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Microsoft PowerPoint

Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program, created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a software company named Forethought, Inc. It was released on April 20, 1987 for Macintosh computers only. Microsoft acquired PowerPoint for $14 million three months; this was Microsoft's first significant acquisition, Microsoft set up a new business unit for PowerPoint in Silicon Valley where Forethought had been located. Microsoft PowerPoint is one of many programs run by the company Microsoft and can be identified by its trademark orange, P initial on the logo, it offers users many ways to display information from simple presentations to complex multimedia presentations. PowerPoint became a component of the Microsoft Office suite, first offered in 1989 for Macintosh and in 1990 for Windows, which bundled several Microsoft apps. Beginning with PowerPoint 4.0, PowerPoint was integrated into Microsoft Office development, adopted shared common components and a converged user interface. PowerPoint's market share was small at first, prior to introducing a version for Microsoft Windows, but grew with the growth of Windows and of Office.

Since the late 1990s, PowerPoint's worldwide market share of presentation software has been estimated at 95 percent. PowerPoint was designed to provide visuals for group presentations within business organizations, but has come to be widely used in many other communication situations, both in business and beyond; the impact of this much wider use of PowerPoint has been experienced as a powerful change throughout society, with strong reactions including advice that it should be used less, should be used differently, or should be used better. The first PowerPoint version was used to produce overhead transparencies, the second could produce color 35mm slides; the third version introduced video output of virtual slideshows to digital projectors, which would over time replace physical transparencies and slides. A dozen major versions since have added many additional features and modes of operation and have made PowerPoint available beyond Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows, adding versions for iOS, web access.

PowerPoint was created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a software startup in Silicon Valley named Forethought, Inc. Forethought had been founded in 1983 to create an integrated environment and applications for future personal computers that would provide a graphical user interface, but it had run into difficulties requiring a "restart" and new plan. On July 5, 1984, Forethought hired Robert Gaskins as its vice president of product development to create a new application that would be suited to the new graphical personal computers, such as Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh. Gaskins produced his initial description of PowerPoint about a month in the form of a 2-page document titled "Presentation Graphics for Overhead Projection." By October 1984 Gaskins had selected Dennis Austin to be the developer for PowerPoint. Gaskins and Austin worked together on the definition and design of the new product for nearly a year, produced the first specification document dated August 21, 1985; this first design document showed a product as it would look in Microsoft Windows 1.0, which at that time had not been released.

Development from that spec was begun by Austin for Macintosh first. About six months on May 1, 1986, Gaskins and Austin chose a second developer to join the project, Thomas Rudkin. Gaskins prepared two final product specification marketing documents in June 1986. At about the same time, Austin and Gaskins produced a second and final major design specification document, this time showing a Macintosh look. Throughout this development period the product was called "Presenter." Just before release, there was a last-minute check with Forethought's lawyers to register the name as a trademark, "Presenter" was unexpectedly rejected because it had been used by someone else. Gaskins says that he thought of "PowerPoint", based on the product's goal of "empowering" individual presenters, sent that name to the lawyers for clearance, while all the documentation was hastily revised. Funding to complete development of PowerPoint was assured in mid-January, 1987, when a new Apple Computer venture capital fund, called Apple's Strategic Investment Group, selected PowerPoint to be its first investment.

A month on February 22, 1987, Forethought announced PowerPoint at the Personal Computer Forum in Phoenix. By early 1987, Microsoft was starting to plan a new application to create presentations, an activity led by Jeff Raikes, head of marketing for the Applications Division. Microsoft assigned an internal group to write a specification and plan for a new presentation product, they contemplated an acquisition to speed up development, in early 1987 Microsoft sent a letter of intent to acquire Dave Winer's product called MORE, an outlining program that could print its outlines as bullet charts. During this preparatory activity Raikes discovered that a program to make overhead presentations was being developed by Forethought, Inc. and that it was nearly completed. Raikes and others visited Forethought on February 1987, for a confidential demonstration. Raikes recounted his reaction to seeing PowerPoint and hi

