Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Clarksville is the county seat of Montgomery County, United States. It is the fifth-largest city in the state behind Nashville, Memphis and Chattanooga; the city had a population of 132,929 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 153,205 in 2017. It is the principal central city of the Clarksville, TN–KY metropolitan statistical area, which consists of Montgomery and Stewart Counties in Tennessee, Christian and Trigg Counties in Kentucky; the city was founded in 1785 and incorporated in 1807, named for General George Rogers Clark, frontier fighter and Revolutionary War hero, brother of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clarksville is the home of Austin Peay State University. Site of the 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell is located about 10 miles from downtown Clarksville, straddling the Tennessee-Kentucky state line. While the post office for the base is located on the Kentucky side, the majority of the base's acreage is on the Tennessee side; the area now known as Tennessee was first settled by Paleo-Indians nearly 11,000 years ago.
The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic and Mississippian, whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley prior to Cherokee migration into the river's headwaters. When Spanish explorers first visited Tennessee, led by Hernando de Soto in 1539−43, it was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people; because of European diseases devastating the native tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the native populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw, Choctaw. From 1838 to 1839, nearly 17,000 Cherokees were forced to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee, such as Fort Cass, to Indian Territory west of Arkansas.
This came to be known as the Trail of Tears. The area around Clarksville was first surveyed by Thomas Hutchins in 1768, he identified Red Paint Hill, a rock bluff at the confluence of the Cumberland and Red Rivers, as a navigational landmark. In the years between 1771 and 1775, John Montgomery, the namesake of the county, along with Kasper Mansker, visited the area while on a hunting expedition. In 1771, James Robertson led a group of 12 or 13 families involved with the Regulator movement from near where present-day Raleigh, North Carolina now stands. In 1772, Robertson and the pioneers who had settled in northeast Tennessee met at Sycamore Shoals to establish an independent regional government known as the Watauga Association. However, in 1772, surveyors placed the land within the domain of the Cherokee tribe, who required negotiation of a lease with the settlers. Tragedy struck as the lease was being celebrated, when a Cherokee warrior was murdered by a white man. Through diplomacy, Robertson made peace with the Cherokee, who threatened to expel the settlers by force if necessary.
In March 1775, land speculator and North Carolina judge Richard Henderson met with more than 1,200 Cherokees at Sycamore Shoals, including Cherokee leaders such as Attacullaculla and Dragging Canoe. In the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, Henderson purchased all the land lying between the Cumberland River, the Cumberland Mountains, the Kentucky River, situated south of the Ohio River in what is known as the Transylvania Purchase from the Cherokee Indians; the land thus delineated, 20 million acres, encompassed an area half as large as the present state of Kentucky. Henderson's purchase was in violation of North Carolina and Virginia law, as well as the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited private purchase of American Indian land. Henderson may have mistakenly believed that a newer British legal opinion had made such land purchases legal. All of present-day Tennessee was once recognized as North Carolina. Created in 1777 from the western areas of Burke and Wilkes Counties, Washington County had as a precursor a Washington District of 1775–76, the first political entity named for the Commander-in-Chief of American forces in the Revolution.
In 1779, James Robertson brought a group of settlers from upper East Tennessee via Daniel Boone's Wilderness Road. Robertson built an iron plantation in Cumberland Furnace. A year John Donelson led a group of flat boats up the Cumberland River bound for the French trading settlement, French Lick, that would be Nashville; when the boats reached Red Paint Hill, Moses Renfroe, Joseph Renfroe, Solomon Turpin, along with their families, branched off onto the Red River. They traveled to the mouth of Parson's Creek, near Port Royal, went ashore to settle down. However, an attack by Indians in the summer drove them back. Clarksville was designated as a town to be settled in part by soldiers from the disbanded Continental Army that served under General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War. At the end of the war, the federal government lacked sufficient funds to repay the soldiers, so the Legislature of North Carolina, in 1790, designated the lands to the west of the state line as federal lands that could be used
DeKalb County, Tennessee
DeKalb County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,723, its county seat is Smithville. The county was created by the General Assembly of Tennessee on December 2, 1837 and was named for Revolutionary War hero Major General Johann de Kalb. DeKalb County was formed in 1837 from land in Cannon and White counties. Historian believes that the first settlers in the county were at Liberty and came from Maryland in 1797. If so, Addison Puckett was the first settler, he may have come over the Cumberland Mountains, although some sources claim he came down the Ohio, up the Cumberland to Nashville, overland about 56 miles. DeKalb County was the site of several saltpeter mines, the main ingredient of gunpowder, was obtained by leaching the earth from several local caves. Overall Cave was named for Abraham Overall who moved from Luray and settled near the present site of Liberty in 1805, he had many slaves and owned a large plantation on which Overall Cave is located.
