Royal National Theatre
The Royal National Theatre in London known as the National Theatre, is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House. Internationally, it is known as the National Theatre of Great Britain. From its foundation in 1963 until 1976, the company was based at The Old Vic theatre in Waterloo; the current building is located next to the Thames in the South Bank area of central London. In addition to performances at the National Theatre building, the National Theatre tours productions at theatres across the United Kingdom. Permission to add the "Royal" prefix to the name of the theatre was given in 1988, but the full title is used; the theatre presents a varied programme, including Shakespeare, other international classic drama, new plays by contemporary playwrights. Each auditorium in the theatre can run up to three shows in repertoire, thus further widening the number of plays which can be put on during any one season.
In June 2009, the theatre began National Theatre Live, a programme of simulcasts of live productions to cinemas, first in the United Kingdom and internationally. The programme began with a production of Phèdre, starring Helen Mirren, screened live in 70 cinemas across the UK. NT Live productions have since been broadcast to over 2,500 venues in 60 countries around the world; the NT had an annual turnover of £105 million in 2015–16, of which earned income made up 75%. Support from Arts Council England provided 17% of income, 1% from Learning and Participation activity, the remaining 9% came from a mixture of companies, individuals and foundations. In 1847, a critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus published a pamphlet describing the parlous state of British theatre. Production of serious plays was restricted to the patent theatres, new plays were subjected to censorship by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. At the same time, there was a burgeoning theatre sector featuring a diet of low melodrama and musical burlesque.
There was a demand to commemorate serious theatre, with the "Shakespeare Committee" purchasing the playwright's birthplace for the nation demonstrating a recognition of the importance of'serious drama'. The following year saw more pamphlets on a demand for a National Theatre from London publisher Effingham William Wilson; the situation continued, with a renewed call every decade for a National Theatre. Attention was aroused in 1879 when the Comédie-Française took a residency at the Gaiety Theatre, described in The Times as representing "the highest aristocracy of the theatre"; the principal demands now coalesced around: a structure in the capital that would present "exemplary theatre". The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre was opened in Stratford upon Avon on 23 April 1879, with the New Shakespeare Company; this still left the capital without a national theatre. A London Shakespeare League was founded in 1902 to develop a Shakespeare National Theatre and – with the impending tri-centenary in 1916 of his death – in 1913 purchased land for a theatre in Bloomsbury.
This work was interrupted by World War I. In 1910, George Bernard Shaw wrote a short comedy, The Dark Lady of the Sonnets, in which Shakespeare himself attempts to persuade Elizabeth I of the necessity of building a National Theatre to stage his plays; the play was part of the long-term campaign to build a National Theatre. In 1948, the London County Council presented a site close to the Royal Festival Hall for the purpose, a "National Theatre Act", offering financial support, was passed by Parliament in 1949. Ten years after the foundation stone had been laid in 1951, the Government declared that the nation could not afford a National Theatre. Still, the Government tried to apply unacceptable conditions to save money. Following some initial inspirational steps taken with the opening of the Chichester Festival Theatre in Chichester June 1962, the developments in London proceeded. In July 1962, with agreements reached, a board was set up to supervise construction, a separate board was constituted to run a National Theatre Company and lease the Old Vic theatre.
The "National Theatre Company" opened on 22 October 1963 with Hamlet. The current building was designed by architects Sir Denys Lasdun and Peter Softley and structural engineers Flint & Neill and contains three stages, which opened individually between 1976 and 1977; the construction work was carried out by Sir Robert McAlpine. The Company remained at the Old Vic until 1977; the National Theatre building houses three separate theatres. Additionally, a temporary structure was added in April 2013 and closed in May 2016. Named after the theatre's first artistic director, Laurence Olivier, this is the main auditorium, modelled on the ancient Greek theatre at Epidaurus. A'drum revolve' is operated by a single staff member; the drum has two rim revolves and two platforms, each
Hurstpierpoint College is an independent, co-educational and boarding school for pupils aged 4–18, located just to the north of the village of Hurstpierpoint, West Sussex. The College was founded in 1849 by Canon Nathaniel Woodard and is a member of the Woodard Corporation; the school was established in 1849 as St John's Middle School, based in Shoreham. Its first headmaster, Edward Clarke Lowe, had worked with Woodard at Lancing College and stayed at Hurstpierpoint for 22 years until 1872; the school moved to Mansion House in Hurstpierpoint and thanks to the local benefactors the Campion family, on 21 June 1853 made its final move to its present site. Intended to resemble the collegiate system at Oxford and Cambridge, Nathaniel Woodard designed the College to have adjoining Inner and Outer quads and the chapel and dining hall adjacent to each other; the school was most inspected by the Independent Schools Inspectorate in early 2011. The senior school comprises 13 houses including the added Wolf house and whilst retaining affiliation to their former houses, all students in their last year join the 13th house, the co-educational day and boarding'hall of residence', St John's House.
