall along with abundant rivers. Miaoli County is divided into 2 cities, 5 urban townships, 10 rural townships and 1 mountain indigenous townships. Miaoli County has the second highest number of urban townships after Changhua County. Miaoli City is the county seat which houses Miaoli County Council; the incumbent Magistrate of Miaoli County is Hsu Yao-chang of the Kuomintang. Colors indicate the common language status of Hakka within each division. Note that Nanzhuang and Tai'an are indigenous areas of Atayal people; the main population of Miaoli County is comprised by the Taiwanese aborigines. The Taiwanese aborigines constitute about 1.9% of the total population where the rural areas is where the Hokkiens are the main group in western urban areas of Miaoli, while the Hakkas comprise the main group of Han Chinese in the rural southern and central parts of Miaoli county Taiwanese aboriginesThe Saisiat reside in the Wufeng Township of Hsinchu County and the Nanzhuang Township of Miaoli County.
Due the oppression by initial Han immigrants, the Atayal aboriginal group and the Nanzhuang Incident, the population of the Saisiat people have decreased to 5,000 people. It is the least populous Taiwanese aboriginal group after the Thao people; the traditions and culture of the Saisiat is impacted by the Atayal aborigines and Hakka people in the region. Han ChineseDuring the Qing Dynasty, Miaoli was inhabited by Hokkiens in the coast and Hakka in the rural peasant mountainous areas; the inhabitants of the four coastal townships of Miaoli consists of Taiwanese Hokkien speakers. With the exception of the four coastal townships and Tai'an Township, the main population consists of Hakka; the main sports and recreational structures in Miaoli include Miaoli Sports Hall, Miaoli County Tennis Court, the Park of Zhunan Township. In Taiwan National Athletic Games of 2011, Miaoli is ranked 21 out of 22 teams with 1 gold, 1 silver, 8 bronze. Popular regional agriculture, food production and culture promoted by the government include strawberries from Dahu Township, Hak
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Taiwan under Japanese rule
Japanese Taiwan was the period of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands under Japanese rule between 1895 and 1945. Taiwan became a dependency of Japan in 1895 when the Qing dynasty of China ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after Japanese victory in the First Sino-Japanese War; the short-lived Republic of Formosa resistance movement was suppressed by Japanese troops and defeated in the Capitulation of Tainan, ending organized resistance to Japanese occupation and inaugurated five decades of Japanese rule. Taiwan was Japan's first overseas colony and can be viewed as the first steps in implementing their "Southern Expansion Doctrine" of the late 19th century. Japanese intentions were to turn Taiwan into a showpiece "model colony" with much effort made to improve the island's economy, public works, cultural Japanization, to support the necessities of Japanese military aggression in the Asia-Pacific. Japanese rule of Taiwan ended after the surrender of Japan concluded World War II in August 1945, the territory was placed under the control of the Republic of China with the issuing of General Order No. 1.
Japan formally renounced rights to Taiwan in the Treaty of San Francisco in April 1952. The experience of Japanese rule, ROC rule and the February 28 massacre of 1947 continues to affect issues such as Taiwan Retrocession Day, national identity, ethnic identity, the formal Taiwan independence movement. Japan had sought to expand its imperial control over Taiwan since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi undertook a policy of overseas expansion and extending Japanese influence southward. Several attempts to invade Taiwan were unsuccessful due to disease and armed resistance by aborigines on the island. In 1609, the Tokugawa Shogunate sent Arima Harunobu on an exploratory mission of the island. In 1616, Murayama Toan led an unsuccessful invasion of the island. In November 1871, 69 people on board a vessel from the Kingdom of Ryukyu were forced to land near the southern tip of Taiwan by strong winds, they had a conflict with local Paiwan aborigines and many were killed. In October 1872, Japan sought compensation from the Qing dynasty of China, claiming the Kingdom of Ryukyu was part of Japan.
In May 1873, Japanese diplomats arrived in Beijing and put forward their claims, but the Qing government rejected Japanese demands on the ground that the Kingdom of Ryukyu at that time was an independent state and had nothing to do with Japan. The Japanese refused to leave and asked if the Chinese government would punish those "barbarians in Taiwan"; the Qing authorities explained that there were two kinds of aborigines on Taiwan: those directly governed by the Qing, those unnaturalized "raw barbarians... beyond the reach of Chinese culture. Thus could not be directly regulated." They indirectly hinted that foreigners traveling in those areas settled by indigenous people must exercise caution. The Qing dynasty made it clear to the Japanese that Taiwan was within Qing jurisdiction though part of that island's aboriginal population was not yet under the influence of Chinese culture; the Qing pointed to similar cases all over the world where an aboriginal population within a national boundary was not under the influence of the dominant culture of that country.