Two saltpeter leaching vats in the cave may date from the War of 1812, although this area was mined again during the Civil War. Other caves in DeKalb County that were mined for saltpeter include Avant Cave, located near Dowelltown, Indian Grave Point Cave, located in the Dry Creek Valley, Temperance Saltpeter Cave, located near Temperance Hall. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 329 square miles, of which 304 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water. Putnam County White County Warren County Cannon County Wilson County Smith County Edgar Evins State Park Pea Ridge Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 17,423 people, 6,984 households, 4,986 families residing in the county; the population density was 57 people per square mile. There were 8,409 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.58% White, 1.43% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.62% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races.
3.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,984 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.10% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.60% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 24.60% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 97.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,359, the median income for a family was $36,920. Males had a median income of $29,483 versus $20,953 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,217.
About 11.80% of families and 17.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.00% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over. Smithville Alexandria Dowelltown Liberty Belk Midway Temperance Hall National Register of Historic Places listings in DeKalb County, Tennessee Official site Smithville-DeKalb County Chamber of Commerce DeKalb County Schools DeKalb County, TNGenWeb – genealogy resources DeKalb County at Curlie
Murfreesboro is a city in, the county seat of, Rutherford County, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the 2010 census, up from 68,816 residents certified in 2000. In 2017, census estimates showed a population of 136,372; the city is home to both the center of population of Tennessee, the geographic center of Tennessee. Murfreesboro is located 34 miles southeast of downtown Nashville in the Nashville metropolitan area of Middle Tennessee, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Murfreesboro is home to Middle Tennessee State University, the second largest undergraduate university in the state of Tennessee, with 22,729 total students as of fall 2014. In 2006, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 84th best place to live in the United States, out of 745 cities with a population over 50,000. In 2018, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 19th best place to live in the United States. On October 27, 1811, the Tennessee General Assembly designated the location for a new county seat for Rutherford County, giving it the name Cannonsburgh in honor of Newton Cannon, then-representative to the Assembly for the local area.
At the suggestion of William Lytle, it was renamed Murfreesborough on November 29, 1811, after Revolutionary War hero Colonel Hardy Murfree. The name was shortened to Murfreesboro in January 1812. Author Mary Noailles Murfree was his great-granddaughter; as Tennessee settlement expanded to the west, the location of the state capital in Knoxville became inconvenient for most newcomers. In 1818, Murfreesboro was designated as the capital of Tennessee and its population boomed. Eight years however, it was itself replaced by Nashville. On December 31, 1862, the Battle of Stones River called the Battle of Murfreesboro, was fought near the city between the Union Army of the Cumberland and the Confederate Army of Tennessee; this was a major engagement of the American Civil War, between December 31 and January 2, 1863, the rival armies suffered a combined total of 23,515 casualties. It was the bloodiest battle of the war by percentage of casualties. Following the Confederate retreat after the drawn Battle of Perryville in central Kentucky, the Confederate army moved through East Tennessee and turned northwest to defend Murfreesboro.
