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Middle Atlantic coastal forests

The Middle Atlantic coastal forests are a temperate coniferous forest mixed with patches of evergreen broadleaved forests along the coast of the southeastern United States. The Middle Atlantic coastal forests stretch along the Southern Atlantic coast of the United States from extreme Southern New Jersey south to the Georgia coast, they cover the lower Atlantic coastal plain and are bordered on the west by the Southeastern mixed forests. The habitats of the ecoregion are modified by natural processes; the bottomlands, coastal plains, maritime areas are vulnerable to tropical cyclones and floods. The drier areas with porous sandy soils are susceptible to fires and drought. Fire return intervals of 1 to 3 years favor herbaceous plants; this ecoregion has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and mild winters, with the heaviest precipitation concentrated in the warmest months. Two basic types of forests are found in this region; the mixed pine-oak forests occur in areas exposed to occasional fires.

Longleaf pine, superbly adapted to fire-prone environments, was the principal tree in many of these forests. Loblolly pine and shortleaf pine are still dominant in this ecosystem. Loblolly is planted on millions of acres of plantation forest's across the southeastern US. On moist soils or where fires are infrequent, hardwoods overtake the pines; these hardwoods include turkey oak, post oak, myrtle oak, Spanish oak, southern catalpa. Evergreen broadleaved forests occur close to the coast in localized areas as either evergreen Maritime oak forests or as more localized evergreen hammocks; these forests consist of evergreen broadleaved canopy trees, such as Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia virginiana, Persea borbonia, Gordonia lasianthus and several evergreen oaks such as Quercus myrtifolia, the iconic Quercus virginiana or southern Live Oak covered with Spanish moss. The understory is often evergreen in these forests, with Myrica cerifera and Osmanthus americanus common, while several evergreen species of Ericaceae and scrub palms are common on more moist sites.

In the open areas near sandy beaches and coastal areas, large endemic populations of Yucca and cactus thrive in the hot sun and sandy soils. The Middle Atlantic coastal forests contain the most diverse assemblage of freshwater wetland communities in North America; these include freshwater marshes, shrub bogs, white cedar swamps and wet hammocks. The bottomland hardwood forests for which the ecoregion is famous are dominated by bald cypress and swamp tupelo. Bald cypress swamps are dominated by their namesake tree, are too wet for foot travel. Many uncommon orchids grow among the baldcypress branches. Swamp tupelo, along with water tupelo, dominate mixed-hardwood swamp forests; these grow aside water-adapted oaks that include water oak, swamp chestnut oak, cherrybark oak, willow oak, overcup oak. Swamp hickory and water hickory are found here. Pawpaw grows in the understory. Atlantic white cedar swamps occur along blackwater rivers. Pocosins are damp, sandy, or peaty areas far from streams, they have scattered pond pine and a dense growth of evergreen shrubs including gallberry.

Barrier islands along the coast protect extensive estuaries and sounds. Carolina bays are a unique habitat of the ecoregion; the nine-banded armadillo is a distinctive animal. The Virginia opossum is abundant. In the mixed pine-oak forests, the brown-headed nuthatch feeds on pine seeds; the yellow-throated warbler is distributed. The northern parula warbler and the eastern bluebird are found here; the Bachman sparrow and red-cockaded woodpecker, both uncommon live in this ecoregion. The bottomland forests support abundant arthropods, produce mast that sustains migratory birds during the winter, produce boles, branch cavities, rotting logs that support various detritivores and hole-nesting species. In the extreme southeast regions the large American alligator can be found along tidal inlets and marsh areas; the main causes of habitat conversion are agriculture, fire suppression, coastal development and draining of wetlands, damming of rivers. The western part of the ecoregion has been most altered.

There, the upland vegetation has been nearly converted. Long-leaf pine savannas have nearly disappeared; the least altered habitats in the ecoregion are deep peatlands. Francis Marion National Forest Brunswick County Pinelands Holly Shelter Gamelands Croatan National Forest

Hideout (manga)

Hideout is a psychological horror manga written and illustrated by Masasumi Kakizaki. Hideout is published by Shogakukan; the manga was released as one volume in Japan on 30 November 2010. It was published in German, Spanish and Czech. On a idyllic vacation island, Seichi Kirishima and his wife Miki Kirishima are pinned down by a heavy rain somewhere in the island's interior, but this does not deter Seichi, it determined him, his decision is clear: Tonight, he will kill his wife. Just a year ago, he was a happy man - an aspiring writer, a contented husband, a father of a young boy... at that time, everything was going well for him. But such happiness came to end; the day his editor put an end to their collaboration, darkness seeped into his life faster than a bullet. A terrifying descent into hell commences, page by page of what it seems to be his last novel... Seichi Kirishima: The main protagonist, he is the husband of Miki Kirishima. After losing his son, he brought his wife on a vacation. Miki Kirishima: Seichi's wife.

