Timkat is the Orthodox Tewahedo celebration of Epiphany. It is celebrated on January corresponding to the 10th day of Terr in the Ethiopian calendar. Timkat celebrates the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River; this festival is best known for its ritual reenactment of baptism. During the ceremonies of Timkat, the Tabot, a model of the Ark of the Covenant, present on every Ethiopian altar, is reverently wrapped in rich cloth and borne in procession on the head of the priest; the Tabot, otherwise seen by the laity, represents the manifestation of Jesus as the Messiah when he came to the Jordan for baptism. The Divine Liturgy is celebrated near pool early in the morning; the nearby body of water is blessed towards dawn and sprinkled on the participants, some of whom enter the water and immerse themselves, symbolically renewing their baptismal vows. But the festival does not end there; the clergy, bearing umbrellas of many hues, perform rollicking dances and songs. Dressed up in their finest, the women chatter excitedly on their one real day of freedom in the year.
The young braves leap down in spirited dances, tirelessly repeating rhythmic songs. When the holy ark has been safely restored to its dwelling-place, everyone goes home for feasting. "Timket". 13 October 2004. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 2014-10-04. "Ethiopian Rift Valley Safaris - Timket - Epiphany in Ethiopia". Ethiopianriftvalleysafaris.com. Archived from the original on 2014-09-29. Retrieved 2014-10-04. "meskelsquare.com". Meskelsquare.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2014-10-04. Timkat Celebration in Lalibela
Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt and the Middle East. The head of the Church and the See of Alexandria is the Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy See of Saint Mark, who carries the title of Coptic Pope; the See of Alexandria is titular, today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo. The church follows the Alexandrian Rite for its liturgy and devotional patrimony. With 18–22 million members worldwide, whereof about 15 to 20 million are in Egypt, it is the country's largest Christian church. According to its tradition, the Coptic Church was established by Saint Mark, an apostle and evangelist, during the middle of the 1st century. Due to disputes concerning the nature of Christ, it split from the rest of the Christendom after the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, resulting in a rivalry with the Byzantine Orthodox Church. In the 4–7th centuries the Coptic Church expanded due to the Christianization of the Aksumite empire and of two of the three Nubian kingdoms and Alodia, while the third Nubian kingdom, recognized the Coptic patriarch after being aligned to the Byzantine Orthodox Church.
After AD 639 Egypt was ruled by its Islamic conquerors from Arabia, the treatment of the Coptic Christians ranged from tolerance to open persecution. In the 12th century, the church relocated its seat from Alexandria to Cairo; the same century saw the Copts become a religious minority. During the 14th and 15th centuries, Nubian Christianity was supplanted by Islam. In 1959, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was granted independence; this was extended to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church in 1998 following the successful Eritrean War of Independence from Ethiopia. Since the Arab Spring in 2011, the Copts have been suffering increased religious discrimination and violence; the Egyptian Church is traditionally believed to be founded by St Mark at around AD 42, regards itself as the subject of many prophecies in the Old Testament. Isaiah the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says "In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, a pillar to the LORD at its border".
The first Christians in Egypt were common people. There were Alexandrian Jewish people such as Theophilus, whom Saint Luke the Evangelist addresses in the introductory chapter of his gospel; when the church was founded by Saint Mark during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, a great multitude of native Egyptians embraced the Christian faith. Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark's arrival in Alexandria, as is clear from the New Testament writings found in Bahnasa, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year AD 200, a fragment of the Gospel of John, written in Coptic, found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the 2nd century. In the 2nd century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, scriptures were translated into the local languages, namely Coptic; the Coptic language is a universal language used in Coptic churches in every country. It uses Greek letters. Many of the hymns in the liturgy have been passed down for several thousand years.
