A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal. A service club, for example, exists for charitable activities. There are clubs devoted to hobbies and sports, social activities clubs and religious clubs, so forth. Clubs occurred in all ancient states of which we have detailed knowledge. Once people started living together in larger groups, there was need for people with a common interest to be able to associate despite having no ties of kinship. Organizations of the sort have existed for many years, as evidenced by Ancient Greek clubs and associations in Ancient Rome, it is uncertain whether the use of the word "club" originated in its meaning of a knot of people, or from the fact that the members “clubbed” together to pay the expenses of their gatherings. The oldest English clubs were informal periodic gatherings of friends for the purpose of dining or drinking with one another. Thomas Occleve mentions. In 1659 John Aubrey wrote, “We now use the word clubbe for a sodality in a tavern.”
Of early clubs the most famous, was the Bread Street or Friday Street Club that met at the Mermaid Tavern on the first Friday of each month. John Selden, John Donne, John Fletcher and Francis Beaumont were among the members. Another such club, founded by Ben Jonson, met at the Devil Tavern near Temple Bar in London; the word “club,” in the sense of an association to promote good-fellowship and social intercourse, became common in England at the time of Tatler and The Spectator. With the introduction of coffee-drinking in the middle of the 17th century, clubs entered on a more permanent phase; the coffee houses of the Stuart period are the real originals of the modern clubhouse. The clubs of the late 17th and early 18th century type resembled their Tudor forerunners in being oftenest associations for conviviality or literary coteries, but many were confessedly political, e.g. The Rota, or Coffee Club, a debating society for the spread of republican ideas, broken up at the Restoration in 1660, the Calves Head Club and the Green Ribbon Club.
The characteristics of all these clubs were: No permanent financial bond between the members, each man's liability ending for the time being when he had paid his “score” after the meal. No permanent clubhouse, though each clique tended to make some special coffee house or tavern their headquarters; these coffee-house clubs soon became hotbeds of political scandal-mongering and intriguing, in 1675 King Charles II issued a proclamation which ran: “His Majesty hath thought fit and necessary that coffee houses be put down and suppressed,” because “in such houses divers false and scandalous reports are devised and spread abroad to the Defamation of his Majesty’s Government and to the Disturbance of Peace and Quiet of the Realm.” So unpopular was this proclamation that it was instantly found necessary to withdraw it, by Anne’s reign the coffee-house club was a feature of England’s social life. See English coffeehouses in the 17th and 18th centuries; the idea of the club developed in two directions.
One was of a permanent institution with a fixed clubhouse. The London coffeehouse clubs in increasing their members absorbed the whole accommodation of the coffeehouse or tavern where they held their meetings, this became the clubhouse retaining the name of the original innkeeper, e.g. White's, Brooks's, Arthur's, Boodle's; these still exist today as the famous gentlemen's clubs. The peripatetic lifestyle of the 18th and 19th century middle classes drove the development of more residential clubs, which had bedrooms and other facilities. Military and naval officers, judges, members of Parliament and government officials tended to have an irregular presence in the major cities of the Empire London, spending a few months there before moving on for a prolonged period and returning; when this presence did not coincide with the Season, a permanent establishment in the city, or the opening of a townhouse was inconvenient or uneconomic, while hotels were rare and déclassé. Clubbing with a number of like-minded friends to secure a large shared house with a manager was therefore a convenient solution.