She is angry at her husband after their only son's death. The Old man: The main antagonist, he is depraved of sunlight as he lives inside a dark cave for his life, takes women as prisoners and consumes the flesh of male stragglers. Chapter 1: "Wicked Eyes" Chapter 2: "Nightmare" Chapter 3: "Everybody Dies" Chapter 4: "Help Me" Chapter 5: "Reversal" Chapter 6: "Buried Alive" Chapter 7: "Dead Or Alive" Chapter 8: "New Family" Epilogue: "Death Spiral"


Cruelty is pleasure in inflicting suffering or inaction towards another's suffering when a clear remedy is available. Sadism can be related to this form of action or concept. Cruel ways of inflicting suffering may involve violence, but affirmative violence is not necessary for an act to be cruel. For example, if a person is drowning and begging for help and another person is able to help with no cost or risk, but is watching with disinterest or mischievous amusement, that person is being cruel—rather than violent. George Eliot stated. Bertrand Russell stated that "the infliction of cruelty with a good conscience is a delight to moralists; that is why they invented Hell." Gilbert K. Chesterton stated that "cruelty is the worst kind of sin. Intellectual cruelty is the worst kind of cruelty."The word has metaphorical uses, for example "The cliffs remained cruel." In The Lord of the Rings. The term cruelty is used in law and criminology with regard to the treatment of animals, children and prisoners.

When cruelty to animals is discussed, it refers to unnecessary suffering. In criminal law, it refers to punishment, victimization, draconian measures, cruel and unusual punishment. In divorce cases, many jurisdictions permit a cause of action for inhumane treatment. In law, cruelty is "the infliction of physical or mental distress when considered a determinant in granting a divorce." The term comes from Middle English, via the Old French term "crualte", based on Latin "crudelitas", from "crudelis". Cruelty to animals Theatre of Cruelty Schadenfreude Sadism The Four Stages of Cruelty Abuse Simon Baron-Cohen, The Science of Evil: On Empathy and the Origins of Cruelty, Basic Books, 2011. Reviewed in The Montreal Review Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, 2003

Transformers: Dark of the Moon: The Junior Novel

Transformers: Dark of the Moon: The Junior Novel is an adaptation of the 2011 film Transformers: Dark of the Moon written by Michael Kelly. For younger readers the violence featured in the movie is scaled down and the book features a different ending than the one seen in the film to avoid spoilers as the novel was released before the movie was, although this could be contributed to the fact that the novel may have been based on an earlier version of the script than the one seen in the final film. Brains, Wheelie's sidekick, who turns into a Lenovo ThinkPad. Bumblebee, Sam's friend among the Autobots. Transforms into a yellow Bugatti Chiron. Ironhide, Autobot weapon specialist. Transforms into a GMC Topkick. Mirage, a autobot spy who turns into a Ferrari 458 Italia. Optimus Prime, leader of the Autobots on Earth, he transforms into a conventional Peterbilt 379 cab. Ratchet, the autobot medic who transforms into a search and rescue Hummer H2. Sentinel Prime, the previous autobot leader, who made a deal with Megatron to help save Cybertron.

He transforms into an airport crash tender fire truck. Sideswipe, the autobot warrior who turns into a Corvette Centennial. Wheelie, a former decepticon drone who transforms into a toy remote controlled monster truck. Wheeljack, the autobot's "scientist", who transforms into a blue Mercedes-Benz car; the Wreckers, a group of Autobots who turn into race cars. Leadfoot transforms into Juan Pablo Montoya's number 42. Roadbuster transforms into Dale Earnhadt Jr's number 88. Topspin transforms into Jimmie's Johnson's number 48; the Dreads, a trio of Decepticons who become FBI SUVs. Crankcase, the leader. Crowbar, second in command. Hatchet, the beast. Driller, a Cybertronian mechanical beast used for mining, he is Shockwave's "pet". Laserbeak, small bird-like spy for the Decepticons, turns into a computer. Controlled by Soundwave. Megatron, leader of the Decepticons, he turns into a Russian oil tanker. He's still damaged from the events of Revenge of the Fallen. Shockwave and loyal follower of the Decepticon leader, Megatron.

