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Michigan Stadium

Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House", is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the largest stadium in the United States, the third largest stadium in the world and the 34th largest sports venue, its official capacity is 107,601, but it has hosted crowds in excess of 115,000. Michigan Stadium was built in 1927 at a cost of $950,000 and had an original capacity of 72,000. Prior to the stadium's construction, the Wolverines played football at Ferry Field; every home game since November 8, 1975 has drawn a crowd in excess of 100,000, an active streak of more than 200 contests. On September 7, 2013, the game between Michigan and the Notre Dame Fighting Irish attracted a crowd of 115,109, a record attendance for a college football game since 1948, an NCAA single-game attendance record at the time, overtaking the previous record of 114,804 set two years for the same matchup. Michigan Stadium was designed with footings to allow the stadium's capacity to be expanded beyond 100,000.

Fielding Yost envisioned a day. To keep construction costs low at the time, the decision was made to build a smaller stadium than Yost envisioned but to include the footings for future expansion. Michigan Stadium is used for the University of Michigan's main graduation ceremonies, it has hosted hockey games including the 2014 NHL Winter Classic, a regular season NHL game between the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Detroit Red Wings with an official attendance of 105,491, a record for a hockey game. Additionally, a 2014 International Champions Cup soccer match between Real Madrid and Manchester United had an attendance of 109,318, a record crowd for a soccer match in the United States, it will host the upcoming 2020 Sport Aid concert. Prior to playing at Michigan Stadium, Michigan played its games at Ferry Field, which at its peak could seat 40,000 people. Fielding Yost recognized the need for a larger stadium after original expansions to Ferry Field proved to be too small, persuaded the regents to build a permanent stadium in 1926.

Fashioned after the Yale Bowl, the original stadium was built with a capacity of 72,000. However, at Yost's urging, temporary bleachers were added at the top of the stadium, increasing capacity to 82,000. On October 1, 1927, Michigan played Ohio Wesleyan in the first game at Michigan Stadium, prevailing 33–0; the new stadium was formally dedicated three weeks in a contest against Ohio State on October 22. Michigan had spoiled the formal dedication of Ohio Stadium in Columbus five years earlier and was victorious again, besting the Buckeyes 21–0 before a standing-room-only crowd of 84,401. In 1930, electronic scoreboards were installed, making the stadium the first in the United States to use them to keep the official game time. In 1956, the addition of a press box raised the stadium's official capacity to 101,001; the one "extra seat" in Michigan Stadium is said to be reserved for Fritz Crisler, athletic director at the time. Since all official Michigan Stadium capacity figures have ended in "-01", although the extra seat's location is not specified.

Before 1968, Michigan Stadium maintained a policy of "No women or children allowed on the field". Sara Krulwich, now a photojournalist for The New York Times, was the first woman on the field. Longtime radio announcer Bob Ufer dubbed Michigan Stadium "The hole that Yost dug, Crisler paid for, Canham carpeted, Schembechler fills every cotton-pickin' Saturday afternoon". Since November 8, 1975, the stadium has held over 100,000 fans for every home game—the game against Indiana University on October 25, 1975 was the last sub-100,000 attendance home game for Michigan.—and 24 of the 25 most attended NCAA games are at the stadium. Michigan Stadium's size is not wholly apparent from the outside as most of the seats are below ground level. By the mid-1980s, Michigan Stadium became known by the nickname "The Big House". Michigan's game versus Ball State University on November 4, 2006, was the 200th consecutive crowd of over 100,000 fans. Traditionally, when the game's attendance is announced, the public address announcer thanks the fans for "being part of the largest crowd watching a football game anywhere in America today".