The language is used to preserve Egypt's original language, banned by the Arab invaders, who ordered Arabic to be used instead. Some examples of these hymns are Coptic: translit. Ep.ouro, lit.'The King',Coptic: Ⲉⲕⲥⲙⲁⲣⲱⲟⲩⲧ, translit. Ek.esmaro'oot, lit.' Blessed', Coptic: Ⲧⲁⲓϣⲟⲩⲣⲏ, translit. Tai.shouri, lit.'This Censer', many more. The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world. St. Jerome records. Around AD 190, under the leadership of the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement and the native Egyptian Origen, considered the father of theology and, active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. Many scholars such as Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars; the scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write.
The Theological college of the catechetical school was re-established in 1893. The new school has campuses in Ireland, New Jersey, Los Angeles, where Coptic priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, the Coptic language and art – including chanting, music and tapestry. Many Egyptian Christians went to the desert during the 3rd century, remained there to pray and work and dedicate their lives to seclusion and worship of God; this was the beginning of the monastic movement, organized by Anthony the Great, Saint Paul of Thebes, the world's first anchorite, Saint Macarius the Great and Saint Pachomius the Cenobite in the 4th century. Christian monasticism was born in Egypt and was instrumental in the formation of the Coptic Orthodox Church character of submission and humility, thanks to the teachings and writings of the Great Fathers of Egypt's Deserts. By the end of the 5th century, the
Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea. Its autocephaly was recognised by Shenouda III, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria after Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993. Tewaḥido is cognate to Arabic tawhid. According to the Orthodox Encyclopedia article on the Henoticon: around 500 bishops within the Patriarchates of Alexandria and Jerusalem refused to accept the "two natures" doctrine decreed by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, thus separating themselves from the future Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches; this separate Christian communion came to be known as Oriental Orthodoxy. Oriental Orthodox Churches, which today include the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church of India, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, are referred to as "Non-Chalcedonian"; these Churches themselves describe their Christology as miaphysite, but outsiders incorrectly describe them as "monophysite".
Tewahedo Orthodoxy is a major ethnoreligious group in the largest Christian group there. Christianity has been the majority religion since the 4th century and remains still the largest population, they spoke Ge'ez, which belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. However, the language is now extinct, has been limited to liturgical use since the 10th century. Tewahedo now speak Tigrinya. Most adhere to the Tewahdo Orthodox Church. Tewahdo is a religion as well for the adherent of Eritrean Tewahdos; the Eritrean Orthodox Church claims its origins from Philip the Evangelist. It became the state church of the Kingdom of Aksum under Ezana in the 4th century through the efforts of a Syrian Greek named Frumentius, known in the church as Abba Selama, Kesate Birhan; as a boy, Frumentius had been shipwrecked with his brother Aedesius on the Eritrean coast. The brothers managed to be brought to the royal court, where they rose to positions of influence and converted Emperor Ezana to Christianity, causing him to be baptised.
Ezana sent Frumentius to Alexandria to ask the Patriarch, Athanasius of Alexandria, to appoint a bishop for Axum. Athanasius appointed Frumentius himself, who returned to Axum as Bishop with the name of Abune Selama. For fifteen centuries afterward, the pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria always named a Copt to be Abuna "metropolitan bishop" of the Ethiopian Church. Little else is known of church history down to the period of Jesuit influence, which broke the connection with Egypt. Union with the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria continued after Arab conquests in Egypt. Abu Saleh records in the 12th century that the patriarch sent letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, until Al Hakim stopped the practice. Coptic patriarch Cyril II sent Severus as bishop, with orders to suppress the practice of polygamy and to enforce observance of canonical consecration for all churches; these examples show the close relations of the two churches concurrent with the Middle Ages.
Early in the 16th century the church was brought under the influence of a Portuguese mission. In 1439, in the reign of Zara Yaqob, a religious discussion between Abba Giyorgis and a French visitor had led to the dispatch of an embassy from Ethiopia to the Holy See. In 1507 Matthew, an Armenian, had been sent as Ethiopian envoy to Portugal to ask aid against the Adal Sultanate. In 1520 an embassy under Rodrigo de Lima landed in Ethiopia. An account of the Portuguese mission, which remained for several years, was written by the chaplain, Francisco Álvares. Ignatius of Loyola wished to essay the task of conversion, but this did not happen. Instead, the pope sent out João Nunes Barreto as Patriarch of the East Indies, with Andrés de Oviedo as bishop. After repeated failures, some measure of success was achieved under Susenyos I, but not until 1624 did the Emperor make a formal declaration of communion with Pope Urban VIII. Susenyos made the Catholic Church the official state church, but was met with heavy resistance and, in 1632, had to abdicate in favour of his son, who promptly restored Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity as the official religion of the country.