General Braxton Bragg's veteran cavalry harassed Union General William Rosecrans' troop movements and destroying many of his supply trains. However, they could not prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Rosecrans. Despite the large number of casualties, the battle was inconclusive, it is considered a Union victory, since afterwards General Bragg retreated 36 miles south to Tullahoma. So, the Union army did not move against Bragg until a full six months in June 1863; the battle was significant since it did provide the Union army with a base to push the eventual drive further south, which allowed the advances against Chattanooga and Atlanta. These allowed the Union to divide the Eastern and Western theaters, followed by Sherman's March to the Sea; the Stones River National Battlefield is now a national historical site. General Rosecrans' move to the south depended on a secure source of provisions, Murfreesboro was chosen to become his supply depot. Soon after the battle, Brigadier General James St. Clair Morton, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland, was ordered to build Fortress Rosecrans, some 2 miles northwest of the town.
The fortifications were the largest built during the war. Fortress Rosecrans consisted of four redoubts and connecting fortifications; the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the West Fork of the Stones River both passed through the fortress, while two roads provided additional transportation. The fort's interior was a huge logistical resource center, including sawmills, quartermaster maintenance depots, ammunition magazines, living quarters for the 2,000 men who handled the operations and defended the post; the fortress was completed in June 1863, only did Rosecrans dare to move south. The fortress was never attacked, in part because the Union troops held the town of Murfreesboro hostage by training their artillery on the courthouse. Major portions of the earthworks still have been incorporated into the battlefield site. Murfreesboro had begun as a agricultural community, but by 1853 the area was home to several colleges and academies, gaining the nickname the "Athens of Tennessee". Despite the wartime trauma, the town's growth had begun to recover by the early 1900s, in contrast to other areas of the devastated South.
In 1911, the state legislature created Middle Tennessee State Normal School, a two-year institute to train teachers. It would soon merge with the Tennessee College for Women. In 1925 the Normal School was expanded to a four-year college. In 1965 it became Middle Tennessee State University. MTSU now has the largest undergraduate enrollment in the state, including many international students. World War II resulted in Murfreesboro diversifying into industry and education. Growth has been steady since that time. Murfreesboro has enjoyed substantial residential and commercial growth, with its population increasing 123.9% between 1990 and 2010, from 44,922 to 100,575. The city has been a destination for many immigrants leaving areas affected by warfare; the city has become more cosmopolitan by attracting more numerous international students to the university. The city council has six members, all elected at-large for four-year term
Vanderbilt University is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1873, it was named in honor of New York shipping and rail magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, who provided the school its initial $1-million endowment despite having never been to the South. Vanderbilt hoped that his gift and the greater work of the university would help to heal the sectional wounds inflicted by the Civil War. Vanderbilt enrolls 12,800 students from all 50 U. S. states and over 100 foreign countries in four undergraduate and six graduate and professional schools. The university is in the process of converting its residence halls into an academic residential college system. Several research centers and institutes are affiliated with the university, including the Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities, the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Dyer Observatory. Vanderbilt University Medical Center part of the university, became a separate institution in 2016. With the exception of the off-campus observatory, all of the university's facilities are situated on its 330-acre campus in the heart of Nashville, 1.5 miles from downtown.
Despite its urban surroundings, the campus itself is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs. The Fugitives and Southern Agrarians were based at the university in the first half of the 20th century and helped revive Southern literature among others; the Jean and Alexander Heard Library, the campus library system, contains over 8 million items across ten libraries and stands as one of the nation's top research libraries. Vanderbilt Television News Archive holds the most extensive collection of television news coverage in the world, with over 40,000 hours of content. BioVU, Vanderbilt's DNA databank, is one of the largest of its kind in the world, running over 200 ongoing projects and holding over 225,000 samples. Additionally, Vanderbilt's Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, the largest of its type in the world, provides integral support to several companies and governmental units, including Boeing, NASA, the United States Department of Defense.
Vanderbilt has many distinguished alumni and affiliates, including 45 current and former members of the United States Congress, 17 U. S. Ambassadors, 13 governors, ten billionaires, seven Nobel Prize laureates, two Vice Presidents of the United States, two U. S. Supreme Court Justices. Other notable alumni include Rhodes Scholars, Pulitzer Prize winners, Academy Award winners, Grammy Award winners, MacArthur Fellows, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, heads of state and other leaders in foreign government, musicians, professional athletes, Olympians. Vanderbilt has more than 139,000 alumni, with 40 alumni clubs established worldwide. Vanderbilt is a founding member of the Southeastern Conference and has been the conference's only private school for a half-century. In the years prior to the American Civil War of 1861–1865, the Methodist Episcopal Church South had been considering the creation of a regional university for the training of ministers in a location central to its congregations. Following lobbying by Nashville bishop Holland Nimmons McTyeire, church leaders voted to found "The Central University of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South" in Nashville in 1872.