The other sort of club meets or periodically and has no clubhouse, but exists for some specific object. Such are the many purely athletic and pastimes clubs, the Alpine, chess and motor clubs. There are literary clubs and art clubs, publishing clubs; the name of “club” has been annexed by a large group of associations which fall between the club proper and friendly societies, of a purely periodic and temporary nature, such as slate and Christmas clubs, which do not need to be registered under the Friendly Societies Act. The institution of the gentleman's club has spread all over the English-speaking world. Many of those who energised the Scottish Enlightenment were members of the Poker Club in Edinburgh. In the United States clubs were first established after the War of Independence. One of the first was the Hoboken Turtle Club, which still survived as of 1911. In former British Empire colonies like India and Pakistan they are known as Gymkhana; the earliest clubs on the European con
A student center is a type of building found on university campuses. In the United States, such a building may be called a student union, student commons, union or student center; the term "student union" refers most in the United States to a building, while in other nations a "students' union" is the student government. The Association of College Unions International has several hundred campus organizational members in the US; the US usage in reference to a location is a shortened form of student union building. The first student union in America was Houston Hall, at the University of Pennsylvania, which opened January 2, 1896 and remains in operation to this day; the first Ohio Union at Ohio State University was Enarson Hall. The building opened in 1911 and was the first student union to be built at a state university and the fourth of its kind in the United States. Oklahoma State University's student center opened in 1950. Subsequent additions, renovations in 2010, have made the building one of the largest student activity centers in the world at 611,000 sq ft.
Some student centers carry unique origins and historical significance with some on the National Register of Historic Places. The William Pitt Union was constructed in 1898 as a hotel and was converted into a student center in 1956; some student activity centers on the NRHP include O'Hara Student Center, McKenny Hall, the Tivoli Student Union. The Tivoli Student Union was home to the Trevoli Brewing Company but since has been converted to serve several institutions in Denver, Colorado. In 2007, the University of Vermont's student center became the first LEED Gold certification by the U. S. Green Building Council. Other examples of student centers include West Virginia University's Mountainlair, the J. Wayne Reitz Union at the University of Florida, the Bronco Student Center at Cal Poly Pomona, the McCormick Tribune Campus Center at the Illinois Institute of Technology, the Price Center at UC San Diego. Broadly speaking, the facility is devoted to student socialization. A student center or student union is the community center of the college, serving students, staff and guests.
A student activity center might offer a variety of programs, activities and facilities. It may contain lounges, wellness centers, dining facilities or vendors, entertainment venues; the student center is the center of student affairs and activities and may house the offices of the student government or other student groups. It may act as a small conference center, with its meeting rooms rented out to student groups and local organizations holding conferences or competitions. An example of this for instance is the Michigan Union, which hosts the University of Michigan Model United Nations conference. Depending on the school and its location it might have unique amenities such as a bowling alley, cultural or prayer rooms and unique services. At Eastern Michigan University Student Center the building offers a kiva, a round, 360-degree room patterned after spaces used in Native American cultures; the Kiva Room at EMU is used for collaboration, or for musical purposes. In the Ohio State University-Ohio Union, the student union offers an interfaith prayer room which has feet washing area for Muslim students.
The University of Central Florida has an optometric consumer service location. Association of College Unions International Student union Student activities
Michigan Wolverines football
The Michigan Wolverines football program represents the University of Michigan in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision level. Michigan has the most all-time wins in college football history; the team is known for its distinctive winged helmet, its fight song, its record-breaking attendance figures at Michigan Stadium, its many rivalries its annual, regular-season-ending game against Ohio State, once voted as ESPN's best sports rivalry. Michigan began competing in intercollegiate football in 1879; the Wolverines joined the Big Ten Conference at its inception in 1896, other than a hiatus from 1907 to 1916, have been members since. Michigan has won or shared 42 league titles, since the inception of the AP Poll in 1936, has finished in the top 10 a total of 38 times; the Wolverines claim 11 national championships, most that of the 1997 squad voted atop the final AP Poll. From 1900 to 1989, Michigan was led by a series of nine head coaches, each of whom has been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame either as a player or as a coach.
Fielding H. Yost became Michigan's head coach in 1901 and guided his "Point-a-Minute" squads to a streak of 56 games without a defeat, spanning from his arrival until the season finale in 1905, including a victory in the 1902 Rose Bowl, the first college football bowl game played. Fritz Crisler brought his winged helmet from Princeton University in 1938 and led the 1947 Wolverines to a national title and Michigan's second Rose Bowl win. Bo Schembechler coached the team for 21 seasons in which he won 13 Big Ten titles and 194 games, a program record; the first decade of his tenure was underscored by a fierce competition with his former mentor, Woody Hayes, whose Ohio State Buckeyes squared off against Schembechler's Wolverines in a stretch of the Michigan–Ohio State rivalry dubbed the "Ten-Year War". Following Schembechler's retirement, the program was coached by two of his former assistants, Gary Moeller and Lloyd Carr, who maintained the program's overall success over the next 18 years. However, the program's fortunes declined under the next two coaches, Rich Rodriguez and Brady Hoke, who were both fired after short tenures.
