Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Donald Glenn "Don" Garlits is an American race car driver and automotive engineer. He is considered the father of drag racing, he is known as "Big Daddy" to drag racing fans around the world. Always a pioneer in the field of drag racing, he perfected the rear-engine Top Fuel dragster, an innovation motivated by the loss of part of his foot in a dragster accident; this design was notably safer since it put most of the fuel processing and rotating parts of the dragster behind the driver. The driver was placed in front of nearly all the mechanical components, thus protecting the driver and allowing him to activate a variety of safety equipment in the event of catastrophic mechanical failure or a fire. Garlits was an early promoter of the full-body, fire-resistant Nomex driving suit, complete with socks and balaclava. Garlits was the first drag racer to surpass the 170, 180, 200, 240, 250, 270 mile per hour marks in the quarter mile, he has won many awards during his career. In May 2014 at age 82, Garlits set a 184 mph speed record in an EV dragster, a battery-powered electric vehicle that does not burn fuel.
After World War II, in the central and western United States, many air force bases and landing fields were decommissioned. These abandoned runways were perfect for drag racing. Don Garlits's first drag race car was built under an oak tree at his home in North Tampa in 1954, he used a cutting torch to modify an old 1927 Ford Model T Roadster. To this roadster he added a 1948 Mercury engine block, a 1939 Ford floor shift transmission, a 1948 Ford differential and axle; that early T-Bucket's quarter mile performance was 13.5 seconds, at a top speed of 93 mph. It was this successful, formative roadster that would become the basis for his first rail-job dragster, he cut off the body panels, moved the engine back, installed the seat behind the drive axle. This was the legendary slingshot dragster with which Big Daddy would win the first NHRA race he entered, the NHRA Safety Safari in Lake City, Florida. Three years he became a professional drag racer; the first national drag racing meet, sponsored by the National Hot Rod Association was held on an airfield near Great Bend, KS in 1955.
Don Garlits, being from Florida, was something of an outsider. He was sometimes referred to as the Floridian, before permanently adopting the nickname "Swamp Rat," which became the name for each new generation of his innovative dragster designs. In 1959, Garlits traveled to Bakersfield, California for the US Fuel and Gas Championships to be named the "March Meet", to show that the times he was setting were as legitimate as those set by the west coast racers. Over 30,000 people attended the event, the largest attendance at a drag race at that point, his presence helped to grow the sport of drag racing beyond its California base. In 1964, after winning the U. S. Nationals at Indianapolis, Garlits traveled to England, with TV Tommy Ivo, Tony Nancy, Dante Duce and other racers, to participate in the first International Drag Festival, a six-event series that did much to promote the sport of drag racing in the UK. On March 8, 1970, at Lions Drag Strip, Garlits was driving Swamp Rat XIII called the Wynnscharger, a slingshot rail, when the vehicle suffered a catastrophic failure.
The two-speed transmission Garlits was developing exploded and took a piece out of his right foot, while the car broke in half in front of the cockpit. In an interview by Florida Trend, Garlits said this of the incident: "In 1970, the transmission exploded in my dragster on the final run, it cut my foot off and cut the car in two. That's. I would go out to the shop in Seffner on my wheelchair, saw stuff out on the band saw and make the parts."Garlits' accident was like many in the 1960s, his new design followed several other pioneer designers of rear-engined dragsters, including Steve Swaja's AA/Gas Wedge I from 1963, Roger Lindwall's 1966 Top Fuel Re-Entry, Kent Fuller's fueller Sidewinder III from 1969. He was aided in the construction of his new car by T. C. Lemons and Connie Swingle, he returned to Pomona in 1971 with Swamp Rat XIV, a brand new mid-engined, front-cockpit rail dubbed the "Swamp Rat I-R" by Hot Rod in the article introducing it to their readers. Indeed, Garlits lost in his first outing to Gary Cochran at Lions Dragstrip.
