The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League where the champion of the National Football Conference competes against the champion of the American Football Conference. The game is the culmination of a regular season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Roman numerals are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 1967, following the 1966 regular season; the sole exception to this naming convention tradition occurred with Super Bowl 50, played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season, the following year, the nomenclature returned to Roman numerals for Super Bowl LI, following the 2016 regular season. The upcoming Super Bowl is Super Bowl LIV, scheduled for February 2, 2020, following the 2019 regular season; the game was created as a part of the merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival, the American Football League. It was agreed that the two's champion teams would play in the AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was to begin in 1970.
After the merger, each league was redesignated as a "conference", the game has since been played between the conference champions to determine the NFL's league champion. The National Football Conference leads the league with 27 wins to 26 wins for the American Football Conference; the Pittsburgh Steelers and the New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl championship titles, with six. The New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl appearances, with eleven. Tom Brady has six Super Bowl rings, the record for the most rings won by a single player; the day on which the Super Bowl is played, now considered by some as an unofficial American national holiday, is called "Super Bowl Sunday". It is the second-largest day for U. S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year. S. television history are Super Bowls. In 2015, Super Bowl XLIX became the most-watched American television program in history with an average audience of 114.4 million viewers, the fifth time in six years the game had set a record, starting with Super Bowl XLIV, which itself had taken over the number-one spot held for 27 years by the final episode of M*A*S*H.
The Super Bowl is among the most-watched sporting events in the world all audiences being North American, is second to the UEFA Champions League final as the most watched annual sporting event worldwide. The NFL restricts the use of its "Super Bowl" trademark; because of the high viewership, commercial airtime during the Super Bowl broadcast is the most expensive of the year, leading to companies developing their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. As a result and discussing the broadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event. In addition, popular singers and musicians including Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Prince, Justin Timberlake, Beyoncé, Janet Jackson, Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Whitney Houston, Lady Gaga have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. For four decades after its 1920 inception, the NFL fended off several rival leagues. In 1960, it encountered its most serious competitor; the AFL vied with the NFL for fans.
The original "bowl game" was the Rose Bowl Game in Pasadena, first played in 1902 as the "Tournament East-West football game" as part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses and moved to the new Rose Bowl Stadium in 1923. The stadium got its name from the fact that the game played there was part of the Tournament of Roses and that it was shaped like a bowl, much like the Yale Bowl in New Haven, Connecticut; the Tournament of Roses football game came to be known as the Rose Bowl Game. Exploiting the Rose Bowl Game's popularity, post-season college football contests were created for Miami, New Orleans, El Paso in 1935, for Dallas in 1937. By the time the first Super Bowl was played, the term "bowl" for any major American football game was well established. Lamar Hunt, owner of the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs, first used the term "Super Bowl" to refer to the NFL-AFL championship game in the merger meetings. Hunt said the name was in his head because his children had been playing with a Super Ball toy.
In a July 25, 1966, letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, Hunt wrote, "I have kiddingly called it the'Super Bowl,' which can be improved upon." The leagues' owners chose the name "AFL–NFL Championship Game", but in July 1966 the Kansas City Star quoted Hunt in discussing "the Super Bowl — that's my term for the championship game between the two leagues", the media began using the term. Although the league stated in 1967 that "not many people like it", asking for suggestions and considering alternatives such as "Merger Bowl" and "The Game", the Associated Press reported that "Super Bowl" "grew and grew and grew-until it reached the point that there was Super Week, Super Sunday, Super Teams, Super Players, ad infinitum". "Super Bowl" became official beginning with the third annual game. Roman numerals were first affixed for the fifth edition, in January 1971. After the NFL's Green Bay Packers won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger. At the time, many doubted the c
Jalen Anthony Rose is a former American professional basketball player, current sports analyst for ESPN, cofounder of the Jalen Rose Leadership Academy. In college, he was a member of the University of Michigan Wolverines' "Fab Five" that reached the 1992 and 1993 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship games as both freshmen and sophomores. Rose played in the National Basketball Association for six teams, most notably alongside Reggie Miller on the Indiana Pacers teams that made three consecutive Eastern Conference finals, including the 2000 NBA Finals. Rose was a small forward, he co-hosts Get Up!, a morning sports talk show on ESPN. Rose's mother named him from a combination of his father's name and his uncle's name, Leonard. Rose's biological father Jimmy Walker was a No. 1 overall draft pick in the NBA who started in the backcourt alongside Jerry West in the 1972 NBA All-Star Game. Although they spoke several times over the phone, Rose never met his father in person. Walker died in July 2007 of lung cancer.
