A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
Francis Howard, 5th Baron Howard of Effingham
Francis Howard, 5th Baron Howard of Effingham was a member of the Howard family, descended from noted naval commander Lord High Admiral Howard, a Crown Governor of Virginia. He was the son of Sir Charles Frances Courthope. Francis Howard's paternal grandfather was the first cousin of both Charles Howard, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Nottingham, his maternal grandfather was Sir George Courthope of Sussex. Francis was baptised on 17 September 1643 in Great Bookham near Effingham in Surrey. On 8 July 1673, he married Philadelphia Pelham, daughter of Thomas Pelham, 2nd Baronet Pelham of Laughton and half-aunt of Thomas Pelham, eventual 1st Baron Pelham of Laughton. Francis and Philadelphia were the parents of Thomas Howard, 6th Baron Howard of Effingham and Francis Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham as well as another son and three daughters. In 1681, Howard's cousin, the 3rd Earl of Nottingham and did not leave a male heir; the earldom was declared extinct, but the title of Baron Howard of Effingham was passed on to Francis Howard.
Lord Howard was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1683. His family relocated there in February 1684, Howard lived at Rosegill plantation in Middlesex County. Howard commenced his duties as Governor on 16 April 1684. On 23 June 1684, Lord Howard sailed from Virginia for Albany, New York with his daughter, where he and New York Governor Thomas Dongan brokered a July peace treaty with members of the Iroquois Confederacy; the treaty succeeded in ending a series of raids by the westernmost Seneca nation, whose warriors had traveled south to the frontier of Virginia. Although the Iroquois admitted to breaking the Covenant Chain and Dongan refrained from demanding reparations in hopes that they would continue attacks against the British rivals in New France. While in New York and his daughter stayed at Dongan's house and spent much of their time socialising. Howard was impressed by the lifestyle of New York, as compared to Virginia, urged his wife to bring good silver from England. Lady Howard arrived in Virginia, but died the next year on 13 August 1685 at age 31.
Their daughter, Margaret Frances, died while accompanying Lady Howard's body, being transported for return to England. In 1687, Howard again travelled to New York to negotiate with the Iroquois, with a stop in Philadelphia on the way. Despite his negotiation efforts, Howard was unpopular among Virginians, he ordered that no one in the colony could use a printing press for any reason and tried to gain the power to overturn laws and levy taxes. Land grants could only be passed, he named himself a petty lord chancellor. In 1687, he expelled Colonel Philip Ludwell from the Virginia Council, calling him "an abettor in fomenting disputes over which the Assembly was so obstinate." The expulsion backfired, when Ludwell's resultant popularity led to a meeting with King William. A successful meeting with the king led to Ludwell's council seat being restored on 7 May 1691. Howard left Virginia for England on 20 October 1688, he lived in Little Chelsea in Kensington Middlesex. He was allowed to remain governor of Virginia from afar at half the salary.
Nathaniel Bacon, Sr. who had administered the colony during Howard's time in New York in 1684, did so again while Howard was in England until Howard's deputy, Francis Nicholson, arrived on 16 May 1690. Howard remarried on 20 January 1690 to Susan Felton, daughter of Sir Henry Felton and widow of Philip Harbord, his funeral took place at St Giles in the Fields. Tyler, Lyon Gardiner. Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Bolton, Charles Knowles; the Founders - Portraits of Persons Born Abroad Who Came to the Colonies in North America Before the Year 1701. 1. Boston Athenæum. Hatfield, April Lee. Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1997-X. Brock, Robert Alonzo. Virginia and Virginians: Eminent Virginians. H. H. Hardesty. Selected text pertaining to Indian tribes from the Executive Journals of the Council of Colonial Virginia, Vol. I, 11 June 1680 - 22 June 1699. Biography at Encyclopedia Virginia
The Powhatan people are an Indigenous group traditionally from Virginia. In some instances, The Powhatan may refer to one of the leaders of the people; this is most the case in historical writings by the English. The Powhatans have been known as Virginia Algonquians, as the Powhatan language is an eastern-Algonquian language known as Virginia Algonquian, it is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia, when the English colonized Jamestown in 1607. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, a mamanatowick named Wahunsenacawh created a powerful organization by affiliating 30 tributary peoples, whose territory was much of eastern Virginia, they called this area Tsenacommacah. Wahunsenacawh came to be known by the English as "The Powhatan"; each of the tribes within this organization had its own weroance, but all paid tribute to The Powhatan. After Wahunsenacawh's death in 1618, hostilities with colonists escalated under the chiefdom of his brother, who sought in vain to drive off the encroaching English.