At first, the rodding magazines considered the disadvantages of the new dragster design "obvious". However, Swamp Rat XIV was so successful that in 1971, Garlits won two of his next three Top Fuel Eliminator titles, was a runner-up at Lions, all in the new car. A change so momentous had not happened since Mickey Thompson moved the seat behind the rear axle to create the slingshot in 1954. Rear engine dragsters have since become mainstream in drag racing. In 1977, Ed Donovan persuaded Garlits to switch from the 426 hemi he had been using for the last thirteen years to the 417 cu in, offering “an engine deal I couldn’t refuse”. Garlits took a brief hiatus, returning to NHRA Top Fuel full-time in 1984. Garlits has won ten American Hot Rod Association championships, four International Hot Rod Association championships, three National Hot Rod Association championships, a total of 17, he was age 54. He won a total of 144 national events. On October 20, 1987, his dragster, Swamp Rat XXX, the sport's only successful streamlined fueler, was
1962 Formula One season
The 1962 Formula One season was the 16th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1962 World Championship of Drivers and the 1962 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers which were contested concurrently over a nine race series that commenced on 20 May and ended on 29 December; the season included a number of non-championship races for Formula One cars. Ferrari were eclipsed in 1962 as a result of internal upheavals because the British teams had made great progress. BRM came good with Graham Hill taking the championship after a season long battle with the revolutionary monocoque Lotus 25 driven by Jim Clark. Dan Gurney gave Porsche their only Grand Prix win at Rouen, Cooper won their last race until 1966. Lola made their first of their sporadic forays into Grand Prix racing, Jack Brabham emerged as a constructor, scoring his first points in his own car. Stirling Moss considered to be the greatest driver to never win the championship and one of the greatest drivers in motorsport, was due to drive for Scuderia Ferrari this season however he crashed in an off-season race at Goodwood and never raced in Formula One again.
Ricardo Rodríguez, age 20 years 123 days, became the youngest driver to score championship points with his fourth place in Belgium, a record which stood for 38 years before Jenson Button, age 20 years 67 days, broke it at the 2000 Brazilian Grand Prix. Two drivers were to die during this season. Mexican Ricardo Rodríguez during the non-championship Mexican Grand Prix at the Mixhuca circuit, noted Rhodesian motorcycle rider Gary Hocking during the non-championship Natal Grand Prix at the Westmead Circuit in South Africa. Ferrari started the year well, with Phil Hill in second place after having been on the podium in the first three races. However, personality differences, loss of most of the engineering team in the 1961 "walk-out", a prolonged industrial strike, led to Enzo Ferrari withdrawing his team from the last two races; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1962 FIA World Championship. Points towards the 1962 World Championship of Drivers were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers in each race, with the best five race results retained by each driver.
Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position Points towards the 1962 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis for the first six places in each race, however only the best placed car from each manufacturer was eligible to score points and only the best five results could be retained by each manufacturer. Only the best 5 results counted towards the championship. Numbers without parentheses are championship points. Bold results counted to championship totals; the following Formula One races which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers or the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers were held in 1962. 1962 F1 Results & image galleries at www.f1-facts.com 1962 FIA Regulations at www.sovren.org
Masten Gregory was an American racing driver. He raced in Formula One between 1957 and 1965, participating in 43 World Championship races, numerous non-Championship races. Known as the "Kansas City Flash", Masten Gregory was born in Kansas City, Missouri as the youngest of three children. An heir to an insurance company fortune, Gregory was well known for his youngish looks and thick eyeglasses, due to his "terrible" eyesight. Although he attended the Pembroke-Country Day School in Kansas City, he left school before completing his senior year, married Luella Simpson at the age of 19, his parents divorced when he was young, his father died when he was three years old. As an adult, Gregory used his inheritance to buy a Mercury-powered Allard, which he drove in his first race, the 50-mile SCCA race in Caddo Mills, Texas in November 1952, he retired from that race due to head gasket failure, but installed a new Chrysler hemi-powered engine in his car to race at Sebring in 1953, where he again retired, this time due to a rear suspension failure.