As a star at Southwestern High School in Detroit, where he was teammates with future NBA players Voshon Lenard and Howard Eisley, Rose obtained a high profile and can be seen at a high school All-American camp in the documentary film Hoop Dreams. Rose attended the University of Michigan where the Wolverines reached two NCAA Finals games in 1992 and 1993, finishing as national runners up both times. Rose was a part of Wolverines coach Steve Fisher's legendary 1991 recruiting class, dubbed the "Fab Five" where he and his teammates revolutionized the sport of basketball on the court and off by wearing baggy uniform shorts, black socks and black shoes, he led the Fab Five in scoring his freshman year, averaging 19 points per game, set the school freshman scoring record with 597 total points. Aside from being the most outspoken of the Fab Five, Rose was their small forward and leader. While he did not win a NCAA title, he racked up over 1700 points, 400 rebounds, 400 assists, 100 steals. At 6-8 and playing as a versatile point guard, some reporters started comparing Rose to his schoolboy idol Magic Johnson.
Of the players called before the grand jury in the University of Michigan basketball scandal, Rose was the only one not listed as having received large amounts of money. Rose played for six different NBA teams, forging a solid pro career after skipping his senior season at Michigan, he was selected 13th overall by the Denver Nuggets in the 1994 NBA draft. After two years with Denver, he was traded to the Indiana Pacers, along with Reggie Williams and a future first round draft pick, for Mark Jackson, Ricky Pierce, a 1st round draft pick. Over the course of his 13-year NBA career, Rose earned more than $100,000,000 in salary compensation. Despite his successes in Indiana, he was not accepted early on. Rose logged DNPCDs under Coach Larry Brown. Rose often spoke out about the fact he was being used as a backup two-guard and small forward over his preference, point guard, it was not until Larry Bird took over coaching duties did Rose begin to blossom realizing he was most effective at small forward.
As a member of the Indiana Pacers, Rose helped the team get back on its feet after a disastrous 1996–97 season and make it to three consecutive Eastern Conference Finals appearances. Rose became the first player in eight years other than Reggie Miller to lead the Pacers in scoring in the 1999–2000 season when he averaged 18.2 points per game for the eventual Eastern Conference Champions, winning the NBA Most Improved Player Award in the process, the first time in Pacers history. After helping lead his team to the 2000 NBA Finals, Rose went on to average 25 points per game in the six game series, including a 32-point effort in a game five win. However, the Pacers lost the series to the Los Angeles Lakers. During the 2001–02 season, Rose was traded to the Chicago Bulls along with Travis Best, Norman Richardson, a future second round draft pick in exchange for Brad Miller, Ron Mercer, Ron Artest and Kevin Ollie. After 16 games in the 2003–04 season, Rose was traded to the Toronto Raptors, along with power forwards Donyell Marshall and Lonny Baxter.
On January 22, 2006 Rose was among the Raptors who had 81 points scored on them, as Kobe Bryant had the best game of his career while Rose tried to guard him. On February 3, 2006, midway through the 2005–06 season, he was traded, along with a first-round draft pick, an undisclosed sum of cash, to the New York Knicks for Antonio Davis, where he was reunited with Larry Brown, his coach for one year with the Indiana Pacers; the motivation behind this trade was to free up cap space and so the Raptors to acquire an experienced center who could relieve some of Chris Bosh's rebounding duties. Rose's final game and contribution for the Raptors was a home win against the Sacramento Kings, where he scored the winning basket in overtime. Rose's tenure with the Knicks was uneventful and prior to the start of the 2006–07 NBA season on October 30, 2006, the Knicks parted ways with Rose by waiving him, he was courted by several teams including Detroit Pistons and Miami Heat. On November 3, 2006, Rose announced.