Following Hoke's dismissal, Michigan hired Jim Harbaugh on December 30, 2014. Harbaugh is a former quarterback of the team, having played for Michigan between 1982 and 1986 under Schembechler; the Michigan Wolverines have featured 82 players that have garnered consensus selection to the College Football All-America Team. Three Wolverines have won the Heisman Trophy: Tom Harmon in 1940, Desmond Howard in 1991, Charles Woodson in 1997. Gerald Ford, who became the 38th President of the United States, started at center and was voted most valuable player by his teammates on the 1934 team. On May 30, 1879, Michigan played its first intercollegiate football game against Racine College at White Stocking Park in Chicago; the Chicago Tribune called it "the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies." Midway through "the first'inning'," Irving Kane Pond scored the first touchdown for Michigan. According to Will Perry's history of Michigan football, the crowd responded to Pond's plays with cheers of "Pond Forever."
In 1881, Michigan played against Harvard in Boston. The game that marked the birth of inter-sectional football. On their way to a game in Chicago in 1887, Michigan players stopped in South Bend and introduced football to students at the University of Notre Dame. A November 23 contest marked the inception of the Notre Dame Fighting Irish football program and the beginning of the Michigan–Notre Dame rivalry. In 1894, Michigan defeated Cornell, the "first time in collegiate football history that a western school defeated an established power from the east."In 1896, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives—then known as the Western Conference and as the Big Ten Conference—was formed by the University of Michigan, the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois, the University of Minnesota, the University of Wisconsin, Northwestern University, Purdue University. The first Western Conference football season was played in 1896, with Michigan going 9–1, but losing out on the inaugural Western Conference title with a loss to the Chicago Maroons to end the season.
By 1898 Amos Alonzo Stagg was fast at work at turning the University of Chicago football program into a powerhouse. Before the final game of the 1898 season, Chicago was 9–1–1 and Michigan was 9–0. Michigan won, 12–11, capturing the program's first conference championship in a game that inspired "The Victors", which became the school's fight song. Michigan went 8–2 and 7–2–1 in 1899 and 1900, results that were considered unsatisfactory relative to the 10–0 season of 1898. After the 1900 season, Charles A. Baird, Michigan's first athletic director, wrote to Fielding H. Yost, "Our people are roused up over the defeats of the past two years", gave Yost an offer to come to Michigan to coach the football team. Upon arriving at Michigan, Yost famously ran up State Street and proclaimed to a reporter, "Michigan isn't going to lose a game." Yost delivered, with the 1901 Michigan team demolishing its opponents. In the first season under head coach Yost, a lopsided victory over Buffalo drew national attention and marked the arrival of Yost's "Point-a-Minute" teams.
The Buffalo team beat Ivy League power Columbia earlier in the year and was favored over a Michigan team the Buffalo newspapers had dubbed "Woolly Westerners." Michigan scored 22 touchdowns in 38 minutes of play, averaging a touchdown every one minute and 43 seconds. Buffalo quit 15 minutes before the game
Michigan Wolverines field hockey
The Michigan Wolverines field hockey team is the intercollegiate field hockey program representing the University of Michigan. The school competes in the Big Ten Conference in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the Michigan field hockey team plays its home games at Phyllis Ocker Field on the university campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Michigan has won an NCAA Championship as well as eight Big Ten regular season titles and five Big Ten tournaments since the creation of the field hockey program in 1973; the team is coached by Marcia Pankratz. Field hockey has been a varsity sport at the University of Michigan since 1973. From 1978 to 1988 and again from 1992 to the present, Michigan has played in the Big Ten Conference. Between 1989 and 1991, the team played in the Midwestern Collegiate Field Hockey Conference; the team won a number of major championships during the late 1990s and early 2000s, beginning with a Big Ten regular season title in 1997 and a Big Ten tournament championship in 1999.