His large-scale attacks in 1622 and 1644 met strong reprisals by the English, resulting in the near elimination of the tribe. By 1646, what is called the Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom by modern historians had been decimated. More important than the ongoing conflicts with the English settlements was the high rate of deaths the Powhatan suffered due to new infectious diseases carried to North America by Europeans, such as measles and smallpox; the Native Americans did not have any immunity to these, endemic in Europe and Asia for centuries. The wholesale deaths weakened and hollowed out the Native American societies. By the mid-17th century, the leaders of the colony were desperate for labor to develop the land. Half of the English and European immigrants arrived as indentured servants; as settlement continued, the colonists imported growing numbers of enslaved Africans for labor. By 1700, the colonies had one-twelfth of the population, it was common for black slaves to join the surrounding Powhatan.
Africans and whites lived together. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, the colony enslaved Indians for control. In 1691, the House of Burgesses abolished Indian slavery. In the 21st century, eight Indian tribes are recognized by Virginia, as having ancestral ties to the Powhatan confederation; the Pamunkey and Mattaponi are the only two peoples who have retained reservation lands from the 17th century. The competing cultures of the Powhatan and English settlers were united through unions and marriages of members, the most well known of, Pocahontas and John Rolfe, their son Thomas Rolfe was the ancestor of many Virginians. Some survivors of the Powhatan confederacy have relocated elsewhere. Beginning in the late 19th century, individual people identifying collectively as the Powhatan Renape Nation settled a tiny subdivision known as Morrisville and Delair, in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey, their ancestry is from the Rappahannock tribe of Virginia and the related Nanticoke tribe of Delaware. They have been recognized as a tribe by the state of New Jersey.
The name "Powhatan" is the name of the native town of Wahunsenacawh. The title "Chief" or "King" Powhatan, used by the English is believed to have been derived from the name of this site. Although the specific site of his home village is unknown, in modern times the Powhatan Hill neighborhood in the East End portion of the modern-day city of Richmond, Virginia is thought by many to be in the general vicinity of the original village. Tree Hill Farm, situated in nearby Henrico County a short distance to the east, is considered as the possible site. "Powhatan" was the name used by the natives to refer to the river where the town sat at the head of navigation. The English colonists chose to name it for their own leader, King James I; the English colonists named many features in the early years of the Virginia Colony in honor of the king, as well as for his three children, Elizabeth and Charles. Although portions of Virginia's longest river upstream from Columbia were much named for Queen Anne of Great Britain, in modern times, it is called the James River.
It forms at the confluence of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers near the present-day town of Clifton Forge, flowing east to Hampton Roads.. The only water body in Virginia to retain a name related to the Powhatan peoples is Powhatan Creek, located in James City County near Williamsburg. Powhatan County and its county seat at Powhatan, Virginia were honorific names established years in locations west of the area populated by the Powhatan peoples; the county was formed in March 1777. Various tribes each held some individual powers locally, each had a chief known as a weroance or, more a weroansqua, meaning "commander"; as early as the era of John Smith, the individual tribes of this grouping were recognized by the English as falling under the greater authority of the centralized power led by the chiefdom of Powhatan, whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh or Wahunsunacock. At the time of the 1607 English Settlement at Jamestown, he ruled pr
Wilkes County, Georgia
Wilkes County is a county located in the east central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,593; the county seat is the city of Washington. Referred to as "Washington-Wilkes", the county seat and county are treated as a single entity by locals, including the area's historical society and the Chamber of Commerce, it is part of the Central Savannah River Area. Wilkes County, named for British politician and supporter of American independence, John Wilkes, is considered Georgia's first county established by European Americans; the other seven counties were organized from existing colonial parishes. Wilkes was unique in being land ceded in 1773 by the Creek and Cherokee nations in their respective Treaties of Augusta, it is located in the Piedmont above the fall line on the Savannah River. Between 1790 and 1854, Wilkes County's area was reduced as it was divided to organize new counties as population increased in the area; the Georgia legislature formed the counties of Elbert and Lincoln from portions of Wilkes County.