He expelled the Society of Jesus in 1633, in 1665 Fasilides ordered all Jesuit books be burned. In the 1920s the Italian colonial power in Eritrea started the first attempts to found a separate Eritrean Orthodox Church; until the Orthodox Church in Eritrea was part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, with a strong link to Aksum in Tigray as the traditional centre of the Church structure. This was, against the interest of the colonizer: Eritrea as a separate colony was supposed to have a church independent from the neighbor's influence, in order to be integrated into the colonial system; the separate Eritrean Church was short-lived. When it was still not established, the Italians invaded Ethiopia in 1935, formed a unified territory, Africa Orientale Italiana, encompassing Eritrea and Italian Somalia. Eritrea was unified with the northe
The Nine Saints were a group of missionaries who were important in the initial growth of Christianity in what is now Ethiopia during the late 5th century. Their names were Abba Aftse, Abba Alef, Abba Aragawi, Abba Garima, Abba Guba, Abba Liqanos, Abba Pantelewon, Abba Sehma, Abba Yem’ata. Although described as coming from Syria, only two or three came from that province. Henze, others have been traced to Constantinople and Rome; the Ethiopian historian Tadesse Tamrat speculates that they may have been connected with the anti-Monophysite and anti-Miaphysite persecutions that followed the Council of Chalcedon, which adopted Dyophysitism. Tradition states, their activities spread Christianity beyond "a narrow corridor between Adulis and Aksum along the caravan routes." Besides converting the local inhabitants to Christianity, they founded a number of monastic houses that followed the rule of Saint Pachomius: Abba Aftse founded the monastery at Yeha. Recent radiocarbon dating supports the tradition of Saint Abba Garima's arrival at the Abba Garima Monastery in 494.
The Garima Gospels, which Garima is said to have written, is now regarded as "the world's earliest illustrated Christian manuscript" and the oldest surviving Ethiopian manuscript of any kind. A painting belonging to the Cyprus Presidential Palace with the same title was on exhibition in the Λεβέντειος Πινακοθήκη in Nicosia in 2014. Information about the painting is found in the August 25th issue of the Greek-Cypriot Sunday newspaper Καθημερινή; the nine saints are found in the Sinaxaristis, Thirteen Assyrian Fathers Life of Abba Pantelewon from The Dictionary of Ethiopian Biography
Syriac Christianity is the form of Eastern Christianity whose formative theological writings and traditional liturgy are expressed in the Syriac language. The Syriac language is a variety of Middle Aramaic that in an early form emerged in Edessa, Upper Mesopotamia in the first century AD, it is related to the Jewish Palestinian Aramaic spoken by Jesus. This relationship added to its prestige for Christians; the form of the language in use in Edessa predominated Christian writings and was accepted as the standard form, "a convenient vehicle for the spread of Christianity wherever there was a substrate of spoken Aramaic". The area where Syriac or Aramaic was spoken, an area of contact and conflict between the Roman Empire and the Sasanian Empire, extended from around Antioch in the west to Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the Sasanian capital, in the east and comprised the whole or parts of present-day Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, Turkey and Iran. Christianity began in the Middle East in Jerusalem among Aramaic-speaking Jews.