The school still preserves ceremonies, which for the most part were taken from other schools such as Winchester College, in order to give the school a feeling of tradition back in its early Victorian days. "Hurst" has traditionally performed a Shakespeare play every year since 1854, beginning with Richard III after the first headmaster, Dr Lowe inspired the first players onto stage. This means that Hurstpierpoint College boasts the oldest Shakespeare society in existence, older than that of the Royal Shakespeare Company, not formed until 1875; the Hurst Johnian, the school magazine, founded in May 1858 is the vital source for the School's history. Its policy has been to maintain the annals of the school, it continues to publish current reports and articles on the past. Evidence from the national archives suggests. Sabine Baring-Gould: Novelist and composer of hymns, the most notable being "Onward, Christian Soldiers", he was a Master of the College from 1855 to 1864. Baring-Gould had an eccentric reputation, archives tell how he would teach with a bat on his shoulder and took weird holidays, bringing home a pony from Iceland, which lived for years in the North Field.
Whilst the Hymn is thought to have been written in Yorkshire in 1865, a story recounts how Baring-Gould on one occasion gave a pupil of the College thirty-six cuts, washed his hands and sat down and wrote "Onward Christian Soldiers." A talented artist, he made and painted the coat of arms of the Prince of Wales, which for many years appeared in the proscenium. Baring-Gould designed the cover of the Johnian, designed the bookshelves and cases with their wrought iron red and gold, in the Boys' Library, he painted the window jambs with scenes from the "Canterbury Tales" and the "Faery Queen", did work for the Fellows' Library. In 1860 he was one of the "Hurst Rifle Volunteers," who used to drill at the New Inn, which lead Hurst to be one of the founding Combined Cadet Forces schools. Thomas Fielden: He was a famous Director of Music at Hurst and Fettes, as well as a noted pianist, Professor of Pianoforte at the Royal College of Music for over 30 years. Percy Henn: Noted clergyman and teacher in England and Western Australia.
David Whitmarsh: Academic at the University of Portsmouth. Past students of Hurstpierpoint College are referred to as'Old Johnians'. Edward Clarke Lowe William Awdry Charles Cooper Arthur Coombes Henry Bernard Tower Walter Dingwall Ronald Howard Roger Griffiths Simon Watson Stephen Meek Tim Manly The school lent its name to the nineteenth steam locomotive in the Southern Railway's Class V of which there were 40; this Class was known as the Schools Class because all 40 of the class were named after prominent English Public Schools.'Hurstpierpoint', as it was called, was built in 1934 and was withdrawn in 1961. Its nameplate is now housed in the School's Science Block. Hurstpierpoint College website schoolsguidebook ISI Inspection Reports - Prep School & Senior School Alumni Website www. TheOJClub.com
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is a historic county in South East England corresponding in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the English Channel, divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove was granted City status in 2000; until Chichester was Sussex's only city. Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond, the well-wooded Sussex Weald; the name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, founded, according to legend, by Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was absorbed subsequently into the kingdom of England, it was the home of some of Europe's earliest recorded hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove.
It is the site of the Battle of Hastings. In 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as cultural region, it has had a single police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media. In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate history. Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets, the flag of Sussex was recognised by the Flag Institute in 2011. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex; the name "Sussex" is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means of the South Saxons. The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries; the earliest known usage of the term South Saxons is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm, although the term may well have been in use for some time before that.
The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong. The New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map. Three United States counties, a former county/land division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex; the flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic swallows, on a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or. Recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex; the first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons. However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier association between the emblem and the county, rather than being the inventor of the association, it is now regarded that the county emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th-century Knight of the Shire, Sir John de Radynden.
Sussex’s six martlets are today held to symbolise the traditional six sub-divisions of the county known as rapes. Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex. Adopted by the Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I, it is sung at celebrations across the county, including those at Lewes Bonfire, at sports matches, including those of Brighton and Hove Albion Football Club and Sussex County Cricket Club; the county day, called Sussex Day, is celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint, whose shrine at Chichester Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv, is a Sussex dialect expression meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex men and women; the round-headed rampion known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county flower in 2002. The physical geography of Sussex relies on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticline, the major features of which are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself and the South Downs.