Wilkes contributed part of the lands used in the creation of Madison, Taliaferro, Hart, McDuffie, Greene Counties. Wilkes County was the site of one of the most important battles of the American Revolutionary War to be fought in Georgia. During the Battle of Kettle Creek in 1779, the American Patriot forces were victorious over British Loyalists. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, colonists used enslaved African Americans to clear land, cultivate plantations, process cotton in this area. Long-staple cotton would not grow in this area and short-staple cotton required much labor to process. In 1793, Mount Pleasant, a cotton plantation east of Washington, was the site where Eli Whitney first perfected his revolutionary invention, the cotton gin, it allowed mechanization of processing of short-staple cotton, making its cultivation profitable in the upland areas. As a result, there was a dramatic increase in the development of new cotton plantations throughout the Deep South to cultivate short-staple cotton.
Settlers increased pressure on the federal government to remove Native Americans, including the Five Civilized Tribes from the Southeast. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830. Production of short-staple in the Deep South soon superseded long-staple cotton, grown on the Sea Islands and in the Low Country; such expansion increased the demand for slave labor in the Deep South, resulting in a longstanding domestic slave trade that transported more than a million slaves in forced migrations to the Upper South. King Cotton brought great wealth to many planters in the decades before the Civil War. None of the battles of the American Civil War was fought near Wilkes County, but it was here, on the site of the present Wilkes County Courthouse in Washington, that President Jefferson Davis met for the final time with the Confederate Cabinet. They dissolved the government of the Confederate States of America. Wilkes County was the last-known location of the gold rumored to have been lost from the Confederate Treasury.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 474 square miles, of which 469 square miles is land and 4.6 square miles is water. The northern quarter of Wilkes County, in a curved line from Rayle through Tignall to the northeastern corner of the county, is located in the Broad River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin; the eastern portion of the county, from Washington east, bordered to the north and west by the Broad River sub-basin, is located in the Upper Savannah River sub-basin of the larger Savannah River basin. The rest of the county, south of Washington, is located in the Little River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. Elbert County Lincoln County McDuffie County Warren County Taliaferro County Oglethorpe County As of the census of 2000, there were 10,687 people, 4,314 households, 2,968 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 5,022 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.12% White, 43.05% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races.
1.98% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,314 households out of which 29.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.10% were married couples living together, 17.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 91.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,644, the median income for a family was $36,219. Males had a median income of $27,355 versus $21,298 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,020.
About 13.00% of families and 17.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.20% of those under age 18 and 19.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,593 people, 4,263 households, 2,841 families residing in the county; the populat
Urbanna is a town in Middlesex County, United States. Urbanna was named in honor of England's Queen Anne; the population was 476 at the 2010 census. Urbanna is located at 37°38′16″N 76°34′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.5 square miles, of which, 0.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 543 people, 266 households, 160 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,286.5 people per square mile. There were 354 housing units at an average density of 838.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.58% White, 3.50% Black, 0.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.55% of the population. There were 266 households out of which 20.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.61. In the town, the population was spread out with 18.6% under the age of 18, 3.7% from 18 to 24, 21.4% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 25.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 70.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,054, the median income for a family was $49,583. Males had a median income of $33,214 versus $28,375 for females; the per capita income for the town was $32,944. About 4.6% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 2.3% of those age 65 or over. For more than 50 years, the town has hosted the Urbanna Oyster Festival. Begun in 1958, the festival is held the first weekend of November each year, from Friday morning to ending Saturday night. Live music and crafts, two parades, the renowned oyster-shucking contest, children's activities are all major attractions.