Soundwave, a satellite, who comes to Earth in form of a silver Mercedes-Benz. Starscream, Megatron's crafty lieutenant. Scrapper, a constructicon warrior who transforms into a CAT Construction Vehicle. Barricade, a decepticon brute. Igor, a pesty decepticon, Long Haul's head from ROTF. Buzz Aldrin, American Astronaut and one of the first men on the moon. Based on the real-world person of the same name. Carly Spencer, Sam's girlfriend. Dutch, Seymour Simmons' assistant. Dylan Gould, Carly's boss and secret ally of the Decepticons. National Director of Intelligence Charlotte Mearing. Jerry Wang Lt. Colonel William Lennox, human soldier, member of NEST. Neil Armstrong, American Astronaut and one of the first men on the moon. Based on the real-world person of the same name. Sam Witwicky, human ally to the Autobots. Seymour Simmons, former Sector 7 agent who wrote a book on his experiences in the government. Robert Epps This is not the only Transformers book to occur during the 1969 moon landing. Transformers: Ghosts of Yesterday takes place during the launch of the Apollo 11 launch as well.

To be done


Haplochromis is a ray-finned fish genus in the family Cichlidae. It has been used as the default "wastebin taxon" for Pseudocrenilabrinae cichlids of the East African Rift, as such became the "largest" fish "genus". Many of these cichlids are popular aquarium fishes; the genus was established by F. M. Hilgendorf in 1888, it was conceived as a subgenus of A. C. L. G. Günther's "Chromis", at that time an larger "wastebin genus" for Pseudocrenilabrinae cichlids; the type species of Hilgendorf was H. obliquidens. "Chromis" of Günther turned out to be a junior homonym of G. Cuvier's ocean fish genus Chromis established in 1814, was abolished; as the years went by, other genera of Haplochromini were lumped with and split again from Haplochromis, the final delimitation of the clade around H. obliquidens is not yet done. The introduction of Nile perch to Lake Victoria after 1954 upset the lake's ecosystem. By the late 1970s, the perch's population was approaching carrying capacity, the smaller cichlids were fair game for the huge carnivorous Lates, the Nile tilapia, an adaptable generalist, was introduced and competed with the specialized endemic cichlids of the lake for food and other resources.

When the Nile perch stocks declined again in the late 1980s, an estimated 200 Haplochromini species may have become extinct – many of these had only been scientifically described a few years before their demise, additional ones were only known or suspected to exist, but never properly studied or described. While the stocks of those species that survived are in many cases recovering, the lake ecosystem has changed irrevocably; the entire trophic web has been observed to be upset. But still, evolution runs its course: those Lake Victoria Haplochromis species that still exist are in many cases adapting to new food sources, in time, speciation is to set in and produce a new adaptive radiation of these fishes; until however, the ecological balance of the lake is still on the brink, many of the cichlids that survived the peak population of Lates are still critically endangered and close to extinction. Haplochromis is the type genus of the tribe Haplochromini. Most of the tribe's members were at one time or another included in the present genus, but in many cases this was only temporary.

Around the year 1900, as well 100 years the trend was to split up the genus. While a number of African Rift Valley cichlids are very close relatives of H. obliquidens, the type species of the present genus, it is not clear where to draw the boundary of Haplochromis with regard to its relatives. Still, several genera are now recognized as distinct by many authors and scientific databases, such as FishBase; the genus delimitation in the entire tribe remains badly resolved and further changes in taxonomy are in the future. In particular, between Haplochromis and Thoracochromis, species have been moved to and from over the years; the habit of Pseudocrenilabrinae to hybridize is hampering molecular phylogenetic studies based on mtDNA alone, while trophic morphs of a single species may appear to be distinct "species" if they are not phylogenetically studied. Several proposed genera are again included in Haplochromis at present, but it cannot be ruled out that some of these will be recognized as valid again.