On November 7, it was announced that Rose had signed a $1.5 million one-year deal with Phoenix. As a member of the Phoenix Suns, Rose played minimum minutes; the fast-paced Suns offense was too fast for the aging swingman and his knees
Scottsdale is a city in the eastern part of Maricopa County, United States, part of the Greater Phoenix Area. Named Scottsdale in 1894 after its founder Winfield Scott, a retired U. S. Army chaplain, the city was incorporated in 1951 with a population of 2,000; the 2015 population of the city was estimated to be 236,839 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the New York Times described downtown Scottsdale as "a desert version of Miami's South Beach" and as having "plenty of late night partying and a buzzing hotel scene." Its slogan is "The West's Most Western Town."Scottsdale, 31 miles long and 11.4 miles wide at its widest point, shares boundaries with many other municipalities and entities. On the west, Scottsdale is bordered by Phoenix, Paradise Valley and unincorporated Maricopa County land. Carefree is located along the western boundary, as well as sharing Scottsdale's northern boundary with the Tonto National Forest. To the south Scottsdale is bordered by Tempe; the southern boundary is occupied by the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, which extends along the eastern boundary, which borders Fountain Hills, the McDowell Mountain Regional Park and more unincorporated Maricopa County land.
The area which would include what would become Scottsdale was inhabited by the Hohokam, from 300 BC to 1450 AD. This ancient civilization farmed the area and developed a complex network of canals for irrigation, unsurpassed in pre-Columbian North America. At its peak, the canals stretched over 250 miles, many of which built remains extant today, some having been renovated and put back into use in the 20th century. Under still-mysterious circumstances, the Hohokam disappeared around 1450 or 1500, the most theory having to do with a prolonged drought; the area's occupants, the Pima and O'odham, are thought to be the direct descendants of the Hohokam people. Before European settlement, Scottsdale was a Pima village known as Vaṣai S-vaṣonĭ, meaning "rotting hay." Some Pima remained in their original homes well into the 20th century. For example, until the late 1960s, there was a still-occupied traditional dwelling on the southeast corner of Indian Bend Road and Hayden Road; those Pima who live within Scottsdale reside in newer homes rather than traditional dwellings.
Many Pima and Maricopa people continue to reside on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, which borders Scottsdale directly to the south and east. In the early to mid 1880s, U. S. Army Chaplain Winfield Scott visited the Salt River Valley and was impressed with the region and its potential for agriculture. Returning in 1888 with his wife, Helen, he purchased 640 acres for $3.50 an acre for a stretch of land where downtown Scottsdale is now located. Winfield and his brother, George Washington Scott, became the first residents of the town, known as Orangedale due to the large citrus groves planted by the Scott brothers. Many of the community's original settlers, recruited by Scott from the East and Midwest, were educated and had an appreciation for cultural activities; the town's name was changed to Scottsdale after its founder. In 1896, these settlers established the Scottsdale Public School system, opened the first schoolhouse, followed by the opening of the first general store by J. L. Davis, which housed the first post office for Scottsdale in 1897.
In the early 1900s the community supported an artists and writers culture, culminating in the opening of the region's first resort in 1909, the Ingleside Inn, located just south of the Arizona Canal and west of the Crosscut Canal in what is today Scottsdale. In 1909, Cavalliere's Blacksmith Shop opened in downtown Scottsdale, the original schoolhouse was replaced by the much more expansive Little Red Schoolhouse, which remains standing to this day. While not in its original building, Cavalliere's has been in continuance operation since that time. In 1912, both the Phoenix Street Railway Company and a competitor, the Salt River Valley Electric Railway Company, proposed building streetcar lines to Scottsdale but due to an economic downturn, neither was built. Between 1908 and 1933, due to the construction of the Granite Reef and Roosevelt dams, Scottsdale's population experienced a boom, growing during those years. Scottsdale became a small market town providing services for families involved in the agricultural industry.