However, lack of funds and the ravaged state of the Reconstruction Era South delayed the opening of the college. The following year, McTyeire stayed at the New York City residence of Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose second wife was Frank Armstrong Crawford Vanderbilt, a cousin of McTyeire's wife, Amelia Townsend McTyeire. Cornelius Vanderbilt, the wealthiest man in the United States at the time, was considering philanthropy as he was at an advanced age, he had been planning to establish a university on New York, in honor of his mother. However, McTyeire convinced him to donate $500,000 to endow Central University in order to "contribute to strengthening the ties which should exist between all sections of our common country."The endowment was increased to $1 million and would be only one of two philanthropic causes financially supported by Vanderbilt. Though he never expressed any desire that the university be named after himself, McTyeire and his fellow trustees rechristened the school in his honor.
Vanderbilt died in 1877 without seeing the school named after him. They acquired land owned by Texas Senator John Boyd inherited by his granddaughter and her husband, Confederate Congressman Henry S. Foote, who had built Old Central, a house still standing on campus; the first building, Main Building known as Kirkland Hall, was designed by William Crawford Smith, a Confederate veteran who designed the Parthenon. In the fall of 1875, about 200 students enrolled at Vanderbilt, in October the university was dedicated. Bishop McTyeire was named Chairman of the Board of Trust for life by Vanderbilt as a stipulation of his endowment. McTyeire named Landon Garland, his mentor from Randolph-Macon College in Virginia and then-Chancellor of the University of Mississippi, as chancellor; as chancellor, he shaped the school's structure and hired the school's faculty, many of whom were renowned scholars in their respective fields. However, most of this faculty left after disputes including over pay rates; when the first fraternity chapter, Phi Delta Theta, was established on campus in 1876, it was shut down by the faculty, only to be reestablished as a secret society in 1877.
Meanwhile, Old Gym
Lewis County, Tennessee
Lewis County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,161, its county seat is Hohenwald. The county is named for explorer Meriwether Lewis, who died and was buried at Grinder's Stand near Hohenwald in 1809. Lewis County was formed in 1843 from parts of Perry, Lawrence and Wayne counties, it was named for explorer Meriwether Lewis of the Clark expedition. Lewis's grave is located at the geographic center of the county; the bill for its creation was proposed by Powhatan Gordon in the Tennessee State Senate. On October 7, 2009, a ceremony was held at the cemetery to commemorate the bicentennial of Lewis's death. A bust of Lewis was presented to the National Park Service. Lewis County was the site of the Cane Creek Massacre. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 282 square miles, of which 282 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles is water. Hickman County Maury County Lawrence County Wayne County Perry County Natchez Trace Parkway Auntney Hollow State Natural Area Devil's Backbone State Natural Area Dry Branch State Natural Area Hick Hill Wildlife Management Area Langford Branch State Natural Area Laurel Hill Wildlife Management Area Lewis State Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 11,367 people, 4,381 households, 3,215 families residing in the county.