Gregory's first win came in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Changing to a Jaguar, Gregory won several races in America, including the Guardsmans Trophy in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco and a race at Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha, Nebraska. At the end of 1953, Gregory was invited to his first international sports car race - the 1954 1000 km Buenos Aires in Argentina, which he finished in 14th due to water pump problems. Throughout 1954 and 1955, Gregory competed in European races driving Ferraris, his record includes the 24 Hours of Le Mans. He won the inaugural Nassau Trophy at the Bahamas Speed Week in 1954. Moving back to America in 1956, Gregory entered several SCCA races winning. In 1957, he had another attempt at this time winning; this performance got him a drive with Guglielmo Dei's Scuderia Centro Sud, a privateer Formula One team using the Maserati 250F. His first race was the 1957 Monaco Grand Prix, where he scored an impressive third-place finish, the first podium for an American in an F1 Grand Prix.
He followed this with a string of good results, coming eighth in the German Grand Prix, fourth in both the Pescara and Italian Grands Prix. Despite only competing in half of the races, Gregory ended the 1957 season in sixth place in the championship. Gregory only competed in four Grands Prix in the 1958 season, due to injuries sustained through one of his trademark bailouts when his car was set to crash, this time in a sports car race at Silverstone in England, he did manage a fourth place at the Italian Grand Prix, a 6th in the last race of the year, this Moroccan Grand Prix. Moving to Cooper-Climax for the 1959 season alongside Jack Brabham and Bruce McLaren, he scored two podium finishes - a third place at the Dutch Grand Prix, a career-best second at the Portuguese Grand Prix. However, he missed the final two races of the season, again due to injuries sustained jumping from a car moments before it crashed, he finished eighth in the Championship, with teammate Brabham winning the World Championship, Cooper won their first Constructor's Championship.
Gregory scored a pole position and set a course record at the non-Championship race at Aintree, but his contract with Cooper was not renewed for the following year. Gregory's early years of competition were marked by lots of crashes the result of pushing sub-par machinery past its ability, he flipped a thankfully rollbar-equipped Maserati at the Venezuelan Grand Prix in 1957, totalled two sports cars in 1958, another two in 1959. In the latter of these incidents he broke his leg and shoulder, keeping him away from his Formula 1 commitments. In 1960, trying to qualify an outdated Cooper-Maserati at Nürburgring he went off the track and was thrown clear of the car. After this period, his driving style matured and he began to develop a reputation as an elegant and careful driver. Gregory continued in Formula One until 1965, but with uncompetitive independent teams, he was unable to reproduce the results he obtained early in his career, his best being a 6th at the 1962 United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen with the UDT Laystall team, in a Lotus 24.
Running fourth, just behind eventual winner Dan Gurney at the French Grand Prix, Gregory retired with ignition problems, losing his best chance at a maiden Grand Prix victory. Gregory did manage a win in the non-Championship 1962 Kanonloppet race at Karlskoga in Sweden, but this race did not feature any top teams. After his release from Cooper, Gregory went back to competing in sports car races, setting the overall fastest lap at the 1960 24 Hours of Le Mans, he won the 1961 1000 km Nürburgring, driving alongside Lloyd "Lucky" Casner in a Maserati Tipo 61 for the America Camoradi Racing Team. In the same year, Gregory finished 5th in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in a Porsche RS61 Spyder. 1962 saw. In 1964, Gregory again competed in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, this time in a Ford GT40, he retired from the race in the 5th hour due to gearbox difficulties. The following year, Gregory teamed up with the man, to become 1970 Formula One World Champion, Austrian Jochen Rindt, the pair won the race in a North American Racing Team Ferrari 250 LM. 1965 was the year in which Gregory raced in the Indianapolis 500, starting from the back of the
Danny Ongais is an American former racing driver. Ongais is the only native Hawaiian to compete in the Indianapolis 500, he competed professionally in motorcycle, sports car, Formula One, drag racing. A flamboyant figure on the racing circuit, Ongais was nicknamed "On-Gas" and "The Flyin' Hawaiian." In Formula One, Ongais raced in six Grands Prix, debuting on October 2, 1977, recorded a best result of seventh. In 1996, at the age of 54, he served as the substitute driver for Scott Brayton in the Indianapolis 500, as Brayton had died in a crash while practicing shortly before the race. Starting last, Ongais finished 7th in what was his final 500. At the 1981 Indianapolis 500, Ongais was involved in a near-fatal wreck, which caused several arm and leg fractures as well as internal injuries. Four years at the Michigan 500, he spun on the exit of turn two and barrel-rolled down the back straight, during a race which had several crashes throughout its duration. Ongais was born in Hawaii; when he was aged 14, he tested out motorbike racing with some success.