During the First World War Scottsdale and its environs supported a large cotton farming industry, due to the creation of Long Staple Egyptian Cotton, developed by the US Department of Agriculture. Although cotton is still grown in southern Arizona, Scottsdale's cotton boom ended with the loss of government contracts at the end of the war. In 1920, a second resort was opened on 12 acres of the property owned by the artist Jessie Benton Evans. Called the Jokake Inn, meaning "mud house," the structure still stands on the grounds of the world-famous Phoenician Resort; the Depression years saw an influx of artists and architects to Scottsdale, which included, in 1937, the internationally renowned Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1937, Wright and his wife purchased 600 desert acres at the foot of the McDowell Mountains and established what is now known as Taliesin West, his winter home and his architectural firm's Southwestern headquarters. Scottsdale and the rest of Phoenix have seen an everlasting influence from Frank Lloyd Wright.
Many buildings throughout the region were designed by the famous architect. His significant influence on the regional architecture is commemorated through a major street which bears his name and a 125-foot spire memorial designed by Wright himself in North Scottsdale. Among the more
The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association. The Eastern and Western conference champions play a best-of-seven game series to determine the league champion; the winners of the Finals are awarded the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy, which replaced the Walter A. Brown Trophy in 1983; the series was known as the BAA Finals prior to the 1949–50 season when the Basketball Association of America merged with the National Basketball League to form the NBA. The competition oversaw further name changes to NBA World Championship Series from 1950 to 1985, as well as a brief stint as the Showdown, before settling on NBA Finals in 1986; the NBA Finals was structured to harbor a 2-2-1-1-1 format. In 1985, it was changed to a 2–3–2 format to ease the amount of cross country travel until 2013, where the first two and last two games of the series were played at the arena of the team who earned home-court advantage by having the better record during the regular season. In 2014, the 2–2–1–1–1 format was restored.
The first two are played at home for the higher-seeded team, the following two at the home of the lower-seeded team. The following three are played at each team's home arena alternately. A total of 18 franchises have won the NBA Finals, with the Golden State Warriors the current champion; the Boston Celtics hold the record for the most victories, having won the competition 17 times, as well as winning the competition the most times in a row, winning it eight times from 1959 to 1966. The Los Angeles Lakers have contested the NBA Finals the most times, with 31 appearances; the Eastern Conference has provided the most champions, with 38 wins from ten franchises. The Boston Celtics went 11–1 in the NBA Finals during 13 seasons, they won eight straight NBA championships from 1959 through 1966. This period marks the largest stretch of seasons that a single team made up over 65% of Finals appearances, includes the only time the NBA Finals was decided in double overtime. With the establishment of the Celtics dynasty in 1957 spearheaded by center Bill Russell, the team saw great success, only encountering difficulty when up against teams led by Wilt Chamberlain.
However, for most of the late 1950s and 1960s, the Celtics and Russell managed to have an upper hand on Chamberlain's teams. In 1964, who had moved to the state of California alongside his team, led the San Francisco Warriors to a Western Conference championship, but again failed to conquer the Celtics; the following season, he returned to the Eastern Conference to join the Philadelphia 76ers, who were the former Syracuse Nationals that had relocated to the city to cover the vacancy created with the departure of the Warriors. The first clash between the two stars in the playoffs was in 1966, with Boston winning the series 4–1. In the following season, Philadelphia coach Alex Hannum instructed Chamberlain to provide an increased focus on playing a team game, to avoid drawing the double-teams that troubled Chamberlain during the Finals; this tactical change brought the team to a new record of 68 wins the following season, as well as defeating the Celtics before winning the Finals. In 1968, Boston overcame a 3–1 deficit against Philadelphia to once again arrive in the Finals.