This streak of successes under head coach Marcia Pankratz culminated with the team's first and to date only national championship in 2001. The achievement was the first NCAA title won by a women's sports team at the University of Michigan, was just the second time a Midwestern university had claimed the championship after Iowa had done it first in 1986. Season-by-season results through the end of the 2018 season As of February 22, 2018 Michigan has accumulated a total of 11 appearances in the NCAA tournament, including three Final Fours. In 2001, the Wolverines won their first NCAA championship by defeating Maryland in the final by a score of 2–0; the victory made them the first women's team at the university to win a national championship, as well as the second field hockey team from the Midwest to earn the title, after Iowa in 1986. Michigan has won Ten conference titles, all of them in the Big Ten Conference and all but one under the leadership of head coach Marcia Pankratz. Awards and accolades through the end of the 2014 season Michigan has played its home games at Phyllis Ocker Field Hockey Field since its construction in 1995.
The field is named after Phyllis Ocker, a former University of Michigan educator, field hockey coach, athletics administrator. Between the end of the 2013 season and the start of the 2014 season, Ocker Field underwent substantial renovations that included the installation of a blue AstroTurf 12 playing surface and a permanent 1,500-seat grandstand, which tripled the stadium's capacity; these renovations included the installation of floodlights, a video scoreboard, a new support building that provides for locker rooms, training facilities, coaches' offices, meeting space as well as a press box and broadcasting booth. The support building was built on the footprint of the former South Ferry Sports Services Building, which had provided similar accommodations since its construction in 1997. A new spectator plaza that includes restrooms, concession facilities, ticket and marketing booths was constructed during the 2013–14 renovations. Built on the site of Regents Field, the home of the Michigan football team between 1893 and 1905, Ocker Field was constructed in 1995 jointly with the Michigan Soccer Field.
In 1997, the South Ferry Sports Services Building was constructed adjacent to the field, providing locker rooms, training facilities, storage space for both the field hockey and women's soccer teams. In 2003, Ocker Field's AstroTurf playing surface was upgraded at the cost of $500,000, a sum, raised from donations from friends and alumni of the field hockey program. Between the 2003 and 2013–14 renovations, the stadium had a seating capacity of 500. In 2010, both the men's and women's soccer teams left the Michigan Soccer Field for the new U-M Soccer Stadium, football practice fields outside Al Glick Field House have since been built adjacent to Ocker Field. Before the construction of Ocker Field, the Michigan field hockey team had played at four other venues on campus: Michigan Stadium, Ferry Field, the Tartan Turf, Oosterbaan Fieldhouse. List of NCAA Division I field hockey programs Media related to Michigan Wolverines field hockey at Wikimedia Commons Official website
University of Michigan College of Engineering
The University of Michigan College of Engineering is the engineering unit of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. With an enrollment of 5,819 undergraduate and 3,157 graduate students, the College of Engineering is one of the premier engineering schools in the United States. In various ranking systems, the college is ranked as one of the top ten engineering schools in the nation and among the top 15 schools in the world; the median SAT combined verbal and math score for the incoming class of 2015 was 1450, while the median ACT was a 33. Between the years 1999-2009, Michigan was ranked 5th globally for papers published and academic citations; the college was founded with courses in civil engineering. Since its founding, the College of Engineering established some of the earliest programs in various fields such as aerospace engineering which celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2014, computer science, electrical engineering, nuclear engineering; the Materials Science and Engineering program is the oldest continuing metallurgy and materials program in the United States.