A variety of foods is available from numerous vendors. Annual attendance over the two days is in between 50,000-75,000. During the festival, the town is closed to traffic in the afternoon on Friday and for most of the day Saturday. Admission to the event is free of charge, although there is a fee for parking within the vicinity of the festival. An outdoor art and craft show, Art on the Half Shell, was started in 2001; the juried, one-day event has become quite popular and, like the Oyster Festival, is open to the public at no charge. Local and out of town artists are featured, with a great variety of artistic mediums presented. August in Urbanna includes Founders' Day, the 2018 event coincides with oyster buyboats on display at the marina; the Museum in Urbanna, once a Scottish Factor Store, displays a copy of John Mitchell's Map. William Overton Callis Arthur Lee Tom Robbins The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Urbanna has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
Urbanna Official Website Southside Sentinel - Local Newspaper Urbanna Oyster Festival Art on the Half Shell
Fort Monroe is a decommissioned military installation in Hampton, Virginia at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula, United States. Along with Fort Wool, Fort Monroe guarded the navigation channel between the Chesapeake Bay and Hampton Roads—the natural roadstead at the confluence of the Elizabeth, the Nansemond and the James rivers; until disarmament in 1946, the areas protected by the fort were the entire Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River regions, including the water approaches to the cities of Washington, D. C. and Baltimore, along with important shipyards and naval bases in the Hampton Roads area. Surrounded by a moat, the six-sided bastion fort is the largest fort by area built in the United States. During the initial exploration by a mission headed by Captain Christopher Newport in the early 1600s, the earliest days of the Colony of Virginia, the site was identified as a strategic defensive location. Beginning by 1609, defensive fortifications were built at Old Point Comfort during Virginia's first two centuries.
The first was a wooden stockade named Fort Algernourne, followed by other small forts. However, the much more substantial facility of stone that became known as Fort Monroe were completed in 1834, as part of the third system of U. S. fortifications. The principal fort was named in honor of U. S. President James Monroe. Although Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands throughout the American Civil War, it became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies. For two years thereafter, the former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, was imprisoned at the fort, his first months of confinement were spent in a cell of the casemated fort walls, now part of its Casemate Museum. Around the turn of the 20th century, numerous gun batteries were added in and near Fort Monroe under the Endicott program. In the 19th and 20th centuries it housed artillery schools, including the Coast Artillery School.
The Continental Army Command headquarters was at Fort Monroe, succeeded by the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command following a division of CONARC into TRADOC and United States Army Forces Command in 1973. CONARC was responsible for all active Army units in the continental United States. TRADOC was headquartered at the fort from 1973 until its decommissioning. Fort Monroe was decommissioned on September 15, 2011, many of its functions were transferred to nearby Fort Eustis. Several re-use plans for Fort Monroe are under development in the Hampton community. On November 1, 2011, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation to designate portions of Fort Monroe as a National Monument; this was the first time that President Obama exercised his authority under the Antiquities Act, a 1906 law to protect sites deemed to have natural, historical or scientific significance. Within the 565 acres of Fort Monroe are 170 historic buildings and nearly 200 acres of natural resources, including 8 miles of waterfront, 3.2 miles of beaches on the Chesapeake Bay, 110 acres of submerged lands and 85 acres of wetlands.
It has a 332-slip marina and shallow water inlet access to Mill Creek, suitable for small watercraft. The land area where Fort Monroe is became part of Elizabeth Cittie in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. Over 300 years in 1952, Elizabeth City County and the nearby Town of Phoebus agreed to consolidate with the smaller independent city of Hampton, which became one of the larger cities of Hampton Roads. Arriving with three ships under Captain Christopher Newport, Captain John Smith and the colonists of the Virginia Company established the settlement of Jamestown of the British Colony of Virginia on the James River in 1607. On their initial exploration, they recognized the strategic importance of the site at Old Point Comfort for purposes of coastal defense, they built Fort Algernourne at the location of the present Fort Monroe. It is assumed to have been a triangular stockade, based on the fort at Jamestown. Other small forts known as Fort Henry and Fort Charles were built nearby in 1610.
Fort Algernourne burned in 1612. In the latter part of August 1619, a Dutch ship, the White Lion, appeared off the coast of Old Point Comfort, its cargo included. Traded for work and supplies from the English, they were the first Africans to come ashore on British-occupied land in what would become the United States; the arrival of these Bantu Africans from Angola is considered to mark the beginning of slavery in America. Another fort, known only as "the fort at Old Point Comfort" was constructed in 1632. In 1728, Fort George was built on the site, its masonry walls were destroyed by a hurricane in 1749, but the wood buildings in the fort were used by a reduced force from circa 1755 until at least 1775. During the American Revolutionary War, as Patriot and French forces approached Yorktown in 1781, the British established batteries on the ruins of Fort George. Shortly afterward, during the Siege of Yorktown, the French West Indian fleet occupied these batteries. Throughout the Colonial period, fortifications were manned at the location from time to time.
