2004 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election
The 2004 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election took place on March 20, 2004, in Toronto and resulted in the election of Stephen Harper as the first leader of the new Conservative Party of Canada. The Conservative Party was formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, in December 2003. Stephen Harper, the former leader of the Canadian Alliance, was elected on the first ballot. Tony Clement, a former Ontario Progressive Conservative health minister, Belinda Stronach, the former Chief Executive Officer of Magna International, were the other candidates on the ballot; the leader was selected by a system in which each of the party's riding associations was allocated 100 points, which were allocated among candidates in proportion to the votes that he or she received. This system was selected as a condition of the merger, to prevent the far larger Canadian Alliance membership base from overwhelming that of the Progressive Conservatives. Members voted using ranked ballots.
If no candidate won a majority of votes on the first ballot, the ballots supporting the candidate with the smallest number of votes would be re-distributed according to the voters' second preferences. Subsequent ballots were not needed, because Stephen Harper won on the first ballot. 42, Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario Member of Provincial Parliament for Brampton South, provincial Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, provincial Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing, provincial Minister of the Environment, provincial Minister of Transportation, third place candidate in Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario leadership election Caucus Endorsements MPs: Gerald Keddy, Chuck Strahl, Norman Doyle, Art Hanger, Peter Goldring Senators: Brenda Robertson, Wilbert Keon 44, Reform Party of Canada MP for Calgary West, Canadian Alliance MP for Calgary Southwest, Leader of the Canadian Alliance, President of the National Citizens Coalition Caucus Endorsements MPs: Jim Abbott, Diane Ablonczy, Rob Anders, David Anderson, Roy Bailey, Leon Benoit, Garry Breitkreuz, Andy Burton, Chuck Cadman, Rick Casson, Dave Chatters, John Duncan, Reed Elley, Ken Epp, Brian Fitzpatrick, Paul Forseth, Jim Gouk, Gurmant Grewal, Dick Harris, Jay Hill, Betty Hinton, Rahim Jaffer, Dale Johnston, Jason Kenney, Gary Lunn, James Lunney, Philip Mayfield, Grant McNally, Rob Merrifield, Bob Mills, James Moore, Deepak Obhrai, Brian Pallister, Charlie Penson, James Rajotte, Scott Reid, John Reynolds, Gerry Ritz, Werner Schmidt, Carol Skelton, Monte Solberg, Kevin Sorenson, Darrel Stinson, Greg Thompson, Myron Thompson, Vic Toews, Maurice Vellacott, Randy White, John Williams, Lynne Yelich Senators: Gerry St. Germain, David Tkachuk 37, CEO of Magna International Caucus Endorsements MPs: Gary Schellenberger, Bill Casey, John Cummins, Val Meredith, Loyola Hearn, Rex Barnes, Inky Mark Senators: David Angus, Ethel Cochrane, Consiglio Di Nino, John Trevor Eyton, J. Michael Forrestall, Noël Kinsella, Pierre Claude Nolin, John Buchanan, Gerald Comeau, Donald Oliver, Marjory LeBreton, Pat Carney, Leonard Gustafson Scott Brison - Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament Mike Harris - former Premier of Ontario Ralph Klein - Premier of Alberta Bernard Lord - Premier of New Brunswick Peter MacKay - former Progressive Conservative Party Leader Brian Pallister - Canadian Alliance Member of Parliament Jim Prentice - Progressive Conservative 2003 leadership race runner up Premier of Alberta Bob Runciman - former Ontario public security minister Larry Smith - Publisher of the Montreal Gazette Chuck Strahl - Canadian Alliance Member of Parliament Points needed to win: 15,401 Each of 308 ridings had 100 points which were distributed by proportional representation according to votes cast by party members in the riding.