Ronnie Cuber

Ronald Edward Cuber is a jazz saxophonist. He has played in Latin, pop and blues sessions. In addition to his primary instrument, baritone sax, he has played tenor sax, soprano sax and flute, the latter on an album by Eddie Palmieri as well as on his own recordings; as a leader, Cuber is known for Latin jazz. As a side man, he has played with B. B. King, Paul Simon, Eric Clapton. Cuber can be heard on Freeze Frame by the J. Geils Band, one of his most spirited performances is on Dr. Lonnie Smith's 1970 Blue Note album Drives, he was a member of the Saturday Night Live Band. Cuber was in Marshall Brown's Newport Youth Band in 1959, where he switched from tenor to baritone sax, his first notable work was with Maynard Ferguson. From 1966 to 1967, Cuber worked with George Benson, he was a member of the Lee Konitz nonet from 1977 to 1979. He can be heard playing in Frank Zappa's group in the mid-1970s, including the album Zappa in New York, he has been a member of the Mingus Big Band since its inception in the early 1990s.

He was an off-screen musician for the movie Across the Universe. 1976: Cuber Libre! 1978: The Eleventh Day of Aquarius 1981: New York Jazz 1985: Two Brothers 1985: Pin Point 1985: Passion Fruit 1986: Live at the Blue Note 1992: Cubism 1993: The Scene Is Clean 1994: Airplay 1996: In a New York Minute 1997: N. Y. C.ats 1998: Love for Sale 2009: Ronnie 2011: Boplicity 2013: Live at JazzFest Berlin 2018 Ronnie's Trio 2019 Four With Patti Austin End of a Rainbow Havana Candy With George Benson It's Uptown The George Benson Cookbook Good King Bad With Nick Brignola Burn Brigade With Maynard Ferguson The New Sounds of Maynard Ferguson Come Blow Your Horn Color Him Wild With The Gadd Gang The Gadd Gang Here & Now Live at the Bottom Line With Grant Green The Main Attraction With Billy Joel baritone saxophone on "Easy Money", "Careless Talk", "Tell Her About It", "Keeping The Faith" on album An Innocent Man baritone saxophone on "Big Man on Mulberry Street" on album The Bridge With Sam Jones Something New With Lee KonitzLee Konitz Nonet Yes, Nonet Live at Laren With Jimmy McGriff Feelin' It McGriff Avenue With Idris Muhammad House of the Rising Sun Turn This Mutha Out With Horace Silver The Hardbop Grandpop With Lonnie Smith Move Your Hand Drives Live at Club Mozambique With Mickey Tucker Sojourn With Gerald Wilson Detroit With Rare Silk New Weave With Randy Brecker 34th N Lex With Dr. John Duke Elegant With Paul Simon baritone saxophone on "You Can Call Me Al" on album Graceland With Tom Scott Bebop United With Eddie Palmieri Harlem River Drive Vamonos Pa'l Monte.

Miners' National Union

The Miners' National Union was a trade union which represented miners in Great Britain. The union was founded in November 1863 at a five-day long conference at the People's Hall in Leeds, it was known as the National Association of Coal and Ironstone Miners of Great Britain or Miners' National Association. It campaigned for legislation in the interests of its members, but did not involve itself in trade disputes, disappointed strikers who hoped it would provide them with financial support, its most prominent achievement was in getting the Coal Mines Regulation Act 1872 passed. The Amalgamated Association of Miners was formed by former members of the union in 1869 and for a few years established new unions across the country. However, by 1875 it was in financial trouble and the two negotiated a merger. Trade unions affiliated to the union included the Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire Miners' Association, Durham Miners' Association, Northumberland Miners' Association, South Yorkshire Miners' Association and West Yorkshire Miners' Association.

The union worked with the Scottish Miners' Association, whose secretary was Alexander Macdonald, President of the MNU. The union's affiliates in 1873 were: By 1889, in addition to Northumberland and Durham, the newer Yorkshire Miners' Association, Derbyshire Miners' Association, Nottinghamshire Miners' Association, Ashton-under-Lyne Miners' Association and Monmouthshire and South Wales District Miners' Association held membership. At that year's conference, the unions voted against involving itself with wage disputes, instead focusing on lobbying Parliament for reforms. However, it had no objection to the creation of a new organisation being created to intervene on industrial matters and, as a result, several affiliates were founder members of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, the MNU fading in importance. In 1898, the Durham Miners and a few remaining minor bodies withdrew from the union. 1863: Alexander Macdonald 1881: Thomas Burt 1863: Richard Mitchell 1865: John Worrall 1875: Thomas Halliday 1877: William Crawford 1890: John Wilson