On September 9, 2006, attendees of Michigan's football game against the Central Michigan Chippewas endured the first weather delay in the stadium's history after lightning struck nearby during the first quarter and play was suspended for one hour. On September 3, 2011, Michigan and Western Michigan mutually agreed to end their game with 1:27 left in the third quarter because of an ongoing lightning delay, it was the first time. The stadium was evacuated at 6:38 p.m. and the game was called shortly after 7:00. On June 21, 2007, the University's Board of Regents approved a $226 million renovation and expansion project for Michigan Stadium; the project included replacement of some bleachers, widening of aisles and individual seats, installing hand rails, the addition of a new press box, 83 luxury boxes, 3,200 club seats. The renovation plan garnered opposition from students and fans around the country, which waned as the renovation neared external completion. A disabled-veterans group filed a federal lawsuit against the university on April 17, 2007, alleging that the design of the project did not meet federal standards for wheelchair-accessible seating.

On March 11, 2008, as part of the settlement terms of a lawsuit filed against the university pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act, the univer

William Shakespeare (American football)

William Valentine "Bill" Shakespeare was an American football player. He played at the halfback position, handled punting, for the Notre Dame Fighting Irish football teams from 1933 to 1935, he gained his greatest acclaim for throwing the winning touchdown pass as time ran off the clock in Notre Dame's 1935 victory over Ohio State, a game, voted the best game in the first 100 years of college football. Shakespeare was selected as a consensus first-team All-American in 1935 and was posthumously inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1983. Sharing the same name as "The Bard of Avon", Shakespeare earned nicknames including "The Bard of Staten Island", "The Bard of South Bend", "The Merchant of Menace." Shakespeare was born on New York. His father, Valentine Shakespeare, was a New York City firefighter and the captain of Fire Company 163; the family claimed to be direct descendants of the famed writer William Shakespeare. The younger Shakespeare became a star football player at Staten Island's Port Richmond High School.

He showed particular talent as a punter and told reporters that he had trained his pet fox terrier to retrieve his punts as he practiced his technique. He enrolled at the University of Notre Dame in 1932, the year after the death of the school's legendary football coach Knute Rockne, he played for the Notre Dame Fighting Irish football teams in 1933, 1934, 1935, was selected as a consensus All-American in 1935. Because of his shared name with William Shakespeare, "The Bard of Avon", he acquired nicknames "The Bard of Staten Island" and "The Merchant of Menace." Newspapers reported that, though he claimed to be a direct descendant of the Bard, Shakespeare had flunked his sophomore English class. In 1934, newspapers published a photograph of Shakespeare staring at a football in the manner of Hamlet examining Yorick's skull under the caption "To Be Or Not To Be -- Football Player or English Wizard Is Perplexing Question Facing William Shakespeare, of Notre Dame." As a sophomore in 1933, Shakespeare was a substitute at the halfback position.

He showed promise as a punter with an average of 53.2 yards on five punts. As a junior in 1934, Shakespeare became the starting left halfback in the Notre Dame's first year under new coach Elmer Layden. In an October 1934 win over Carnegie Tech, Shakespeare ran 56 yards for a touchdown on a sweep play around the right end; the Associated Press noted: "Superb blocking opened the route for Shakespeare, who put a little reverse English on his dash and outfooted the field to score." On November 24, 1934, he helped lead the Irish to a 12–6 win over Army with a 67-yard touchdown pass to Dominic Vairo in front of a crowd of 81,000 at Yankee Stadium. The Associated Press wrote that "the Irish scored a touchdown on a sensational pass, Shakespeare to Captain Vairo, who took the ball on Army's 15 as he was surrounded by three cadets and broke away to spring across the goal line." And in the final week of the season, he threw a 51-yard touchdown pass to Francis "Mike" Layden in a 14–0 win over the University of Southern California.

He led the 1934 Notre Dame team in several offensive categories, including passing, kickoff returns, punting. In the opening game of the 1935 season, Shakespeare threw a pass from the 50-yard to Wayne Millner, who caught the ball on the five-yard line and ran into the endzone for a touchdown as Notre Dame defeated Kansas 28–7; the following week, Shakespeare ran for a touchdown against Carnegie Tech at Pitt Stadium—the first touchdown scored by Notre Dame in Pittsburgh since 1931. Against Wisconsin on October 12, 1935, he caught a 20-yard touchdown pass from Vic Wojcihovski to help lead Notre Dame to a 13-0 win at Camp Randall Stadium. In the fourth week of the 1935 season, Notre Dame beat Pitt, 9–6, as Shakespeare scored Notre Dame's only touchdown. Shakespeare booted an 86-yard punt in the Pitt game, still the longest punt in Notre Dame football history, he kicked a 75-yard punt against Navy in 1935 that ranks as the fifth-longest in school history. On November 2, 1935, Notre Dame faced the undefeated 1935 Ohio State Buckeyes team in front of a crowd of 81,000 at Ohio Stadium.