Belinda Stronach $2,496,482 Stephen Harper $2,073,084 Tony Clement $826,807 December 5 - The Canadian Alliance votes with a 96% majority in favour of merging with the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. December 6 - The Progressive Conservative Party votes, with 90% of delegates in favour of merging with the Canadian Alliance. December 8 - The Conservat
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Progressive Conservative leadership elections
The first Progressive Conservative Party of Canada leadership election was held in 1927, when the party was called the Conservative Party. Prior to the party's leader was chosen by the caucus or in several cases by the Governor General of Canada designating a Conservative MP or Senator to form a government after the retirement or death of an incumbent Conservative Prime Minister. There have been two permanent leaders since 1927. Arthur Meighen agreed to serve a second term as leader in 1941 on condition that he would not have to contest the position; the party agreed. Jean Charest was one of only two Progressive Conservative Members of Parliament returned in the 1993 election and was appointed leader by the party's executive with the decision being affirmed at a regular party convention two years later; the Conservative Party became the Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. All leadership conventions were delegated conventions, except in 1998 when a one-member-one-vote process was used in which each riding was allocated 100 points which were distributed among candidates by proportional representation.
For the 2003 leadership election, the party reverted to use of a delegated convention, obstensibly because of the cost of using an OMOV process though it has been argued that the party feared that use of OMOV would make an outside takeover of the party easier due to a decline in membership. In 2003, the party merged with the Canadian Alliance to form a new Conservative Party of Canada; this party adopted the OMOV process the Tories had used in 1998. Note on tables: Green box indicates winner. Pink box indicates candidate eliminated from ballot for receiving the fewest votes. Blue box indicates. Held in Winnipeg, Manitoba on October 11, 1927. George Halsey Perley, H. H. Stevens, John Allister Currie, John Baxter, Howard Ferguson, Edgar Nelson Rhodes, outgoing leader Arthur Meighen were all nominated but declined to run. Held in Ottawa, Ontario on July 7, 1938. Manion lost his seat in the 1940 federal election and R. B. Hanson became interim leader. In November 1941 a national conference of the party voted against having a leadership convention and instead appointed Arthur Meighen as the party's wartime leader.
Meighen resigned. Held in Winnipeg, Manitoba on December 11, 1942. Held in Ottawa, Ontario on October 2, 1948. Wilfrid Garfield Case withdrew before the convention to support Drew. Held in Ottawa, Ontario on December 14, 1956; the 1967 leadership convention was held in Toronto, Ontario on September 9, 1967. The 1976 leadership convention was held in Ottawa, Ontario on February 22, 1976. Richard Quittenton withdrew from the race; the 1983 leadership convention was held in Ottawa, Ontario on June 11, 1983. The 1993 leadership convention was held in Ottawa, Ontario on June 13, 1993; the 1995 leadership convention was held at the Palais des congrès de Gatineau in Hull, Quebec on April 29, 1995, to ratify Jean Charest as leader. Charest had been named interim leader following the 1993 federal election, which reduced the Progressive Conservatives to only two seats, with Charest being the only cabinet minister to win re-election. First ballot was conducted October 24, 1998; the 1998 election used a point system that allocated 100 points to each riding, regardless of the number of votes cast in the riding.
The candidate who won a majority of points would win the leadership. All party members were eligible to cast a vote; the 100-point-per-riding system was again used by the Conservative Party of Canada in its 2004 leadership race. The 2003 leadership convention was held in Toronto, Ontario on May 31, 2003. Two other candidates had participated in the race. Quebec MP André Bachand withdrew his candidacy from the race due to financial concerns and backed Peter MacKay. Former Cabinet Minister and Quebec MP Heward Grafftey withdrew his candidacy from the race due to health concerns. Parliament of Canada website
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre federal political party in Canada. It was formed in 2003 from the merger of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance, it traces its history to the original Conservative Party of Canada, formed after Confederation in 1867 and changed its name to Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. In Canadian politics, the party sits to the right of the Liberal Party of Canada. Like their federal Liberal rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", welcoming a broad variety of members; the party's leader is Andrew Scheer. From Confederation till 1942, the Conservative Party of Canada participated in numerous governments. Before 1942, the predecessors to the Conservatives had multiple names, but by 1942, the main right-wing Canadian force became known as the Progressive Conservatives. In 1957, John Diefenbaker became the first Prime Minister from the Progressive Conservative Party, remained in office until 1963.