Biomedical engineering is one of the newest programs established at the College of Engineering. Data science was added to the College of Engineering's degree options in 2015; the college was first located on the University's Central Campus before moving to the University's North Campus — which occupies 800 acres — starting in the late 1940s. Today, the College of Engineering is prominently located in the center of the University's North Campus, shared with the School of Music and Dance, School of Art and Design, the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning; the North Campus houses Lurie Tower, one of 2 grand carillons on the Ann Arbor campus, one of only 23 in the world. Dr. Alec D. Gallimore holds the position of Robert J. Vlasic Dean of Engineering; the college grants degrees at the Bachelor's, Master's, PhD levels. The 15 undergraduate degree programs offered by the college are: Aerospace Engineering Biomedical Engineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Computer Science Data Science Earth System Science and Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Physics Industrial and Operations Engineering Materials Science and Engineering Mechanical Engineering Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Nuclear Engineering and Radiological SciencesAlmost all of these programs are ranked in the top ten in the United States according to US News and World Report.
Various laboratories are located at the college of engineering, including the Center for Wireless Integrated MicroSystems and the Center for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems, both of which are NSF laboratories. Another major laboratory is the Center for Ultra-Fast Optical Sciences; the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory is a laboratory dedicated to research into the peaceful use of nuclear technology. It once housed the Ford Nuclear Reactor, decommissioned in 2003; the College of Engineering has 11 wind tunnels, electron microscope and ion beam laboratories, a civil engineering test facility, solid state manufacturing facilities. Various laboratories dedicated to automotive engineering, neutron science, optical sciences, robotics are scattered throughout the college. A hydrodynamics laboratory is located on the University's Central Campus. An office of the Weather Underground is located at the College of Engineering; the Duderstadt Center the Media Union and affectionately known as "The Dude" by engineering students, is named after former University president and nuclear engineering professor James Duderstadt.
It houses the Art, Architecture & Engineering Library and contains computer clusters and video editing laboratories and studios, as well as usability and various digital media laboratories, including virtual reality. The Millennium Project, which focuses on the future of the university learning environment, is housed in the Duderstadt Center. Computer services and networking is provided by the Computer Aided Engineering Network. CAEN operates various computer laboratories throughout the College of Engineering and the University campuses, it operates the college's wireless network and runs daily backups for College of Engineering servers. As of 2007, CAEN no longer maintains separate mail servers for CoE students and faculty; the University of Michigan, partnering with the Michigan Department of Transportation, opened a 32-acre proving ground test course for autonomous cars in 2015 called Mcity on the site of a former Pfizer facility which the University purchased in 2009. Mcity contains five miles of roads and includes a mock town square, highway exit ramps, a railroad crossing, gravel roadway, traffic circle and other obstacles.
Faculty and engineering students will utilize Mcity to work on projects and to collaborate with automakers and suppliers who will test vehicle technology at the course. College of Engineering students are required to understand and adhere to an Honor Code governing the completion of classwork and examinations, as well as conduct when using CAEN computers. If a student observes a violation of the Honor Code, he or she is required by the Honor Code to report it. During examinations, the College of Engineering differs from other University of Michigan academic units in that the instructor is not present in the room; the instructor will tell the students where he or she will be during the examination, such as in his or her office or sitting in the hallway, in case there are questions. Students are guaranteed at least one empty seat between him or her and the next
Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House", is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the largest stadium in the United States, the second largest stadium in the world and the 34th largest sports venue, its official capacity is 107,601, but it has hosted crowds in excess of 115,000. Michigan Stadium was built in 1927 at a cost of $950,000 and had an original capacity of 72,000. Prior to the stadium's construction, the Wolverines played football at Ferry Field; every home game since November 8, 1975 has drawn a crowd in excess of 100,000, an active streak of more than 200 contests. On September 7, 2013, the game between Michigan and the Notre Dame Fighting Irish attracted a crowd of 115,109, a record attendance for a college football game since 1927, an NCAA single-game attendance record at the time, overtaking the previous record of 114,804 set two years for the same matchup. Michigan Stadium was designed with footings to allow the stadium's capacity to be expanded beyond 100,000.