Ohio State was favored in the game and led at half-time by a score of 13–0. The score remained the same at the start of the fourth quarter, but the Irish rallied in the fourth quarter for two touchdowns to narrow Ohio State's lead to 13–12. With less than a minute left in the game, Notre Dame's quarterback Andy Pilney ran for a 30-yard gain to the Ohio State 19-yard line. Pilney had to be carried off the field on a stretcher. Shakespeare replaced Pilney and threw a pass into the arms of an Ohio State player who intercepted the ball but dropped it before securing possession. With the clock running out, the ball was snapped to fullback Jim McKenna, who handed it to Shakespeare on what appeared to be a reverse. Shakespeare threw a pass into the endzone, caught by Wayne Millner on his knees for an 18–13 win; the 1935 Notre Dame-Ohio State match was regarded as one of the greatest comebacks in history of the sport. Red Barber, who broadcast the game on radio called it "the greatest college football game I called."

In The New York Times, Allison Danzig opened his report on the game by writing, "One of the greatest last-ditch rallies in football history toppled the dreaded Scarlet Scourge of Ohio State from its lofty pinnacle today as 81,000 dumbfounded spectators saw Notre Dame score three touchdowns in less than fifteen minutes to gain an miraculous 18–13 victory in jammed Buckeye Stadium." Radio announcer Tom

Wang Fan

Wang Fan, courtesy name Yongyuan, was an official and astronomer of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Wang Fan was from Lujiang Commandery, located southwest of present-day Lujiang County, Anhui, he started his career in Wu as a Gentleman of Writing during the reign of the first Wu emperor Sun Quan or second Wu emperor Sun Liang, but was dismissed from office. During the reign of the third Wu emperor Sun Xiu, Wang Fan served as a Central Regular Mounted Attendant alongside He Shao, Xue Ying and Yu Si, was given an additional appointment as a Chief Commandant of Escorting Cavalry, he received much praise from his contemporaries. When the Wu government sent him as an ambassador to Wu's ally state, Shu, he was highly regarded by the Shu government. Upon returning to Wu, he served as a military supervisor at the Wu military garrison in Xiakou. During the reign of the fourth and last Wu emperor Sun Hao, Wang Fan became a Regular Attendant alongside Wan Yu. Although he was close to Sun Hao, he became alienated from the emperor as other officials slandered him in front of the emperor and as he became more outspoken against the emperor's outrageous behaviour.

In 266, he ended up losing his head. Sun Hao exiled his family to the remote Guang Province in the south. Lu Kai, the Imperial Chancellor of Wu during Sun Hao's reign, lamented Wang Fan's unfortunate end. Wang Fan had two brothers, Wang Zhu and Wang Yan, who were well-known learned men in Wu. Both of them were killed during a rebellion started by Guo Ma in 279, one of the events leading to the fall of Wu in 280. Wang Fan was proficient in astronomy, he calculated the distance from the Sun to the Earth. In addition, he gave the numerical value of π as 142 / 45 = 3.155…, not as accurate as that given by the mathematician Liu Hui, who lived around the same time as him. Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms. Pei, Songzhi. Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms. Schepler, Herman C.. "The Chronology of PI". Mathematics Magazine. 23: 165–170. Doi:10.2307/3029284. ISSN 0025-570X. JSTOR 3029284.. Volkov, Alexeï. "Zhao Youqin and his calculation of π". Historia Mathematica.

24: 301–331. Doi:10.1006/hmat.1997.2163. MR 1470103