Another Progressive Conservative government was elected after the results of the 1979 federal election, with Joe Clark becoming Prime Minister. Clark served from 1979 to 1980, when he was defeated by the Liberal Party after the 1980 federal election. In 1984, the Progressive Conservatives won with Brian Mulroney becoming Prime Minister. Mulroney was Prime Minister from 1984 to 1993, his government was marked by free trade agreements and economic liberalization; the party suffered a near complete loss after the 1993 federal election, thanks to a splintering of the right-wing. A similar result occurred in 1997, in 2000, when the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives merged, forming the Conservative Party of Canada; the unified Conservative Party favours lower taxes, small government, more decentralization of federal government powers to the provinces modeled after the Meech Lake Accord and a tougher stand on "law and order" issues.
The party won two minority governments after the 2006 federal election, a majority government in the 2011 federal election before being defeated in the 2015 federal election by a majority Liberal government. John Lynch-Staunton served as interim leader of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada from 8 December 2003 until 20 March 2004, when the party elected Stephen Harper as its first leader. Andrew Scheer was elected leader on 27 May 2017; the Deputy Leader is appointed by the Leader. The National Council is the party's national governing body, elected by the Conservative Party membership at its bi-annual meetings. A National Councillor is elected for a two-year term and cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. Composition of the National Council is based on the following criteria: four members from a province with more than 100 seats in the House of Commons three members from a province with 52–100 seats two from any province with 26–50 seats one member from each province with 4–25 seats one member from each territory the Party leader The Chair of the Conservative Fund Canada the Executive Director.
At present, the National Council has four members from Ontario. The party president is elected by National Council following their election. Since 2016, the President of the Conservative Party has been Scott Lamb, a councillor representing British Columbia; the party President is the conduit between the National Council. Don Plett interim until 2005 John Walsh Scott Lamb The Executive Director answers to the party President, is responsible for the day-to-day management and operations of the party. From February 2009 to December 2013, the Executive Director was Dan Hilton. Dimitri Soudas was named the new Executive Director in December 2013. On 30 March 2014, Soudas was told to resign or be fired from the position after interfering with the nomination contest taking place in his fiancée's riding. In July 2014, Dustin Van Vugt was brought in as the Deputy Executive Director – a position created for him; some media agencies, such as the CBC, suggested that this was a way for Thompson to begin handing over the work for the top job to Van Vugt, until his promotion to Executive Director could be formally ratified by the party's National Council.
In October 2014, Van Vugt's position was unanimously ratified by the party's National Council, Thompson became the Chief Operations Officer. The Director of Political Operations reports to the Executive Director, is one of the most important positions within the party; the person filling this role has direct access to the party leader, due to their responsibilities for organizing the party's work on the ground and in preparing for the next election. With Stephen Harper as Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader, the Director of Political Operations has moved from party positions to the Prime Minister's and other Minister's Offices, back to the party's headquarters, depending on the identified needs. Doug Finley was the Director of Political Operations until 2009, when Finley was appointed to the Senate and Jenni Byrne Finley's Deputy, became the Director. In August 2013, Byrne left the job to become the co-Deputy Chief of Staff in the Prime Minister's O
A security is a tradable financial asset. The term refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some jurisdictions the term excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g. equity warrants. In some countries and languages the term "security" is used in day-to-day parlance to mean any form of financial instrument though the underlying legal and regulatory regime may not have such a broad definition. In the United Kingdom, the national competent authority for financial markets regulation is the Financial Conduct Authority. In the United States, a security is a tradable financial asset of any kind. Securities are broadly categorized into: debt securities equity securities derivatives; the company or other entity issuing the security is called the issuer. A country's regulatory structure determines. For example, private investment pools may have some features of securities, but they may not be registered or regulated as such if they meet various restrictions.
Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more "non-certificated", in electronic or "book entry" only form. Certificates may be bearer, meaning they entitle the holder to rights under the security by holding the security, or registered, meaning they entitle the holder to rights only if he or she appears on a security register maintained by the issuer or an intermediary, they include shares of corporate stock or mutual funds, bonds issued by corporations or governmental agencies, stock options or other options, limited partnership units, various other formal investment instruments that are negotiable and fungible. Securities may be classified according to many categories or classification systems: Currency of denomination Ownership rights Terms to maturity Degree of liquidity Income payments Tax treatment Credit rating Industrial sector or "industry". Region or country Market capitalization State Securities are the traditional way that commercial enterprises raise new capital; these may be an attractive alternative to bank loans depending on their pricing and market demand for particular characteristics.
Another disadvantage of bank loans as a source of financing is that the bank may seek a measure of protection against default by the borrower via extensive financial covenants. Through securities, capital is provided by investors who purchase the securities upon their initial issuance. In a similar way, a government may issue securities too. Investors in securities may be retail, i.e. members of the public investing other than by way of business. The greatest part of investment, in terms of volume, is wholesale, i.e. by financial institutions acting on their own account, or on behalf of clients. Important institutional investors include investment banks, insurance companies, pension funds and other managed funds; the traditional economic function of the purchase of securities is investment, with the view to receiving income or achieving capital gain. Debt securities offer a higher rate of interest than bank deposits, equities may offer the prospect of capital growth. Equity investment may offer control of the business of the issuer.
Debt holdings may offer some measure of control to the investor if the company is a fledgling start-up or an old giant undergoing'restructuring'. In these cases, if interest payments are missed, the creditors may take control of the company and liquidate it to recover some of their investment; the last decade has seen an enormous growth in the use of securities as collateral. Purchasing securities with borrowed money secured by other securities or cash itself is called "buying on margin". Where A is owed a debt or other obligation by B, A may require B to deliver property rights in securities to A, either at inception or only in default. For institutional loans, property rights are not transferred but enable A to satisfy its claims in the event that B fails to make good on its obligations to A or otherwise becomes insolvent. Collateral arrangements are divided into two broad categories, namely security interests and outright collateral transfers. Commercial banks, investment banks, government agencies and other institutional investors such as mutual funds are significant collateral takers as well as providers.
In addition, private parties may utilize stocks or other securities as collateral for portfolio loans in securities lending scenarios. On the consumer level, loans against securities have grown into three distinct groups over the last decade: 1) Standard Institutional Loans offering low loan-to-value with
John Reynolds (Canadian politician)
John Douglas Reynolds, was the Member of Parliament for the riding of West Vancouver—Sunshine Coast—Sea to Sky Country in the House of Commons of Canada from 1997 to 2006 and a former Federal Opposition Leader. He had been an MP in the 1970s as well as a provincial politician in British Columbia in the 1980s and 1990s, he was first elected to Parliament as a candidate of the Progressive Conservatives in 1972 and was re-elected in 1974. He resigned in 1977 after a series of disagreements with Joe Clark. Beginning in 1983 he was active in the Social Credit Party of British Columbia and served as Speaker of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly and as a cabinet minister. In 1986 he was a candidate at the Social Credit leadership convention coming in fifth, he remained in provincial politics until 1991. Reynolds served as Chief Opposition Whip, he remained in this role. When Stockwell Day faced a revolt in his caucus in 2001 and Chuck Strahl resigned as House leader, Reynolds was named in his place.
When Day resigned as Alliance leader, Reynolds was chosen as interim party leader and leader of the opposition and served until Stephen Harper was elected the new party leader. Reynolds resigned as House leader on January 24, 2005, but continued as MP for his riding until his retirement at the 2006 federal election, he was the coordinator of the Conservative campaign in British Columbia. On the day after the election, which resulted in a Conservative minority government, Harper asked Reynolds to approach Liberal minister David Emerson about crossing the floor and serving as a minister in Harper's government. Emerson accepted the offer, which triggered a firestorm of criticism. However, who had criticized Belinda Stronach's switch from the Conservatives to the Liberals, told a suburban Vancouver newspaper that he was "very happy" that Emerson was a Conservative and claimed that the people of Emerson's left-leaning Vancouver riding got the better end of the bargain. "Instead of having someone in opposition," he said, "they have someone, a cabinet minister of a new government."
John Reynolds – Parliament of Canada biography