It soon spread to other Aramaic-speaking Semitic peoples along the Mediterranean coast and to the inland parts of the Roman Empire and beyond that into the Parthian Empire and the Sasanian Empire, including Mesopotamia, dominated at different times and to varying extents by these empires. The ruins of the Dura-Europos church, dating from the first half of the 3rd century are concrete evidence of the presence of organized Christian communities in the Aramaic-speaking area, far from Jerusalem and the Mediterranean coast, there are traditions of the preaching of Christianity in the region as early as the time of the Apostles. However, "virtually every aspect of Syriac Christianity prior to the fourth century remains obscure, it is only that one can feel oneself on firmer ground." The fourth century is marked by the many writings in Syriac of Saint Ephrem the Syrian, the Demonstrations of the older Aphrahat and the anonymous ascetical Book of Steps. Ephrem lived in the Roman Empire, close to the border with the Sasanian Empire, to which the other two writers belonged.
Other items of early literature of Syriac Christianity are the Diatessaron of Tatian, the Curetonian Gospels and the Syriac Sinaiticus, the Peshitta Bible and the Doctrine of Addai. The bishops who took part in the First Council of Nicea, the first of the ecumenical councils, included twenty from Syria and one from Persia, outside the Roman Empire. Two councils held in the following century divided Syriac Christianity into two opposing parties. In 431, the Council of Ephesus, reckoned as the third ecumenical council, condemned Nestorius and Nestorianism, it was ignored by the East Syriac Church of the East, established in the Sasanian Empire as a distinct Church at the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon in 410, which at the Synod of Dadisho in 424 had declared the independence of its head, the Catholicos, in relation to "western" Church authorities. In its modern form of Assyrian Church of the East and Ancient Church of the East, it honours Nestorius as a teacher and saint. In 451, the Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council, condemned Monophysitism.
This council was rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, one of, the West Syriac Syriac Orthodox Church. The Patriarchate of Antioch was divided between a Chalcedonian and a non-Chalcedonian communion; the Chalcedonians were labelled'Melkites', while their opponents were labelled Monophysites and Jacobites. The Maronite Church found itself caught between the two, but claims to have always remained faithful to the Catholic Church and in communion with the bishop of Rome, the Pope; the two Christological doctrines that were thus condemned are polar opposites. Both the West Syriac Church and the East Syriac maintained that their own doctrine was not heretical and accused the other of holding the opposing condemned doctrine, their fifth-century estrangement still persists. In 1999 the Coptic Orthodox Church blocked admittance of the Assyrian Church of the East to the Middle East Council of Churches, which has among its members the Chaldean Catholic Church and some Protestant Churches, demanded that it remove from its liturgy the mention of Diodore and Nestorius, whom it venerates as "the Greek doctors".
The liturgies of the East and West Syriacs are quite distinct. The East Syriac Rite is noted for its eucharistic Qurbana of Addai and Mari, in which the Words of Institution are absent. West Syriacs use the Syro-Antiochian or West Syriac Rite, which belongs to the family of liturgies known as the Antiochene Rite; the Syriac Orthodox Church adds to the Trisagion the phrase "who were crucified for us". The Church of the East interpreted this as heretical. Church of the East Patriarch Timothy I declared: "In all countries of Babylon, of Persia, of Assyria and in all countries of sunrise, to say among the Indians, the Chinese, the Tibetans, the Turks, in all provinces under the jurisdiction of this Patriarchal See there is no use of'Crucified for us'.”Among the Saint Thomas Christians of India, the East Syriac Rite was the one used, but those who in the 17th century accepted union with the Syriac Orthodox Church adopted the rite of that church. A schism in 1552 in the Church of the East gave rise to a separate patriarchate, which at first entered into union with the Catholic Church but formed the nucleus of the present-day Assyrian Church of the East and Ancient Church of the East, while at the end of the 18th century most followers of th
Tur Abdin is a hilly region situated in southeast Turkey, including the eastern half of the Mardin Province, Şırnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria. The name'Tur Abdin' is derived from Syriac, meaning "mountain of the servants". Tur Abdin is of great importance to the Assyrians of the Syriac Orthodox, for whom the region used to be a monastic and cultural heartland; the Assyrian community of Tur Abdin call themselves Suroye and Suryoye, terms which derive etymologically from the earlier Assurayu and traditionally speak a central Neo-Aramaic dialect called Turoyo. The town of Midyat and the villages of Hah, Dayro da-Slibo, Iwardo, Kafro, Beth Sbirino, Kerburan, Binkelbe with Mor Samun Zayte and Beth Zabday were all important Syriac Orthodox places among with countless other villages. Hah has the Church of the Mother of God. In the 9th century BCE the Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II described crossing the plateau of Tur Abdin on his way to attack the region of Nairi. Assyrian source from the 9th century BC.