They went on to defeat the Los Angeles Lakers in the Finals to again become NBA Champions. In 1969, the Celtics faced great difficulty entering the postseason, as they had an aging team and multiple injuries to a number of players, they qualified for the playoffs as the fourth and final seed in the East, while the Lakers, who had added Chamberlain in the offseason to join stars Jerry West and Elgin Baylor. The Lakers won the West and were prohibitive favorites to become Champions for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles. Despite holding a 2-1 advantage going into Game 4, the Lakers led 87–86 and had the ball with 10 seconds to play, but after a turnover, Sam Jones scored tying the series. The series was tied 3-3 going into Game 7 in Los Angeles, with Lakers owner Jack Cooke hanging balloons in the arena in anticipation of a Lakers victory. West picked up injuries to his thigh and hamstring during the series, returned to play for the final game. Russell utilized this newly lacking mobility in West to organize fast breaks at every opportunity for the Celtics, which allowed them to gain an early lead.
They held off a furious Lakers comeback to win 108–106 and win the series, win their eleventh championship in 13 years. As many stars either declined or retired following this win, it is recognized as the last NBA Finals conducted by the Celtics dynasty; the 1970s saw. In 1970, a classic final featured the Knicks against the Lakers. In the waning moments of Game 3, with the series tied, Jerry West hit a basket from 60 feet to tie the game, a shot which became one of the most famous ever. However, the Knicks won in overtime and continued their momentum for a 4–3 win, becoming the first team after the Celtics dynasty to win an NBA championship; the Milwaukee Bucks won their first franchise title, defeating the Baltimore Bullets in 1971. Two seasons after losing in the Finals, the Lakers got a measure of revenge by winning 33 straight games, the longest such streak in NBA history. By season's end, they broke the record for most wins in a season with 69, one more than the 1966–67 Philadelphia 76ers, before taking home the championship for the first time since relocating to Los Angeles.
The Knicks returned to win the championship round again a season to record their second victorious season. Despite the rise of the Knicks, the
Super Bowl XLI
Super Bowl XLI was an American football game played between the American Football Conference champion Indianapolis Colts and the National Football Conference champion Chicago Bears to decide the National Football League champion for the 2006 season. The Colts defeated the Bears by the score of 29–17; the game was played on February 2007 at Dolphin Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. This game featured two teams ending long Super Bowl appearance droughts; the Colts, who finished with a 12–4 regular season record, were making their first Super Bowl appearance since winning Super Bowl V in the 1970 season during the team's tenure in Baltimore, they had moved to Indianapolis in 1984. Meanwhile, the Bears, who posted an NFC-best 13–3 regular season record, were making their first appearance since winning Super Bowl XX in the 1985 season. In addition, the Bears' Lovie Smith and the Colts' Tony Dungy both became the first African-American head coaches to coach in the Super Bowl, with Dungy the first to win.
In the first Super Bowl played in rainy conditions, the Colts overcame a 14–6 first-quarter deficit to outscore the Bears 23–3 in the last three quarters. Chicago posted the then-earliest lead in Super Bowl history when returner Devin Hester ran back the opening kickoff 92 yards for a touchdown after 14 seconds had elapsed; the Colts forced five turnovers, including cornerback Kelvin Hayden's 56-yard interception return for a touchdown. Indianapolis kicker Adam Vinatieri scored three field goals. Colts quarterback Peyton Manning was named the game's Most Valuable Player, completing 25 of 38 passes for 247 yards and a touchdown, with one interception for a passer rating of 81.8. CBS' broadcast of the game was watched by an estimated average of 93.2 million viewers, making it at the time the fifth most watched program in U. S. television history. The halftime show, headlined by the musician Prince, peaked at 140 million television viewers, was acclaimed by music critics. Dolphin Stadium won the bid to host Super Bowl XLI on September 17, 2003 after a campaign against Phoenix, New York City, Washington, D.