Fielding Yost envisioned a day. To keep construction costs low at the time, the decision was made to build a smaller stadium than Yost envisioned but to include the footings for future expansion. Michigan Stadium is used for the University of Michigan's main graduation ceremonies, it has hosted hockey games including the 2014 NHL Winter Classic, a regular season NHL game between the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Detroit Red Wings with an official attendance of 105,491, a record for a hockey game. Additionally, a 2014 International Champions Cup soccer match between Real Madrid and Manchester United had an attendance of 109,318, a record crowd for a soccer match in the United States. Prior to playing at Michigan Stadium, Michigan played its games at Ferry Field, which at its peak could seat 40,000 people. Fielding Yost recognized the need for a larger stadium after original expansions to Ferry Field proved to be too small, persuaded the regents to build a permanent stadium in 1926. Fashioned after the Yale Bowl, the original stadium was built with a capacity of 72,000.
However, at Yost's urging, temporary bleachers were added at the top of the stadium, increasing capacity to 82,000. On October 1, 1927, Michigan played Ohio Wesleyan in the first game at Michigan Stadium, prevailing 33–0; the new stadium was formally dedicated three weeks in a contest against Ohio State on October 22. Michigan had spoiled the formal dedication of Ohio Stadium in Columbus five years earlier and was victorious again, besting the Buckeyes 21–0 before a standing-room-only crowd of 84,401. In 1930, electronic scoreboards were installed, making the stadium the first in the United States to use them to keep the official game time. In 1956, the addition of a press box raised the stadium's official capacity to 101,001; the one "extra seat" in Michigan Stadium is said to be reserved for Fritz Crisler, athletic director at the time. Since all official Michigan Stadium capacity figures have ended in "-01", although the extra seat's location is not specified. Before 1968, Michigan Stadium maintained a policy of "No women or children allowed on the field".
Sara Krulwich, now a photojournalist for The New York Times, was the first woman on the field. Longtime radio announcer Bob Ufer dubbed Michigan Stadium "The hole that Yost dug, Crisler paid for, Canham carpeted, Schembechler fills every cotton-pickin' Saturday afternoon". Since November 8, 1975, the stadium has held over 100,000 fans for every home game; the game against Indiana University on October 25, 1975 was the last sub-100,000 attendance home game for Michigan. Michigan Stadium's size is not wholly apparent from the outside as most of the seats are below ground level. By the mid-1980s, Michigan Stadium became known by the nickname "The Big House". Michigan's game versus Ball State University on November 4, 2006, was the 200th consecutive crowd of over 100,000 fans. Traditionally, when the game's attendance is announced, the public address announcer thanks the fans for "being part of the largest crowd watching a football game anywhere in America today". On September 9, 2006, attendees of Michigan's football game against the Central Michigan Chippewas endured the first weather delay in the stadium's history after lightning struck nearby during the first quarter and play was suspended for one hour.
On September 3, 2011, Michigan and Western Michigan mutually agreed to end their game with 1:27 left in the third quarter because of an ongoing lightning delay. It was the first time; the stadium was evacuated at 6:38 p.m. and the game was called shortly after 7:00. On June 21, 2007, the University's Board of Regents approved a $226 million renovation and expansion project for Michigan Stadium; the project included replacement of some bleachers, widening of aisles and individual seats, installing hand rails, the addition of a new press box, 83 luxury boxes, 3,200 club seats. The renovation plan garnered opposition from students and fans around the country, which waned as the renovation neared external completion. A disabled-veterans group filed a federal lawsuit against the university on April 17, 2007, alleging that the design of the project did not meet federal standards for wheelchair-accessible seating. On March 11, 2008, as part of the settlement terms of a lawsuit filed against the university pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act, the university announced that the official capacity of the stadium would be reduced to accommodate additional wheelchair-accessible seati
University of Michigan Law School
The University of Michigan Law School is the law school of the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor. Founded in 1859, the school offers Juris Doctor, Master of Laws, Doctor of Juridical Science degree programs; the school has an enrollment of about 920 as well as 81 full-time faculty members. Michigan Law School ranks among the highest-rated law schools in the United States and the world. In the 2019 U. S. News ranking, Michigan Law is ranked 8th overall. Notable alumni include U. S. Supreme Court Justices Frank Murphy, William Rufus Day, George Sutherland, as well as a number of heads of state and corporate executives. Michigan Law has placed 41 of its alumni on United States Circuit Courts, over 100 of its graduates on federal Article III trial courts, 36 of its graduates on the Michigan Supreme Court, including 16 who served as Chief Justice. More than 170 Michigan law graduates have served in the United States Congress, including 20 United States Senators and more than 150 Congressional representatives.
