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Temperate coniferous forest

Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Temperate coniferous forests are found predominantly in areas with warm summers and cool winters, vary in their kinds of plant life. In some, needleleaf trees dominate, while others are home to broadleaf evergreen trees or a mix of both tree types. A separate habitat type, the tropical coniferous forests, occurs in more tropical climates. Temperate coniferous forests are common in the coastal areas of regions that have mild winters and heavy rainfall, or inland in drier climates or montane areas. Many species of trees inhabit these forests including pine, cedar and redwood; the understory contains a wide variety of herbaceous and shrub species. Temperate coniferous forests sustain the highest levels of biomass in any terrestrial ecosystem and are notable for trees of massive proportions in temperate rainforest regions. Structurally, these forests are rather simple, consisting of 2 layers generally: an overstory and understory.

However, some forests may support a layer of shrubs. Pine forests support an herbaceous groundlayer that may be dominated by grasses and forbs that lend themselves to ecologically important wildfires. In contrast, the moist conditions found in temperate rain forests favor the dominance by ferns and some forbs. Temperate rain forests only occur in 7 regions around the world - the Pacific Northwest region of North America, southwestern Japan, the Validivian forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, the coniferous mountain forests of Europe. Forest communities dominated by huge trees, an unusual ecological phenomena, occur in western North America, southwestern South America, as well as in the Australasian region in such areas as southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand; the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion of western North America harbors diverse and unusual assemblages and displays notable endemism for a number of plant and animal taxa. Cedar hemlock douglas-fir forest Temperate deciduous forest Temperate forest

Harlow Curtice

Harlow Herbert Curtice was an American auto industry executive who led General Motors from 1953 to 1958. As GM's chief, Curtice was selected as Man of the Year for 1955 by TIME magazine. Curtice was born in Michigan, he joined General Motors at age 20, rose through its AC Spark Plug division to head it by age 36, made the division profitable during the Depression. Selected to head the Buick division of GM, he made it profitable in the 1930s. In 1948, Curtice became executive vice president of GM, succeeded to the presidency in 1953 when GM president Charles Wilson became Secretary of Defense. With Curtice as president, GM became immensely profitable, became the first corporation to have $1 billion in profits in one year. In 1958, Curtice retired just after his 65th birthday; the following year, he accidentally killed a friend while duck hunting. He died in 1962 at age 69. Curtice was born in Petrieville, Michigan, on August 15, 1893, the son of Marion Curtice and the former Mary Ellen Eckhart, was raised in Eaton Rapids, attending Eaton Rapids High School.

During school vacations, he kept the books for his father, a commission merchant, worked in a woolen mill. He graduated from the Ferris Business College in 1914. After moving to Flint, Michigan in 1914, Curtice began his meteoric rise at GM, he started as a bookkeeper for GM's AC Spark Plug Division. The 20-year-old, in his job interview by the company comptroller, told him that his ambition was to become comptroller himself within a year, he did so, becoming AC Spark Plug's comptroller at just 21. Curtice went beyond the ledger, exploring the plant to find out what the figures meant in terms of men and equipment. After a brief period of service as an Army enlisted man, Curtice resumed his career at AC Spark Plug, becoming assistant general manager in 1923 and president in 1929. While other product lines struggled with or were destroyed by the Depression, Curtice's AC Spark Plug Division expanded and prospered. GM's Buick division was having great difficulties during the Depression. Curtice was put in charge, made a new organization for Buick, marketed a new car.

He created a small network of dealers that would be Buick dealers. Curtice guided Buick through the war years and by the time he was elevated to a GM vice presidency, he had made Buick the fourth best-selling car line. During World War II, Buick produced aircraft engines with such efficiency that the Army considered making Curtice a General, but he declined. In 1946, GM President Charles Wilson offered him the position of executive vice president—to be Wilson's right-hand man—but Curtice declined, stating that he wished to see Buicks rolling again off the assembly line before he left the division. In 1948, Wilson offered the position again to Curtice. Curtice had greater power as executive vice president than any prior holder of that position, he was in charge of all staff matters. In 1953, Wilson left. GM's board of directors appointed Curtice to take Wilson's place. Curtice kept GM's tradition of letting division heads be autonomous. However, with GM's Allison Division lagging in 1953, he stepped in to help run the division and find money for a massive investment for a new line of engines that again made the division competitive with Pratt & Whitney.

In 1955, Eastern Airlines' Eddie Rickenbacker placed a large order for the new engines. In his first two years as president, Curtice traveled abroad twice, spending millions each time with on-the-spot decisions; the early months of Curtice's rule at GM saw fears of a recession. In February 1954, with the economy still lagging, Curtice announced that GM would spend $1 billion in expanding its plants and facilities in anticipation of the boom to come; this set off a spree of capital spending by other corporations, which helped ensure the recovery of the economy. Ford matched the billion with a billion of its own, while Chrysler announced plans to spend $500 million. Meanwhile, Curtice, a poker player, upped the ante by announcing plans to spend a second billion. Curtice saw that the economy would recover, was prepared for it. In 1955, GM sold five million vehicles and became the first corporation to earn a billion dollars in a year. Curtice was given Time magazine's "Man of the Year" recognition for 1955 because "in a job that required it, he has assumed the responsibility of leadership for American business.

In his words'General Motors must always lead.'" During his presidency, he was only at his home in Michigan at the weekends. In 1956, he announced plans to devote another billion to capital investment, the largest such sum invested by a single firm in a single year. At the peak of his earning ability, he made $800,000 per year, he was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1971. Upon reaching age 65, Curtice retired on August 31, 1958, he remained a director of GM. In 1959, he accidentally shot and killed retired GM vice president, Harry W. Anderson, while on a duck hunting trip to Canada. Curtice resided in Flint throughout his career, he died at his home in Flint in 1962, aged 69, of an apparent heart attack. He was survived by his wife, three daughters, a brother. Dunham, Terry. Buick: A Complete History. Automobile Quarterly Publications. ISBN 0-9711468-3-7. Freeland, Robert F.. The Struggle for Control of the Modern Corporation: Organizational Change at General Motors, 1924-1970. Cambridge Unive

Jeff Hanna

Jeffrey "Jeff" R. Hanna is an American singer-songwriter and performance musician, best known for his association with the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, his professional music career has spanned six decades. Hanna was born in Michigan. In 1962 at age 15 he moved with his family to California; as a high school student there, he and some friends started a jug band that evolved into the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. He was one of the founders and is the longest-serving member of the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, where he has been a singer, lead guitarist and washboard player. Through the years, he has been a major force in keeping the band together and maintaining its blend of folk and rock music. Hanna has over 380 recording credits as a composer, but as a vocalist, guitarist and producer. In addition to the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, his credits include work with artists such as Linda Ronstadt, Suzy Bogguss, The Texas Tenors, Patty Loveless, Rascal Flatts, Matraca Berg, Hannah Montana, Emmylou Harris, The Chieftains, Johnny Cash, June Carter Cash, Earl Scruggs, Michael Martin Murphey, Dickey Betts, Steve Martin.

In 2006, his composition "Bless the Broken Road", co-written with Marcus Hummon and Bobby Boyd in 1994, won a Grammy Award for Best Country Song. It has been recorded by the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, Marcus Hummon, and, in the Grammy year, Rascal Flatts. Hanna's children are visual artist Christopher Hanna, Jaime Hanna of the Hanna-McEuen country music duo, he has been married to Matraca Berg since December 5, 1993. The couple met. Shortly after their marriage, Hanna wrote his Grammy-winning song