Natural England has identified the following seven national character areas in Sussex:South Coast Plain South Downs Wealden Greensand Low Weald High Weald Pevensey Levels Romney MarshesAt 280m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top. Ditchling Beacon is the highest point in East Sussex. At 113 kilometres long, the River Medway is the longest river flowing through Sussex; the longest river in Sussex is the River Arun, 60 kilometres long. Sussex's largest lakes are man-made reservoirs; the largest is Bewl Water on the Kent border, while the largest wholly within Sussex is Ardingly Reservoir. The coastal resorts of Sussex and neighbouring Hampshire are the sunniest places in the United Kingdom; the coast has more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea, tend to clear any cloud from the coast. Most of Sussex lies in Hardiness zon
University College, Oxford
University College, is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It has a claim to being the oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1249 by William of Durham; as of 2018, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £132.7m. The college is associated with a number of influential people. Notable alumni include Clement Attlee, Harold Wilson, Bill Clinton, Neil Gorsuch, Stephen Hawking, C. S. Lewis, V. S. Naipaul and Percy Bysshe Shelley. A legend arose in the 14th century that the college was founded by King Alfred in 872; this explains why the college arms are those attributed to King Alfred, why the Visitor is always the reigning monarch, why the college celebrated its millennium in 1872. Most agree, he bequeathed money to support ten or twelve masters of arts studying divinity, a property which became known as Aula Universitatis was bought in 1253. This date still allows the claim that Univ is the oldest of the Oxford colleges, although this is contested by Balliol College and Merton College.
Univ was only open to fellows studying theology until the 16th century. The college acquired four properties on its current site south of the High Street in 1332 and 1336 and built a quadrangle in the 15th century; as it grew in size and wealth, its medieval buildings were replaced with the current Main Quadrangle in the 17th century. Although the foundation stone was placed on 17 April 1634, the disruption of the English Civil War meant it was not completed until sometime in 1676. Radcliffe Quad followed more by 1719, the library was built in 1861. Like many of Oxford's colleges, University College accepted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, having been an institution for men only; the main entrance to the college is on the High Street and its grounds are bounded by Merton Street and Magpie Lane. The college is divided by Logic Lane, owned by the college and runs through the centre; the western side of the college is occupied by the library, the hall, the chapel and the two quadrangles which house both student accommodation and college offices.
The eastern side of the college is devoted to student accommodation in rooms above the High Street shops, on Merton Street or in the separate Goodhart Building. This building is named after former master of the college Arthur Lehman Goodhart. A specially constructed building in the college, the Shelley Memorial, houses a statue by Edward Onslow Ford of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley — a former member of the college, sent down for writing The Necessity of Atheism, along with his friend T. J. Hogg. Shelley is depicted lying dead on the Italian seashore; the college annexe on Staverton Road in North Oxford houses students after their second year. The college owns the University College Boathouse and a sports ground, located nearby on Abingdon Road; the Alternative Prospectus is produced by current students for prospective applicants. The publication was awarded a HELOA Innovation and Best Practice Award in 2011; the Univ Alternative Prospectus offers student written advice and guidance to potential Oxford applicants.
The award recognises the engagement of the college community, unique newspaper format, forward-thinking use of social media and the collaborative working between staff and students. University has the longest grace of any Oxford college, it is read before every Formal Hall, held Tuesday and Sunday at Univ. The reading is performed by a Scholar of the college and whoever is sitting at the head of High Table; the Scholar does not need to know it by heart, it is unusual for people to do so. Gratiarum actio in collegio magnae aulae universitatis quotidie ante mensam dicenda. SCHOLAR — Benedictus sit Deus in donis suis. RESPONSE — Et sanctus in omnibus operibus suis. SCHOLAR — Adiutorium nostrum in Nomine Domini. RESPONSE — Qui fecit coelum et terram. SCHOLAR — Sit Nomen Domini benedictum. RESPONSE — Ab hoc tempore usque in saecula. SCHOLAR — Domine Deus, Resurrectio et Vita credentium, Qui semper es laudandus tam in viventibus quam in defunctis, gratias Tibi agimus pro omnibus Fundatoribus caeterisque Benefactoribus nostris, quorum beneficiis hic ad pietatem et ad studia literarum alimur: Te rogantes ut nos, hisce Tuis donis ad Tuam gloriam recte utentes, una cum iis ad vitam immortalem perducamur.