In the late 1950s, Ongais enlisted in the United States Army as a paratrooper stationed in Europe. He was discharged and returned to Hawaii for motor racing. Ongais became the Hawaiian motorcycle champion in 1960 and was in the top three positions in the expert class from 1960 to 1962. In the early 1960s he started competing in drag racing, he won the American Hot Rod Association AA Gas Dragster Championship in 1963 and 1964, in the National Hot Rod Association AA Dragster championship title in 1965. He defeated Don Prudhomme at the 1966 HHRA Nationals Top Fuel semifinals. In 1969 he won the NHRA Spring Nationals and NHRA U. S. Nationals in the Funny Car class driving a Ford Mustang for Mickey Thompson. Ongais made his CART debut during the 1979 season driving the #25 Panasonic/Interscope Racing Parnelli 6C-Cosworth DFX, he first raced at the Arizona Republic/Jimmy Bryan 150 at Phoenix International Raceway where he qualified 4th and led for several laps only to drop out after 128 laps due to engine problems.
He competed at the Gould Twin Dixie 125 however bad luck hit Ongais in both races. At the Indianapolis 500 Ongais crashed in practice and this put Ongais in jeopardy of not being able to compete. Ongais finished 4th; as the season progressed the Parnelli 6C started to struggle due to its age. Ongais scored another 4th-place finish at the Kent Oil 150 at Watkins Glen International and finished in 6th place in points. For the 1980 season Interscope was intending to use their own chassis with a Porsche V6 engine; the car was disallowed and Interscope brought out their Parnelli 6C-Cosworth DFX. At his first race of the season, the Indianapolis 500 Ongais started finished 7th. Ongais endured. Ongais made a single start for AMI Racing driving the #43 Armstrong Mould Orbiter 80C-Cosworth DFX at the Michigan 400 at Michigan International Speedway, finishing 11th. Ongais ended the season in 15th place in points. In 1981 at the Indianapolis 500 Danny Ongais was involved in a serious accident on lap 63. Ongais came into the pits on lap 63 as the leader of the race, but problems during the stop caused it to drag on for a disastrous 46 seconds.
After leaving the pits, Ongais approached a slower car at the end of the backstretch. He made a late pass going into turn 3. Carrying too much speed out of the turn, the car drifted out into the grey and the back end began to slide. Ongais tried to correct the slide by turning right, the car hooked to the right and crashed nearly head-on into the wall, he was knocked unconscious by the heavy impact. Officials had to cut open the car to help Ongais out, he was transported by an ambulance to a nearby hospital in a critical condition. By the time the broadcasting of the race ended at 11:30 PM, Ongais's condition had improved and his condition was updated to stable, he suffered a concussion, compound fractures in both legs, a broken arm and a 6-inch tear in his diaphragm. He missed the rest of the CART year to recover in rehabilitation. Ongais next drove in CART during the 1983 CART/PPG World Series season, first driving at the 1983 Indianapolis 500 driving the #65 Interscope Racing March 83C-Chevrolet V6 however, the car was replaced with the #25 March 83C-Cosworth DFX and he started in 21st place and retired with mechanical problems.
Ongais replaced an injured Johnny Rutherford in the #40 Sea Ray Boats Wildcat Mk 9-Cosworth DFX. In the season Interscope Racing set up a partnership between themselves and Patrick Racing giving Patrick Racing March 83C-Cosworth DFXs. Ongais scored a best finish of 5th place at the Escort Warning Radars 200 at Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course. Ongais finished in 20th place in points. For the 1984 season Ongais took over as owner of Interscope Racing fielding the #25 Interscope Racing March 84C-Cosworth DFX. Ongais finished in 3rd place at the Detroit News Grand Prix at Michigan International Speedway, he finished in 10th place in points. For the 1985 season Ongais scored a best finish of 6th at the Beatrice Indy Challenge at Tamiami Park and finished in 24th place in points. Ongais survived a spectacular barrel roll at the Michigan 500 at Michigan International Speedway when he ran into the slower car of Phil Krueger on the backstretch. For the 1986 season Ongais only ran the 1986 Indianapolis 500 for Interscope Racing.