Additionally, numerous graduates have served as state legislators. The Law School was founded in 1859, rose to national prominence. By 1870, Michigan was the largest law school in the country. In 1870, Gabriel Franklin Hargo graduated from Michigan as the second African-American to graduate from law school in the United States. In 1871 Sarah Killgore, a Michigan Law graduate, became the first woman to both graduate from law school and be admitted to the bar. Although the law school is part of the public University of Michigan, less than 2 percent of the law school's expenses are covered by state funds; the remainder is supplied by private gifts and endowments. As of 2009, Michigan Law is engaging in a $102 million enterprise, constructing an addition to the law building that remains loyal to the English Gothic style; this enterprise is funded by endowments and private gifts. 2009 marked the school's sesquicentennial celebration. As a part of the festivities, Chief Justice John Roberts visited the school and participated in the groundbreaking ceremony for the new building.
The Law Quadrangle is designed in the English Gothic style. Built between 1924 and 1933 by the architectural firm York and Sawyer with funds donated by attorney and alumnus William W. Cook, the Cook Law Quadrangle comprises four buildings: Hutchins Hall, the main academic building, named for former Dean of the Law School and President of the University, Harry Burns Hutchins The Legal Research Building. In 2007, the University of Michigan Reading Room was named 94th on a list of "American's Favorite Buildings." The building is one of only three law buildings on the list. John Cook Dormitory The Lawyer's Club, providing additional dormitory rooms and a meeting space for the residents of the Quad. In 2012, extensive renovations of the Lawyers Club were undertaken thanks in part to a $20 million gift from Berkshire Hathaway vice-chairman Charles T. Munger, was re-opened on August 19, 2013 for the Fall 2013 school year. Michigan Law was ranked third in the initial U. S. News & World Report law school rankings in 1987.
Michigan Law is one of the "T14" law schools, schools that have ranked within the top 14 law schools since U. S. News began publishing rankings. In the 2019 U. S. News ranking, Michigan Law is ranked 9th overall; the 2010 Super Lawyers rankings placed Michigan as second. Michigan Law is ranked 6th for Clinical Training and 6th for International Law. In a 2011 U. S. News "reputational ranking" of law schools by hiring partners at the nation’s top law firms, the University of Michigan Law School ranked 4th. Michigan Law ranked 15th among U. S. law schools, tied with the Georgetown University Law Center, for the number of times its tenured faculty's published scholarship was cited in legal journals during the period 2010 through 2014. Admission to Michigan Law is selective. For the class entering in the fall of 2012, 1,238 out of 5,062 applicants were offered admission, with 344 matriculating; the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 165 and 171 with a median of 169. The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.55 and 3.89 with a median of 3.77.
97.5 percent of the graduating class of 2017 was employed by nine months after graduation. 86% of the class of 2017 secured positions as a judicial clerk or in private practice. The majority of Michigan Law grads work in New York, California, Washington, D. C. and Michigan. Michigan Law School students publish several law journals in addition to the Michigan Law Review, the sixth oldest legal journal in the U. S; these include: University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform Michigan Journal of International Law Michigan Journal of Gender and Law Michigan Journal of Race & Law Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review Michigan Journal of Environmental and Administrative Law Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review known as the Michigan Journal Private Equity and Venture Capital LawJournal membership is obtained through participation in writing competitions. Students may compete in intramural moot court competitions, the oldest of, the Henry M. Campbell Moot Court Competition, established in 1926 and first held in the 1927-1928 academic year.
Other moot court competitions include the Child Welfare Law Moot Court Competition, Criminal Law Moot Court Competition, the Entertainment Media and Arts Moot Court Competition, the Environmental Law Moot Court Compe