Per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. SCHOLAR — Deus det vivis gratiam, defunctis requiem: Ecclesiae, Regnoque nostro, pacem et concordiam: et nobis peccatoribus vitam aeternam. Amen; the Grace that must be said every day before dinner in University College. SCHOLAR — Blessed be God in his gifts. RESPONSE — And holy in all his works. SCHOLAR — Our help is in the name of the Lord. RESPONSE — Who has made heaven and earth. SCHOLAR — May the name of the Lord be blessed. RESPONSE — From this time and for evermore. SCHOLAR — Lord God, the Resurrection and Life of those who believe, You are always to be praised as much among the living as among the departed. We give You thanks for all our founders and our other benefactors, by whose benefactions we are nourished here for piety and for the study of letters, and we ask you that we, rightly using these Your gifts to Your glory, may be brought with them to immortal life. Through Jesus Christ our Lord, Amen. SCHOLAR — May God give grace to the living, rest to the departed.
Amen.. Many influential politicians are associ
Richard "Rick" McCallum is a German-born American film producer. He is known for his work on The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles as well as the Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition and prequel trilogy, he is best known for his frequent collaborations with American producer George Lucas, though he was a long-time producer for British television playwright Dennis Potter. McCallum's career as producer began with Pennies from Heaven, the film version of the 1978 BBC TV drama, for director Herbert Ross and writer Dennis Potter. After the commercial failure of the film, Potter invited McCallum to go to work in England. During the 1980s, McCallum's work with Potter included producing the films Dreamchild, an unusual exploration by Potter of the creation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, nominated for two BAFTA awards, Track 29 directed by Nicolas Roeg. During the 1980s, McCallum produced movies with filmmakers including David Hare. McCallum produced the music video for the Rolling Stones' "Undercover of the Night", directed by Julien Temple.
It was on the set of Dreamchild. Several years after their first meeting, Lucas was preparing his first weekly live-action television program, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, turned to McCallum to produce the ambitious series, to be shot in 35 countries. With a unique perspective on the eventful early life of Indiana Jones – including its cinematic qualities, an emphasis on storytelling and characters, an enticing promise of new adventures each week – McCallum attracted a stellar list of writers and actors to the creative ranks of the series. Among the directors with whom McCallum worked on the series were Bille August, Nicolas Roeg, David Hare, Mike Newell, Deepa Mehta, Terry Jones, Simon Wincer, Carl Schultz. During its run, the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences honored Young Indiana Jones with 12 Emmy Awards from 27 nominations; the series debuted on DVD in 2007, McCallum served as executive producer on a series of 94 acclaimed documentaries that accompany the episodes and illuminate the real-life history behind their stories.
When Young Indiana Jones ended, McCallum produced Radioland Murders, for which Lucas served as executive producer. During its production, Lucas confided to McCallum the plans for three new Star Wars movies. To test the nascent digital technology just becoming available, McCallum produced revised versions of Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi – released in 1997 as the Special Editions. Assembling the teams that worked both in front of and behind the cameras, McCallum produced the next three films, which Lucas wrote and directed: Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith; the Star Wars prequels ushered in a new era of digital filmmaking, McCallum played a leading role in its development. He oversaw a team of creative and technical professionals that developed and created the industry's first all-digital production pipeline. McCallum was one of the producers of Red Tails, an action-adventure movie on which Lucas was executive producer, that pays tribute to the spirit of World War II's Tuskegee Airmen.
The movie was released nationally in the U. S. on January 20, 2012. Following Lucasfilm's announced acquisition by The Walt Disney Company, on October 31, 2012 ForceCast.net podcast Lucasfilm's Steve Sansweet stated that "Rick has retired from Lucasfilm". There have been no reports as to how this will affect plans for a live-action TV series set in the Star Wars galaxy, with which McCallum was involved. After leaving Lucasfilm, McCallum settled in Prague in the Czech Republic, his Prague-based company, United Films, develops film projects and provides production services for Czech and European feature films. Films that McCallum is developing include R'ha, a science fiction feature film based on an earlier short film, to be directed by Kaleb Lechowski and written by Matthew Graham. McCallum's mother, photographer Pat York is married to actor Michael York, his father, Roy Alwood McCallum, was a US military pilot. McCallum's daughter, Olivia'Mousy' McCallum works in the film industry. Rick McCallum on IMDb Interview in Czech television 2013 March 23
Gian Franco Corsi Zeffirelli, best known as Franco Zeffirelli, is an Italian director and producer of operas and television. He is a former senator for the Italian centre-right Forza Italia party; some of his operatic designs and productions have become worldwide classics. He is known for several of the movies he has directed the 1968 version of Romeo and Juliet, for which he received an Academy Award nomination, his 1967 version of The Taming of the Shrew with Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton remains the best-known film adaptation of that play as well. His miniseries Jesus of Nazareth won acclaim and is still shown on Christmas and Easter in many countries. A Grande Ufficiale OMRI of the Italian Republic since 1977, Zeffirelli received an honorary knighthood from the British government in 2004 when he was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, he was awarded the Premio Colosseo in 2009 by the city of Rome. Zeffirelli was born Gian Franco Corsi Zeffirelli in the outskirts of Italy.