There are 229 recognized species in this genus: These populations are referred to by the names they have in the aquarium fish trade. A number of them are to represent undescribed distinct species. Whether they all belong in Haplochromis is, of course, doubtful; some of these populations are: Among other genera of Haplochromini that were included here, many are small or monotypic. The distinctness of these is doubtful, as they may just be distinct lineages of Haplochromis or other haplochromines; that nonwithstanding, Haplochromini genera to which some former "Haplochromis" have been removed are in particular: Some other Pseudocrenilabrinae were – by early authors – included in Haplochromis, though they are not members of its tribe. These are: Anomalochromis thomasi of the Hemichromini Altolamprologus compressiceps of the Lamprologini Tilapia jallae of the Tilapiini With all the taxonomic and systematic confusion affecting Haplochromis and its allies, it is hardly surprising that the genus has a large number of junior synonyms.

Most referred to small or monotypic genera that were once considered distinct, but are now included in Haplochromis again, if only to wait for a major review of their status. Synonyms are: Sometimes other genera listed above are synonymized. FishBase: Valid Haplochromis species. Retrieved 2009-OCT-03. FishBase: Haplochromis taxa. Retrieved 2009-OCT-03. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources: 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. Retrieved 2009-SEP-20. Kishe-Machumu, Mary. Anim. Biol. 58: 401-417. Doi:10.1163/157075608X383700 Linke, H. & Staeck, L.: African cichlids II: Cichlids from East Africa. A handbook for their identification and breeding. Tetra Press, Germany. ISBN 1

1938 Liverpool City Council election

Elections to Liverpool City Council were held on 1 November 1938. One third of the council seats were up for election, the term of office of each councillor being three years. Twelve of the forty seats up for election were uncontested. After the election, the composition of the council was: * - Councillor seeking re-election Comparisons are made with the 1935 election results. At the meeting of the council on 9 November 1938, the terms of office of nineteen of the aldermen expired and the councillors elected the following aldermen for a term of six years. * - re-elected aldermen. Following the death on 27 December 1938 of Alderman Sir James Sexton C. B. E. in whose place Councillor Bertie Victor Kirby M. P. J. P. was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 1 February 1939. The term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Caused by the death on 10 April 1939 of Alderman George Young Williamson, in whose place Councillor Robert John Hall was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 3 May 1939.

The term of office to expire on 9 November 1945. Following the death on 24 July 1939 of Alderman Frank Campbell Wilson, Councillor Gertrude Elizabeth Wilson was elected by the councillors as an Alderman on 6 September 1939; the term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Following the death of Alderman Edward Russell-Taylor, Councillor Edward James Deane was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 9 November 1939; the term of office to expire on 9 November 1944. Following the death, on 19 March 1940, of Alderman John Morris Griffith Councillor John Case J. P. of "Eversley" Island Road, Harston was elected as an alderman on 3 April 1940 to fill this vacancy. The term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Following the resignation of Alderman Richard Rutherford, Councillor George Alfred Strong J. P. of "Palmyra" Harthill Road, Liverpool 18 was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 3 April 1940. The term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Following the death, on 28 May 1940 of Alderman John George Paris, Councillor James Graham Reece J.

P. of 15 Aigburth Drive was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 3 July 1940 The term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Following the death, on 18 January 1941, of Alderman Robert Lowry Burns, Councillor Charles Gordon Snowden Gordon J. P. of 34 Princes Avenue, Liverpool 8 was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 5 February 1941. The term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Following the resignation of Alderman Henry Morley Miller, Councillor Alexander Critchley, Incorporated Accountant of 454 Aigburth Road, Liverpool 19 was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 5 February 1941; the term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Following the death on 18 April 1941, of Alderman John Wolfe Tone Morrissey, Councillor Joseph Jackson Cleary of 45 Kremlin Drive, Liverpool 13 was elected as an alderman by the councillors on 7 May 1941 The term of office to expire on 9 November 1941. Following the death, on 30 July 1943, of Alderman Dr. Robert Garnett Sheldon, Councillor William Greenough Gregson J.

P. was elected by the councillors as an alderman to fill the vacancy on 1 September 1943 Following the death, on 13 September 1943, of Alderman Lady Helena Agnes Daltymple Muspratt, Councillor Ernest Ash Cookson was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 6 October 1943. Following the death, on 28 September 1943, of Alderman Edward James Deane, Councillor Moss Greenberg was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 27 October 1943 Following the death, on 19 October 1943, of Alderman Herbert Edward Rose, Councillor Patrick Fay was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 9 November 1943. Following the resignation of Alderman William Muirhead, Councillor Walter Thomas Lancashire J. P. was elected by the councillors as an alderman on 9 November 1943. Following the death, on 10 December 1943 of Alderman Thomas Burke, Councillor Peter Kavanagh was elected by