Fielding the #25 GM Goodwrench/Panavision March 86C-Buick V6, Ongais dropped out with a mechanical failure. For the 1987 season Interscope Racing teamed up with Team Penske getting Ongais in the #25 Panavision Penske PC-16-Ilmor-Chevrolet Indy V8 for the Indianapolis 500, however Ongais crashed in practice and suffered a concussion; the car went
Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of various sorts were organised, with the first recorded as early as 1867. Many of the earliest events were reliability trials, aimed at proving these new machines were a practical mode of transport, but soon became an important way for competing makers to demonstrate their machines. By the 1930s, specialist racing cars had developed. There are now each with different rules and regulations; the first prearranged match race of two self-powered road vehicles over a prescribed route occurred at 4:30 A. M. on August 30, 1867, between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles; the first organized contest was on April 28, 1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier.
It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne. On July 22, 1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the world's first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee; the first American automobile race is held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28, 1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile. With auto construction and racing dominated by France, the French automobile club ACF staged a number of major international races from or to Paris, connecting with another major city, in France or elsewhere in Europe. Brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907, it featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners. One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2.5-mile-long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana.
It is the largest capacity sports venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257,000+ seated spectators. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21, 1948, with the help of several other drivers of the time. The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held on June 19, 1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars, with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. From 1972 through 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston; the changes that resulted from RJR's involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era". The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, which ran its first season in 1999; the European races became the related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs.
Turismo Carretera is a popular touring car racing series in Argentina, the oldest car racing series still active in the world. The first TC competition took place in 1937 with 12 races, each in a different province. Future Formula One star Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1940 and 1941 editions of the TC, it was during this time that the series' Chevrolet-Ford rivalry began, with Ford acquiring most of its historical victories. The two most popular varieties of open wheel road racing are the IndyCar Series. Formula One is a European-based series that runs only street race tracks; these cars are based around technology and their aerodynamics. With the highest speed record set in 2005 by Juan Pablo Montoya hitting 373 kph; some of the most prominent races are the Monaco Grand Prix, the Italian Grand Prix, the British Grand Prix. The season ends with the crowning of the World Championship for constructors. In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, the cars have aerofoil wings front and rear to produce downforce and enhance adhesion to the track.
In Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is referred to as'Formula', with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the'Formula' terminology is not followed; the sport is arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In the United States, the most popular series is the National Championship, more known as the IndyCar Series and known as CART; the cars have traditionally been similar though less technologically sophisticated than F1 cars, with more restrictions on technology aimed at controlling costs. While these cars are not as technologically advanced, they are faster because they compete on oval race tracks, being able to average a lap at 388 kph; the series' biggest race is the Indianapolis 500, referred to as "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" due to being the longest continuously run race and having the largest crowd for a single-day sporting event. The other major international single-seater racing series is Formula 2.
Regional series include Formula Nippon and Formula V6 Asia, Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Three, For
National Hot Rod Association
The National Hot Rod Association is a drag racing governing body, which sets rules in drag racing and hosts events all over the United States and Canada. With over 40,000 drivers in its rosters, the NHRA claims to be the largest motorsports sanctioning body in the world; the association was founded by Wally Parks in 1951 in California to provide a governing body to organize and promote the sport of drag racing. NHRA's first Nationals was held in Great Bend, Kansas; the NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series, the national event series which comprises 24 races each year, is the premier series in drag racing that brings together the best drag racers from across North America and the world. The NHRA U. S. Nationals are now held at Lucas Oil Raceway in Clermont and are called the U. S. Nationals. Winners of national events are awarded a trophy statue in honor of founder Wally Parks; the trophy is referred to by its nickname, a “Wally”. The NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series is the top division of the NHRA.