He was the result of an affair between Alaide Garosi, a fashion designer and Ottorino Corsi, a wool and silk dealer. Since both were married, Alaide was unable to use Corsi's for her child, she came up with "Zeffiretti" which are the "little breezes" mentioned in Mozart's opera Idomeneo, of which she was quite fond. However, it became Zeffirelli; when he was six years old, his mother died and he subsequently grew up under the auspices of the English expatriate community and was involved with the so-called Scorpioni, who inspired his semi-autobiographical film Tea with Mussolini. Italian researchers have found that Zeffirelli is one of a handful of living people traceably consanguineous with Leonardo da Vinci. Zeffirelli is a descendent of one of da Vinci's siblings. Zeffirelli graduated from the Accademia di Belle Arti Firenze in 1941 and, following his father's advice, entered the University of Florence to study art and architecture. After World War II broke out, he fought as a partisan, before he met up with British soldiers of the 1st Scots Guards and became their interpreter.
After the war, he re-entered the University of Florence to continue his studies, but when he saw Laurence Olivier's Henry V in 1945, he directed his attention toward theatre instead. While working for a scenic painter in Florence, he was introduced to and hired by Luchino Visconti, who made him assistant director for the film La Terra trema, released in 1948. Visconti's methods had a deep impact upon Zeffirelli's work, he worked with directors such as Vittorio De Sica and Roberto Rossellini. In the 1960s, he made his name designing and directing his own plays in London and New York and soon transferred his ideas to cinema. Zeffirelli's first film as director was a version of The Taming of the Shrew intended for Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni but including the Hollywood stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton instead. Taylor and Burton helped fund production and took a percentage of the profits rather than their normal salaries. While editing The Taming of the Shrew, Zeffirelli's native Florence was devastated by floods.
A month Zeffirelli released a short documentary, Florence: Days of Destruction, to raise funds for the disaster appeal. Zeffirelli's major breakthrough came the year after when he presented two teenagers as Romeo and Juliet; the movie is still immensely popular and was for many years the standard adaptation of the play shown to students. This movie made Zeffirelli a household name - no other subsequent work by him had the immediate impact of Romeo and Juliet; the film earned $14.5 million in domestic rentals at the North American box office during 1969. It earned $1.7 million in rentals. Film critic Roger Ebert, for the Chicago Sun-Times has written: "I believe Franco Zeffirelli's Romeo and Juliet is the most exciting film of Shakespeare made". After two successful film adaptations of Shakespeare, Zeffirelli went on to religious themes, first with a film about the life of St. Francis of Assisi titled Brother Sun, Sister Moon his extended mini-series Jesus of Nazareth with an all-star cast; the latter was a major success in the ratings and has been shown on television in the years since.
He moved on to contemporary themes with a remake of the boxing picture The Champ and the critically panned Endless Love. In the 1980s, he made a series of successful films adapting opera to the screen, with such stars as Plácido Domingo, Teresa Stratas, Juan Pons and Katia Ricciarelli, he returned to Shakespeare with Hamlet. His 1996 adaptation of the Charlotte Brontë novel Jane Eyre was a critical success. Zeffirelli cast unknown actors in major roles. Leonard Whiting, Graham Faulkner and Martin Hewitt all left the film business; the female leads in those films have attained far greater success in the industry. Zeffirelli has been a major director of opera productions since the 1950s in Italy and elsewhere in Europe as well as the United States, he began his career in the theatre as assistant to Luchino Visconti. He tried his hand at scenography, his first work as a director was buffo operas by Rossini. He became a friend of Maria Callas and they worked together on a La Traviata in Dallas, Texas, in 1958.