The population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 4,821 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.07% White, 1.45% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.29% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 1.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,381 households out of which 33.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.90 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,444, the median income for a family was $35,972. Males had a median income of $27,060 versus $19,847 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,664. About 10.30% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.60% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. Hohenwald Summertown Historically, like all of secessionist Middle Tennessee, Lewis County was overwhelmingly Democratic. Although it did vote for Charles Evans Hughes in 1916 and Warren G. Harding in 1920, Lewis County would be Democratic for the next six decades, being one of only two Tennessee counties to remain loyal to both Hubert Humphrey in 1968 and George McGovern in 1972. Ronald Reagan broke this Democratic sequence with a 177-vote majority over Walter Mondale in his 1984 landslide, but Lewis County would subsequently remain Democratic up to 2000. Since however, like all of the rural white South, it has become overwhelmingly Republican due to opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Lewis County, Tennessee Official site Lewis County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Lewis County at Curlie
Montgomery County, Tennessee
Montgomery County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 172,331; the county seat is Clarksville. The county was created in 1836. Montgomery County is included in TN -- KY Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was named for John Montgomery, a soldier in the American Revolutionary War and an early settler who founded the city of Clarksville. It was organized in 1796 when North Carolina, became a state; the same year, much of the eastern portion of the county was combined with land taken from Sumner County to form Robertson County, Tennessee. Acts of the Tennessee General Assembly had further reduced the county by 1871 to its current size and boundaries. Montgomery County was the site of several early saltpeter mines. Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from several local caves. Bellamy Cave, located near Stringtown, still contains the remains of two dozen saltpeter leaching vats, it appeared to have a large operation.
Cooper Creek Cave shows evidence of extensive mining and contains the remains of "many saltpeter hoppers". Both were mined during the War of 1812. Dunbar Cave is reported to have been mined for saltpeter during the Mexican War of 1848, but commercial development has destroyed any evidence of this. Little mining is to have happened here during the Civil War, since the Union Army captured and occupied this part of Tennessee in early 1862. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 544 square miles, of which 539 square miles is land and 4.7 square miles is water. Montgomery County lies in a region of well-developed karst topography. A large cave system is named Dunbar Cave. Dunbar Cave is the centerpiece of Dunbar Cave State Park, which encompasses 110 acres and is one of the most visited units in the Tennessee State Park System. Dunbar Cave was extensively used by prehistoric Indians, who inhabited this area for thousands of years before European encounter. Remains of their cane torches have been found in the cave, archaeologists have excavated numerous artifacts inside the entrance.
During a research trip into the cave on January 15, 2005, Park Ranger Amy Wallace, History professor Joe Douglas, local historian Billyfrank Morrison, Geologist Larry E. Matthews, discovered Indian glyphs on the walls of the cave. Subsequent investigations by archaeologists from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville confirmed that these drawings were left by people of the Mississippian culture, active about 1000-1300 CE; these Indian glyphs were featured for a few years on the tour of the cave. In 2009 Tennessee closed Dunbar Cave to the public because White Nose Syndrome was diagnosed in a bat and they did not want the disease to spread; the above ground portion of the Park is still open to the public. Christian County, Kentucky Todd County, Kentucky Robertson County Cheatham County Dickson County Houston County Stewart County Barnett's Woods State Natural Area Dunbar Cave State Natural Area Dunbar Cave State Park Haynes Bottom Wildlife Management Area Port Royal State Park Shelton Ferry Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 134,768 people, 48,330 households, 35,957 families residing in the county.
The population density was 250 people per square mile. There were 52,167 housing units at an average density of 97 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.17% White, 19.18% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 1.82% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 2.18% from other races, 2.91% from two or more races. 5.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 48,330 households out of which 40.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.60% were non-families. 20.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.40% under the age of 18, 12.30% from 18 to 24, 34.30% from 25 to 44, 17.20% from 45 to 64, 7.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years.
For every 100 females, there were 101.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,981, the median income for a family was $43,023. Males had a median income of $30,696 versus $22,581 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,265. About 7.90% of families and 10.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.70% of those under age 18 and 10.70% of those age 65 or over. The County Commission has 21 members, each elected from a single-member district. In addition, voters elect a County Mayor at-large and certain other county-level positions, including the sheriff. County Mayor: Jim Durrett Assessor of Property: Erinne Hester Trustee: Kimberly Wiggins Sheriff: John Fuson Circuit Court Clerk: Cheryl J. Castle County Clerk: Kellie A. Jackson Register of Deeds: Connie Gunnett Highway Supervisor: Robert M. Frost Clarksville National Register of Historic Places listings in Montgomery County, Tennessee Official website Montgomery County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Montgomery County at Curlie