It consists of four professional classes: Top Fuel Dragster Top Fuel Funny Car Pro Stock Pro Stock Motorcycle List of NHRA champions There are more than a dozen Sportsman Classes. The classes contested at NHRA Divisional races include Snowmobile, Motorcycle Classes, Super Street, Super Gas, Stock Eliminator, Super Stock, Competition Eliminator, Super Comp, Top Sportsman, Top Dragster, Top Alcohol Funny Car, Top Alcohol Dragster. All classes except Snowmobile and some Sportsman motorcycle classes are contested at NHRA national events. NHRA promotes the Professional classes at national Events, the majority of its participants are Sportsman Racers. Sportsman-class racers must be dues-paying members of NHRA before they are allowed to enter and participate in any NHRA event. Included in these sportsman events are the Lucas Oil Drag Racing Series, the Summit Racing Equipment Racing Series and the NHRA Jr. Drag Racing League; the NHRA Sportsman Drag Racing Series consisted of seven divisions: Northeast, North Central, South Central, West Central and Pacific.
Starting in 2012, the Top Alcohol Dragster and Top Alcohol Funny Car classes competed in four regions: East, North Central and West. Sportsman racers with multiple championships Sportsman racers who have won multiple world championships, with the date of their most recent championship. Top Alcohol Dragster 5: Rick Santos, Bill Reichert 4: Blaine Johnson, Joey Severance 3: Bill Walsh 2: Jim Whiteley Alcohol Funny Car 16: Frank Manzo 4: Pat Austin 2: Randy Anderson, Bob Newberry, Jonnie Lindberg Competition Eliminator 3: Bill Maropulos, David Rampy 2: Coleman Roddy, Andy Manna, Jr, Dean Carter, Bruno Massel Super Stock 5: Peter Biondo 4: Jimmy DeFrank 3: Greg Stanfield, Justin Lamb 2: Keith Lynch, Jim Boburka, Jeff Taylor, Dan Fletcher Stock 4: Kevin Helms 2: Jim Hughes, Al Corda, Lee Zane, Edmond Richardson, Brad Burton The NHRA mandates numerous safety devices and procedures in all competition events; the five point safety harness is required for all vehicles. It holds the driver secure in the seat, is equipped with a quick release latch which can be released in less than a second should the driver need to leave the car due to fire or explosions.
Fire suits are required for all drivers in the alcohol and nitromethane fuel classes and the faster gasoline classes. These suits are full body coveralls and made with seven layers of Nomex fabric, which makes them resistant to fire; the required suit includes Nomex gloves, foot socks, head sock. Another NASCAR transplant, brought into use after the death of Fireball Roberts, was the fuel cell; this bladder is placed into the fuel tanks of non-nitromethane fueled vehicles to prevent fuel leaks, explosions. Third is the use of the HANS device; this device limits the movement of the neck in the event of an impact. Fourth is the titanium shield that must be placed behind the head of all Dragsters and Funny Cars down to the Alcohol ranks; this is to prevent any debris from entering the cockpit and becoming a missile hazard to the driver after the death of Top Fuel racer Darrell Russell. Fifth is the on-board fire extinguishing system; these systems are directed onto the engine itself and are activated when the engine catches fire, reducing the chance for the car to catch fire and endanger the driver.
The driver has a manual activation control available. This has been in place on all cars since 1983, when an engine explosion and fire came close to killing then-Funny Car driver Mike Dunn. All enclosed body cars must have a five-inch circular opening which will accept the nozzle of a fire extinguisher triggered by safety personnel. All vehicles must have a marked fuel pump cut-off switch on a rear panel, accessible to safety crews. Sixth is the roof escape hatch, in place on all Funny Cars since the founding of the division in the early 1970s; this device allows Funny Car drivers a safe means of exit during an engine fire rather than falling out of the car between the frame and fiberglass body, running the risk of being run over by the rear tires. Seventh are the long bars at the rear end of all cars known as "wheelie bars"; these long struts prevent the car from flipping over during the launch phase. To prevent debris, fuel, or coolant from falling on the racing surface, "diapers" under the engine are used to retain liquids