C.. With this game, the Miami Metropolitan Area tied New Orleans, Louisiana as the city to host the most Super Bowls; this was the fourth Super Bowl at Dolphin Stadium, known as "Joe Robbie Stadium" and "Pro Player Stadium". The venue hosted Super Bowls XXIII, XXIX, XXXIII. Super Bowls II, III, V, X, XIII were in Miami, but held at the Miami Orange Bowl; this was the first Super Bowl played at the stadium since the city of Miami Gardens where the stadium is located was incorporated on May 13, 2003. In February 2006, the NFL and the South Florida Super Bowl XLI Host Committee unveiled the slogan "one game, one dream" for the game, referring to the entire South Florida region working together to present the event; the Super Bowl XLI logo was unveiled, featuring the colors orange and blue. The "I" in the Roman numeral "XLI" was drawn to resemble a pylon placed at each corner of an end zone because "the goal is to get to the game." The logo had the same shade of orange as the logo of the Miami Dolphins.
The "XL" part was similar to that of Super Bowl XL's logo. The Colts' first trip to the Super Bowl in 36 years set a record for longest time between appearances by a team, their return was the culmination of a nine-year-long building process. In 1998, they drafted quarterback Peyton Manning to lead the team. Over the next four seasons, along with other stars such as receiver Marvin Harrison and running back Edgerrin James, turned the Colts into one of the best offensive teams in the NFL, but the team struggled to find consistency on defense and always ended up with either a losing season or elimination from the playoffs in the first round. In 2002, Indianapolis replaced him with Tony Dungy. Dungy had developed one of the best defenses in the NFL while coaching the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, it was hoped he could solve the Colts' defensive problems as well. Over the next four seasons, the Colts won 48 of 64 games, but still could not find much success in the postseason. In 2002, they were blown out 41–0 in the wild card round by the New York Jets.
In 2003, they won their first two playoff games behind impressive offensive performances, reached the AFC title game. There, they lost to the eventual champion New England Patriots 24–14, with Manning throwing four interceptions. In 2004, the Colts had one of the most spectacular offensive seasons in NFL history, scoring 522 points and gaining 6,582 yards, while Manning set NFL records for most touchdown passes and highest passer rating, but again the Patriots' defense proved too formidable, as they lost 20–3 in the divisional round of the playoffs. In 2005, the Colts' defense improved, making the team the clear favorites in the NFL, they won the first 13 games of the season and finished with a 14–2 record, while ranking second in the NFL in both points scored and fewest points allowed. But once again they lost in the divisional round of the playoffs, this time to the #6 seeded Pittsburgh Steelers, 21–18. After another disappointing loss, Manning had developed a reputation of being unable to make it to a championship, a reputation that followed him from college after he was unable to win an NCAA title with the Tennessee Volunteers.
The Colts lost some key players after the 2005 season, including James, who departed the Colts for the Arizona Cardinals, kicker Mike Vanderjagt, the NFL's all-time leader in field goal percentage, who
St. Ignatius College Prep
Saint Ignatius College Prep is a selective private, coeducational Jesuit high school located in the Near West Side neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois. The school was founded in Chicago in 1869 by Fr. Arnold Damen, S. J. A Belgian missionary to the United States; the school is coeducational, college preparatory, sponsored by the Society of Jesus. The school's main building was designed by the Canadian architect Toussaint Menard in the Second Empire architecture style, it is one of the five extant, public buildings in Chicago that predate the Great Fire of 1871. Its construction was begun in 1869, a fact commemorated on the school's façade; the main edifice is on the National Register of Historic Places and was designated a Chicago Landmark in March 1987. The 23 acre campus is located on Chicago's Near West Side, adjacent to the campus of the University of Illinois at Chicago. Features of the campus, besides the 1869 building, include the Richard H. Driehaus "1895" Building, the Chicago Walsh-Slattery Center, the James and Genevieve McLaughlin Center.
The latter features a 380-seat McLaughlin Theatre and "Bob Newhart" stage, with an interior modeled after still-extant, late 19th century Chicago theaters. The Grand Gallery on the fourth floor of the 1869 building features a marble plaque commemorating Saint Ignatius alumni who fought in the American wars; the richly paneled Brunswick Room a natural history museum, holds a notable archive of the school's and city's history. Saint Ignatius' curriculum includes literature, math, computer science and music, religion. Tuition for the 2017-2018 school year is $18,500. Saint Ignatius students received over $2.5 million in need-based grants for 2009–2010. Students who receive financial aid receive an average of $8,000; these are funded through the school's fund-raising efforts and from its endowment's interest, but by independent charities that offer special funding for minority students. Over 25% of enrolled students receive some financial aid; the remaining, actual cost to operate the school is funded from its development initiatives and endowment, including donations and grants from alumni and friends, along with foundations and businesses.