In 586 B. C. the prophet Ezekiel mentions the famed wine of Izlo, on the southern edge of the plateau of Tur Abdin, in his prophecy against Tyre. The Mor Gabriel Monastery, the oldest Assyrian church in the world, was founded in 397 by the ascetic Mor Shmu'el and his student Mor Shem'un. According to tradition, Shem'un had a dream in which an Angel commanded him to build a House of Prayer in a location marked with three large stone blocks; when Shem ` un awoke, he found the stone the angel had placed. At this spot Mor Gabriel Monastery was built. During World War I, 300,000 Assyrian Christians were killed in the Ottoman Empire's Assyrian Genocide. In the last few decades, caught between Turkish assimilation policies against Kurds, Kurdish resistance, many Assyrians have fled the region or been killed. Today there are a quarter of the Christian population thirty years ago. Most have fled to Syria, Europe and the United States. In the past few years, a few families have returned to Tur Abdin. Prior to the start of World War I, the village of Gülgöze had about 200 families, all were ethnic Assyrians that belonged to the Syriac Orthodox Church.
During the Assyrian Genocide, tens of thousands of refugees from throughout Tur Abdin arrived here for safety. At one point, the number of Assyrians in the village was up to 21,980 people. Refugees arrived from villages including Habasnos, Bote, Kafro Eloyto and Urnas. Refugees from outside Tur Abdin arrived, coming from villages such as Deqlath, Gozarto, Hesno d Kifo and Mifarqin. Being aware of the Turks and Kurds coming to Gülgöze, the Assyrian villagers and refugees created a militia to defend themselves, led by Masud Mirza, the son of a Melik, their resistance lasted 60 days, ended in success. At the same time, the Kurdish authority of Midyat was given orders to attack Arnas. However, Aziz Agha, the leader of the Midyat area, told them that they didn't have enough soldiers to attack both areas, therefore they would attack Gulgoze only, go to Arnas on. Therefore, The Kurds of Tur Abdin and Ramman, under the generalship of Ahmed Agha and Salem Agha, collected themselves in Mardin, created a unit of 13,000 men.
The government authorized the distribution of arms, they headed towards Gülgöze, arriving late at night to begin the siege. After hours of gun-battle, the Assyrians defeated the Kurds and drove them out, but there were many casualties on both sides regardless. After 10 days, The Kurds attacked again only to be beaten yet again. Before the beginning of a third attempt, Kurdish leaders called for aid from the mayors of Diyarbakır and Mardin. However, A third attempt failed and after 30 days of battle, Aziz Agha suggested a peace treaty between the two sides. 3 Assyrians met with Aziz to discuss a peace treaty, But the Assyrians refused to lay down their weapons, thus the battle continued. The siege continued for another 30 days leading to many deaths on both sides. In the end, the Kurdish soldiers surrendered and left the Assyrians of Tur Abdin alone, hence why the Tur Abdin region is one of the only Christian populated areas left in Turkey outside of Istanbul; the total death toll of this 60-day siege is unknown, but there were at least 1,000 deaths with both sides losses combined.