The Japanese launched an expedition to Taiwan, with a force of 3,000 soldiers in April 1874. In May 1874, the Qing dynasty began to send in troops to reinforce the island. By the end of the year, the government of Japan decided to withdraw its forces after realizing Japan was still not ready for a war with China; the number of casualties for the Paiwan was about 30, that for the Japanese was 543. By the 1890s, about 45 percent of Taiwan was under standard Chinese administration while the remaining populated regions of the interior were under aboriginal control; the First Sino-Japanese War broke out between Qing dynasty China and Japan in 1894 following a dispute over the sovereignty of Korea. Following its defeat, China ceded the islands of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed on April 17, 1895. According to the terms of the treaty and Penghu were to be ceded to Japan in perpetuity. Both governments were to send representatives to Taiwan after signing to begin the transition process, to be completed in no more than two months.
Because Taiwan was ceded by treaty, the period that followed is referred to by some as the "colonial period", while others who focus on the fact that it was the culmination of a war refer to it as the "occupation period". The cession ceremony took place on board a Japanese vessel because the Chinese delegate feared reprisal from the residents of Taiwan. Though the terms dictated by Japan were harsh, it is reported that Qing China's leading statesman, Li Hongzhang, sought to assuage Empress Dowager Cixi by remarking: "birds do not sing and flowers are not fragrant on the island of Taiwan; the men and women are inofficious and are not passionate either." The loss of Taiwan would become a rallying point for the Chinese nationalist movement in the years that followed. Arriving in Taiwan, the new Japanese colonial government gave inhabitants two years to choose whether to accept their new status as Japanese subjects, or leave Taiwan; the "early years" of Japanese administration on Taiwan refers to the period between the Japanese forces' first landing in May 1895 and the Ta-pa-ni Incident of 1915, which marked the high point of armed resistance.
During this period, popular resistance to Japanese rule was high, the world questioned wheth
Hokkien or Minnan language, is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, spoken there. It is spoken in Taiwan and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, by other overseas Chinese all over the world, it is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Putian dialect and Leizhou dialect due to historical influences. Hokkien served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Indonesia and some parts of Indochina; the Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.
Chinese speakers of the Quanzhang variety of Southern Min refer to the mainstream Southern Min language as Bân-lâm-gú / Bân-lâm-ōe in Mainland China and Taiwan. Tâi-gí in Taiwan. Hok-kiàn-ōe in Burma, Singapore and Indonesia. Lán-lâng-ōe in the Philippines. In parts of Southeast Asia and in the English-speaking communities, the term Hokkien is etymologically derived from the Southern Min pronunciation for Fujian, the province from which the language hails. In Southeast Asia and the English press, Hokkien is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches present in Fujian such as the Fuzhou dialect, Putian dialect, Northern Min, Gan Chinese or Hakka. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. Hokkien originated in the southern area of Fujian province, an important center for trade and migration, has since become one of the most common Chinese varieties overseas.
The major pole of Hokkien varieties outside of Fujian is Taiwan, during the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian arrived yearly. The Taiwanese dialect has origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou variants, but since the Amoy dialect known as the Xiamen dialect, is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language in Mainland China. Both Amoy and Xiamen come from the Chinese name of the city. There are many Minnan speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia as well as in the United States. Many ethnic Han Chinese emigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian, brought the language to what is now Burma and present day Malaysia and Singapore. Many of the Minnan dialects of this region are similar to Xiamen dialect and Taiwanese Hokkien with the exception of foreign loanwords. Hokkien is the native language of up to 80% of the Chinese people in the Philippines, among, known locally as Lan-nang or Lán-lâng-oē. Hokkien speakers form the largest group of overseas Chinese in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines.
Southern Fujian is home to three principal Minnan Proper dialects: Chinchew, Chiangchew, originating from the cities of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. Traditionally speaking, Quanzhou dialect spoken in Quanzhou is the Traditional Standard Minnan, it is the dialect, used in and Liyuan Opera and Nanying music. Being the Traditional Standard Minnan, Quanzhou dialect is considered to have the purest accent and the most conservative Minnan dialect. In the late 18th to the early 19th century, Xiamen became the principal city of southern Fujian. Xiamen dialect is adopted as the Modern Standard Minnan, it is a hybrid of the Zhangzhou dialects. It has played an influential role in history in the relations of Western nations with China, was one of the most learnt dialect of Quanzhang variety by Westerners during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century; the Modern Standard form of Quanzhang accent spoken around the city of Tainan in Taiwan is a hybrid of the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou dialects, in the same way as the Amoy dialect.
All Quanzhang dialects spoken throughout the whole of Taiwan are collectively known as Taiwanese Hokkien or just the Taiwanese language. Used by a majority of the population, it bears much importance from a socio-political perspective, forming the second major pole of the language due to the popularity of Taiwanese-language media; the varieties of Hokkien in Southeast Asia originate from these dialects. The Singaporeans, Southern Malaysians and people in Indonesia's Riau and surrounding islands variant is from the Quanzh