In 1837, the Dutch Jesuit Fr. Arnold Damen, S. J. was recruited to work with Native Americans in the Dakotas by Fr. Peter De Smet, S. J. In 1844 he was ordained a priest in Missouri. In 1857, Damen was first assigned to Chicago to start a parish for Irish immigrants on Chicago's near-West Side an area of sprawling prairie. Construction of Holy Family Church was completed in 1860. During the 1860s, Fr. Damen, with the help of Jesuits in his community, developed five elementary schools for the children of his parish, now grown to about 25,000 people, it became clear. And so Fr. Damen undertook to begin a college program for young men. At the same time the Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary began a secondary school for young women about five blocks away. Supported by loans and many small gifts, construction of the main building of Saint Ignatius commenced in 1869, with designs by the Canadian architect Toussaint Menard. On June 30, 1870, the Illinois General Assembly approved the Charter of Saint Ignatius College, in September 1870 Saint Ignatius opened its doors to thirty-seven young men who had completed the eighth grade, the extent of formal education offered in the area at the time.
The College was to offer a six-year program, four years of it in the "Academy" and two more, as was the custom in what is today called "collegiate studies." Saint Ignatius was one of the first colleges in the Chicago area, predating the University of Chicago by 20 years and graduating its first class little more than a decade after Northwestern University did so. Students were instructed in Latin, the elementary sciences, writing and rhetoric – the components of a traditional "college" education of the era. In October 1871, disaster struck Chicago in the form of the Great Chicago Fire, but Damen's church and college were some of the buildings spared from the inferno, the worst of the fire blown northeast. Fr. Damen was away at the time and, on hearing of the great fire, promised to keep a candle lit on the altar of the Blessed Virgin in the Church, in perpetuum, if the church was spared, it was and those candles, now electrified, still burn in Holy Family Church. While Saint Ignatius continued to grow through the 1870s and 1880s, these were difficult years.
Many of the original families had moved "up and out" of the neighborhood and, just a few blocks southeast and Russian Jewish families, new immigrants fleeing the pogroms in their countries, settled in the Maxwell Street area. Just to the north of the school, in the Taylor Street area and Italian families, fleeing the poverty and contention in their own countries, renewed the cycle of poverty in the area and increased the neighborhood's "foreignness." There was the concern that Catholic families, having moved to other areas, would not send their boys to the school. And so a tentative outreach to the north, to the southwest corner of North Avenue and Ashland, was launched. Called St. Aloysius College, it had only a two-year life in a rented house, but since the Saint Ignatius neighborhood was becoming "tougher," so it was thought, there were still concerns about enrollment. In these days, there were about 250 young men in the six-year program. Still, by 1894, the college's enrollment had expanded suffi
Christian Adolph Jurgensen III, known better as Sonny Jurgensen, is a former American football quarterback in the National Football League for the Philadelphia Eagles and Washington Redskins. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1983. Jurgensen was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, he became worked up in sports as early as elementary school, when he led his school to the city grammar school titles in baseball and basketball. He captured the boys tennis championship of Wilmington and pitched for his local Civitan club, who won the city baseball title. Jurgensen played high school football at New Hanover High School, he played a number of positions for the team and as a junior was a backup quarterback on the state championship team. After a senior year where he scored three touchdowns and kicked nine extra points, he was chosen to start at quarterback for the North Carolina team in the annual North Carolina vs. South Carolina Shrine Bowl in Charlotte, North Carolina. Jurgensen played basketball and baseball during high school.