On 10 February 2006 and the following day, large demonstrations took place in the city of Midyat in Tur Abdin. Muslims angry about the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons gathered in Estel, the new part of the city, started to march towards the old part of Midyat, where the Christians live; the mob was stopped by the police before reaching old Midyat. In 2008 a series of legal challenges were made against the monastery of Mor Gabriel; some local Kurdish villages sought to claim land on which the monastery had paid taxes since the 1930s as belonging to the villages, made other accusations against the monastery. This led to considerable diplomatic and Human Rights action within Turkey; the most important Syriac Orthodox centre in Tur Abdin is the monastery of Dayro d-Mor Hananyo, 6 km south east of Mardin, in the west of the region. Built from yellow rock, the
Ethiopian liturgical chant, or Zema, is a form of Christian liturgical chant practiced by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The related musical notation is known as melekket; the tradition is traditionally identified with Saint Yared. Through history, the Ethiopian liturgical chants have undergone an evolution similar to that of European liturgical chants. Zema means a pleasing sound, a song or a melody in Ge'ez, the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. Saint Yared has been credited with the invention of the musical tradition of Ethiopian liturgical chants. Yared, who lived in the sixth century, represents the first known case of indigenous Ethiopian musical notation and religious music, he invented three forms of chanting. They are known as ararai and geeze; the Synaxarium of the Ethiopian Church attests that Ethiopian liturgical chants are faithful to Yared and divine in nature. By the beginning of the sixth century, in Yared's lifetime, Ethiopia had been Christianized.
Around that period, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church had a corpus of prayers. Ethiopian liturgical chants were developed only after that. Deggwa, Ethiopian antiphons, in particular are of much origin, dating from the second half of the 16th century. Most of the Ethiopian Highlands had been Miaphysite Christian since the fourth century. Ancient chanted liturgy with congregation participating with clapping and rhythmic movements has been retained from that era. Ethiopian liturgical chants are based on both written and oral sources, but the isolation of Ethiopia and the lack of source material make it difficult to reconstruct the exact history of Ethiopian church music; the musical notation used for the chants, is not a typical notational system since it does not represent pitch or melody. Rather, it is as a mnemonic. Most studies conclude, it is that Ethiopian liturgical chants have undergone an evolution similar to that of European liturgical chants. It can be assumed that the notations have become more complex as time has passed.
Regional varieties may have become standardized over time, more symbols and segments of music have become available for composers. Any form of Ethiopian gospel music was not recorded until the 1950s when priest Mere Geta Lisanework assisted the Ethiopian Radio in recording. Students of Ethiopian liturgical chants study the Ge'ez language, begin practicing singing in childhood. Education takes place in liturgical dance schools called aqwaqwam bét and includes, in addition to singing and dancing, training in traditional instruments such as the käbäro, drums, tsänatsel, mäqwamya. Singing students become singers and some will become masters. A student is considered ready when he has mastered the complicated genre of qené, it has been suggested by Monneret de Villard that liturgical dance, that always accompanies the music, has its origins in the Ancient Egyptian dance. Ethiopian Orthodox Christians form 43.5% of the population of modern day Ethiopia. Ethiopian Church music remains bounded within the communities and attracts attention by outsiders.
Ethiopian Christian music is sustained by communities of descent. Since the mid-1970s, large-scale emigration of Ethiopians has created a diaspora in the United States; the emigrants bought their secular and liturgical music traditions with them. There is a large concentration of qualified priests and musicians in Washington, D. C. However, Ethiopian Churches in smaller communities face challenges in maintaining the liturgical cycle and musical tradition. Coptic music Giyorgis of Segla Quipu Ashenafi Kebede. "The Sacred Chant of Ethiopian Monotheistic Churches: Music in Black Jewish and Christian Communities". The Black Perspective in Music. 8: 20–34. Doi:10.2307/1214519. Ayele Bekerie. "St. Yared: The Great Ethiopian Composer". Tadias Magazine. Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. Ethiopian Christian liturgical chant: An Anthology: Part 1: General introduction. A-R Editions, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89579-285-3. Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. Ethiopian Christian liturgical chant: An anthology: Part 2: Performance Practice. A-R Editions, Inc.
ISBN 978-0-89579-294-5. Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. Ethiopian Christian liturgical chant: An anthology: Part 3: History of Ethiopian Chant. A-R Editions. ISBN 978-0-89579-285-3. Velimirović, Miloš. "Christian Chant in Syria, Armenia and Ethiopia". In Richard Crocker and David Hiley; the New Oxford History of Music: The Early Middle Ages to 1300. 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-316329-2. Oriental songs at www.ethiopianorthodox.org EOTC channel on YouTube