Following the War of 1812, the United States realized the need to protect Hampton Roads and the inland waters from attack by sea. C. In Marc
Mathews County, Virginia
Mathews County is a county located in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,978, its county seat is Mathews. Located on the Middle Peninsula, Mathews County is included in the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metropolitan Statistical Area. During Virginia's colonial era, the area that became Mathews County was part of Gloucester County. In 1691, the Virginia General Assembly had directed that each county designate an official port-of-entry. Established around 1700, the community of Westville was located along Put-in Creek, a tidal tributary of Virginia's East River feeding into Mobjack Bay, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. In 1776 during the American Revolutionary War, Virginia's last Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, left Virginia after pushed to the southeast to Gwynn's Island by General Andrew Lewis and the Continental Army. General Lewis' forces bombarded Gwynn's Island from Fort Cricket Hill. In 1791, after Virginia gained its independence from Great Britain, the Virginia General Assembly split Gloucester county and created Mathews County.
The county was named for Brigadier General Thomas Mathews speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates. Westville was designated at the county seat. Seaborne commerce and oyster farming had always been important in the area and Old Point Comfort Lighthouse was built in 1802 to guide vessels into the Hampton Roads seaport. Two additional lighthouses were built later: New Point Comfort Light and Smith Point Light. During the War of 1812, British vessels raided adjacent areas. Farming using enslaved labor was important to the 19th century economy, early in the century Edmund Ruffin introduced the use of limestone marl as fertilizer on fields worn out from tobacco crops. Two Mathews County men implicated in Gabriel's Rebellion in 1802 were sentenced to transportation out of the Commonwealth. In a lawsuit begun in 1806, Jackey Wright of Mathews County was granted her freedom from prominent landowner Holder Hudgins due to her grandmother's Native American ancestry in one of the last cases decided by Judge George Wythe, with a Virginia Supreme Court opinion by St. George Tucker.
During the American Civil War, many white men from Mathews County enlisted in the Confederate Army. Some Union sympathizers petitioned President Abraham Lincoln for help, alleging that Confederate sympathizers had harassed them. Union forces by 1862 controlled the Hampton Roads area and in July 1862 a detachment of Pennsylvania cavalry arrived at Gloucester Court House went to Mathews to arrest Carter B. Hudgins, but were unsuccessful. Several other Union raids occurred beginning in September 1863 designed to disrupt Confederate salt works. However, in the October 1863 raid, Union General Wistar reported some of his troops behaved badly, Sands Smith was executed after he shot a Union soldier attempting to confiscate his cow, his son and grandson would become prominent Mathews County officials by century's end. Miss Sally Louisa Tompkins, of a prominent Mathews family, went to Richmond and established a private hospital for Confederate wounded, which achieved significant success, such that she was granted an officer's commission on September 9, 1861 by Confederate President Jefferson Davis and continued to nurse the wounded until 1865.
In 1882-1886, complaints about out-of-state watermen dredging local oyster beds produced an "oyster war" during the administration of Virginia Governor William E. Cameron. Several offending boats were captured, but all but one of their watermen were from Virginia's Eastern shore rather than from outside the Commonwealth. During World War I, Mathews County exceeded its quota of volunteers. In addition to fatalities, several men were disabled by gas attacks at the battlefront, relayed their stories. Many Mathews county seamen served in the Merchant Marine; the war changed economic relations within the county, for farm laborers could get better paying jobs in Hampton Roads or nearby cities. As the Great Depression began, voters elected Emma Lee Smith White, wife of local physician Dr. Carl Clifford White, to represent them in the Virginia General Assembly; as a local insurance agent, among other jobs, she had other priorities after a hurricane and 100-year level flooding devastated Mathews County in August 1933.
No woman again sat in the Virginia General Assembly for 21 years. In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy devastated Mathews County, while rebuilding, officials decided to petition to have the town center declared a historic district, it received nomination from the Virginia Department of Historic Resources in 2016. The Mathews County Courthouse Square has been recognized as a National Historic District since 1977, the Sibley's and James Store Historic District has been recognized as a National Historic District since 2011. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 252 square miles, of which 86 square miles is land and 166 square miles is water, it is the second-smallest county in Virginia by land area. Mathews County is best known for its miles of waterfront sites, as well as its prominent location on the Chesapeake Bay. Surrounded completely by water, it is bordered by Middlesex County to the north, separated by the Piankatank River and Gloucester County to the west; the southern side of the county borders Mobjack Bay.
Middlesex County - north Gloucester County - south & west York County - south As of the census of 2010, there were 8,978 people, 3,932 househo