As a senior on the basketball team, he averaged twelve points per game as a guard and the team was the state title runner-up. That same year in baseball, he batted.339 and played as a pitcher and catcher. He became a switch-hitter. Jurgensen played college football at Duke University, he joined the varsity team in 1954 as a backup quarterback behind Jerry Barger and he completed 12 of 28 passes for 212 yards, with one touchdown and three interceptions. But Jurgensen made the biggest impact that season as a defensive back, when he tied a team record with interceptions in four consecutive games, and ended the season with five interceptions. Duke finished the campaign with a 7–2–1 regular season record and an Atlantic Coast Conference title. On New Year's Day, Duke beat the Nebraska Cornhuskers 34–7 in the 1955 Orange Bowl. Jurgensen took over as starting quarterback in 1955, he retained a starting position in the defensive secondary. Duke ended the season with a 7–2–1 record along with an ACC co-championship, but did not go to a bowl because Maryland received the league's automatic bid to the Orange Bowl.
That season Jurgensen completed 37 of 69 passes for 536 yards, three touchdowns and seven interceptions. He scored two touchdowns, he punted four times for a 33.7 average and intercepted four passes for 17 yards. Jurgensen's senior season in 1956 did not start well, when Duke lost to South Carolina, 7–0, in the season opener; this game marked Duke's first ACC loss. Duke finished the season with a 5–4–1 mark and Jurgensen ended up 28–59 for 371 yards, he threw six interceptions and two touchdown passes and rushed 25 times for 51 yards with three touchdowns. Jurgensen's final career stats included 77–156 passes for 1,119 yards, 16 career interceptions and six touchdowns, he rushed for 109 yards and intercepted 10 passes. Jurgensen played baseball at Duke, but turned down an invitation to try out for the basketball team. Before being drafted by the NFL, Jurgensen worked as a Sunday school bus driver in Herndon, Virginia. Jurgensen was drafted in the fourth round of the 1957 NFL Draft by the Philadelphia Eagles.
He was Philadelphia's backup quarterback, behind Bobby Thomason in 1957 and Norm Van Brocklin, from 1958 through 1960. It was during this time as a backup that Jurgensen was a part of a championship team for the only time in his professional career, when the Eagles won the 1960 NFL Championship. After Van Brocklin retired in 1961, Jurgensen took over as Philadelphia's starter and had a successful year, passing for an NFL record 3,723 yards, tying the NFL record with 32 touchdown passes, was named All-Pro. Following an injury-plagued 1963 season, Jurgensen was traded to the Washington Redskins on April 1, 1964, in exchange for quarterback Norm Snead and cornerback Claude Crabb. Jurgensen took over play-calling for the Redskins during the 1964 season, he was selected to play in the Pro Bowl following the season and was named second Team All-Pro. One of Jurgensen's most memorable games was during the 1965 season, when the Cowboys took a 21–0 lead at DC Stadium. Jurgensen threw for 411 yards, leading the team back to win 34–31.
He rushed for a touchdown on a quarterback sneak and threw a game-winning 35-yard pass to Bobby Mitchell. In 1967, Jurgensen broke his own record by passing for 3,747 yards and set NFL single-season records for attempts and completions, he missed much of the 1968 season because of elbow surgery. He did, tie an NFL record early in the 1968 season for the longest pass play in NFL history; the 99-yard pass play to Jerry Allen occurred September 15, 1968 during the Redskins' game against the Chicago Bears. Coincidentally, Redskins' quarterbacks had three of the first four occurrences of a 99-yard pass play. Since Jurgensen's feat, no other Redskins' quarterback has completed a 99-yard pass. In 1969, Vince Lombardi took over as the Redskins' head coach; that season, Jurgensen led the NFL in attempts, completion percentage, passing yards. The Redskins went 7–5–2 and had their best season since 1955. Sadly, Lombardi died of cancer shortly before the start of the 1970 season. Jurgensen would say that, of the nine head coaches he played for during his NFL career, Lombardi was his favorite.
The Redskins enjoyed a resurgence in the early 1970s under coach George Allen and made it as far as Super Bowl VII, losing to the Mia