Of particular note is his 1964 Royal Opera House production of Tosca wi
The Three Musketeers (1973 live-action film)
The Three Musketeers is a 1973 film based on The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas. It was written by George MacDonald Fraser, it was proposed in the 1960s as a vehicle for The Beatles, whom Lester had directed in two other films. The film adheres to the novel, injects a fair amount of humor, it was shot with an eye for period detail. The fight scenes were choreographed by master swordsman William Hobbs. Having learned swordsmanship from his father, the young country bumpkin d'Artagnan arrives in Paris with dreams of becoming a king's musketeer. Unaccustomed to the city life, he makes a number of clumsy faux pas. First he finds himself insulted, knocked out and robbed by the Comte de Rochefort, an agent of Cardinal Richelieu, once in Paris comes into conflict with three musketeers, Athos and Aramis, each of whom challenges him to a duel for some accidental insult or embarrassment; as the first of these duels is about to begin, Jussac arrives with five additional swordsmen of Cardinal Richelieu's guards.
D'Artagnan sides with the musketeers in the ensuing street fight and becomes their ally in opposition to the Cardinal, who wishes to increase his considerable power over the king, Louis XIII. D'Artagnan begins an affair with his landlord's wife, Constance Bonacieux, dressmaker to the Queen, Anne of Austria. Meanwhile, the Duke of Buckingham, former lover of the Queen, turns up and asks for something in remembrance of her. From the Queen's treacherous lady-in-waiting, the Cardinal learns of the rendezvous and suggests to the none-too-bright King to throw a ball in his wife's honor, request she wear the diamonds he gave her; the Cardinal sends his agent Milady de Winter to England, who seduces the Duke and steals two of the necklace's diamonds. Meanwhile, the Queen has confided her troubles in Constance, who asks d'Artagnan to ride to England and get back the diamonds. D'Artagnan and the three musketeers set out. Only d'Artagnan and his servant make it through to Buckingham, where they discover the loss of two of the diamond settings.
The Duke replaces the two settings, d'Artagnan races back to Paris. Porthos and Aramis, wounded but not dead as d'Artagnan had feared, aid the delivery of the complete necklace to the Queen, saving the royal couple from the embarrassment which the Cardinal had plotted. Captain Tréville inducts d'Artagnan into the Musketeers of the King's Guard. Michael York as d'Artagnan Oliver Reed as Athos Frank Finlay as Porthos / O'Reilly Richard Chamberlain as Aramis Jean-Pierre Cassel as King Louis XIII of France Geraldine Chaplin as Anne of Austria Charlton Heston as Cardinal Richelieu Faye Dunaway as Milady de Winter Christopher Lee as the Count De Rochefort Simon Ward as the Duke of Buckingham Raquel Welch as Constance Bonacieux Spike Milligan as M. Bonacieux Roy Kinnear as Planchet Nicole Calfan as Kitty According to George MacDonald Fraser, Richard Lester became involved with the project when the producers considered casting The Beatles as the Musketeers, as Lester had directed two films with the group.
The Beatles idea fell by the wayside but Lester stayed. In late 1972 he hired Fraser to write the scripts, saying he wanted to make a four-hour film and cast Richard Chamberlain as Aramis, it was decided to turn the script into two films. The movie was met with positive reviews. Vincent Canby of The New York Times had this to say about the film: "Mr. Lester seems exclusively concerned with action, preferably comic, one gets the impression after a while that he and his fencing masters labored too long in choreographing the elaborate duels. They're interesting to watch, though they are without a great deal of spontaneity." Raquel Welch won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for her performance. The film was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture -- Comedy. George MacDonald Fraser won the Writers' Guild of Great Britain Award for Best British Comedy Screenplay; the film was intended to be an epic which ran for three hours including an intermission, but during production, it was determined the film could not make its announced release date in that form, so a decision was made to split the long epic into two shorter features, the second part becoming 1974's The Four Musketeers.
According to Ben Mankiewicz on a May 14, 2016 showing of the film on TCM, during an advance screening, attended by the cast, after the movie ended a trailer for The Four Musketeers was shown, which none of the cast had heard anything about until then. This incensed the actors and crew, since they were being paid for one film, their original contracts made no mention of a second feature, resulting in lawsuits being filed to receive compensation for salaries associated with the sequel; this led to the Screen Actor's Guild requiring all future actors' contracts to include what has become known as the "Salkind clause", which stipulates how many films are being made. The Four Musketeers was released the following year, with footage intended to combine with this film's to be part of a much longer film. In 1989, much of the cast and crew of the original returned to film The Return of the Musketeers, loosely based on Dumas' 1845 novel Twenty Years After; the Three Musketeers on IMDb The Three Musketeers at Rotten Tomatoes The Three Musketeers at AllMovie