A midshipman is an officer of the lowest rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, many Commonwealth navies. Commonwealth countries which use the rank include Canada, Bangladesh, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Kenya. In the 17th century, a midshipman was a rating for an experienced seaman, the word derives from the area aboard a ship, either where the original rating worked on the ship, or where he was berthed. Beginning in the 18th century, a commissioned officer candidate was rated as a midshipman, the seaman rating began to die out. By the Napoleonic era, a midshipman was an apprentice officer who had served at least three years as a volunteer, officer's servant or able seaman, was equivalent to a present-day petty officer in rank and responsibilities. After serving at least three years as a midshipman or master's mate, he was eligible to take the examination for lieutenant. Promotion to lieutenant was not automatic, many midshipmen took positions as master's mates for an increase in pay and responsibility aboard ship.
Midshipmen in the United States Navy were trained and served to midshipmen in the Royal Navy, although unlike their counterparts in the Royal Navy, a midshipman was a warrant officer rank until 1912. During the 19th century, changes in the training of naval officers in both the Royal Navy and the United States Navy led to the replacement of apprenticeship aboard ships with formal schooling in a naval college. Midshipman began to mean an officer cadet at a naval college. Trainees now spent around four years in a college and two years at sea prior to promotion to commissioned officer rank. Between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, time at sea declined to less than a year as the entry age was increased from 12 to 18. Ranks equivalent to midshipman exist in many other navies. Using US midshipman or pre-fleet board UK midshipman as the basis for comparison, the equivalent rank would be a naval cadet in training to become a junior commissioned officer. Using post-fleet board UK midshipman for comparison, the rank would be the most junior commissioned officer in the rank structure, similar to a US ensign in role and responsibility.
In many Romance languages, the literal translation of the local term for "midshipman" into English is "Navy Guard", including the French garde marine, Spanish guardia marina, Portuguese guarda-marinha, Italian guardiamarina. Today, these ranks all refer to naval cadets, but they were selected by the monarchy, were trained on land as soldiers; the rank of midshipman originated during the Tudor and Stuart eras, referred to a post for an experienced seaman promoted from the ordinary deck hands, who worked in between the main and mizzen masts and had more responsibility than an ordinary seaman, but was not a military officer or an officer in training. The first published use of the term midshipman was in 1662; the word derives from an area aboard a ship, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed: midshipman, midshipman extraordinary and midshipman ordinary; some midshipmen were older men, while most were officer candidates who failed to pass the lieutenant examination or were passed over for promotion, some members of the original rating served, as late as 1822, alongside apprentice officers without themselves aspiring to a commission.
By 1794, all midshipmen were considered officer candidates, the original rating was phased out. Beginning in 1661, boys who aspired to become officers were sent by their families to serve on ships with a "letter of service" from the crown, were paid at the same rate as midshipmen; the letter instructed the admirals and captains that the bearer was to be shown "such kindness as you shall judge fit for a gentleman, both in accommodating him in your ship and in furthering his improvement". Their official rating was volunteer-per-order, but they were known as King's letter boys, to distinguish their higher social class from the original midshipman rating. Beginning in 1677, Royal Navy regulations for promotion to lieutenant required service as a midshipman, promotion to midshipman required some time at sea. By the Napoleonic era, the regulations required at least three years of services as a midshipman or master's mate and six years of total sea time. Sea time was earned in various ways, most boys served this period at sea in any lower rating, either as a servant of one of the ship's officers, a volunteer, or a seaman.
By the 1730s, the rating volunteer-per-order was phased out and replaced with a system where prospective midshipmen served as servants for officers. For example, a captain was allowed four servants for every 100 men aboard his ship. In 1729, the Royal Naval Academy in Portsmouth – renamed the Royal Naval College in 1806 – was founded, for 40 students aged between 13 and 16, who would take three years to complete a course of study defined in an illustrated book, would earn two years of sea time as part of their studies; the rating of midshipman-by-order, or midshipman ordinary, was used for graduates of the Royal Naval College, to distinguish them from midshipmen who had served aboard ship, who were paid more. The school was unpopular in the Navy, because officers enjoyed the privilege of having servants and preferred the traditional method of training officers via apprenticeship. In 1794, officers' servants were abolished and a new class of volunteers called'volunteer class I' was created for boys between the ages of
Anna Maria Bernini is an Italian politician and lawyer. Bernini is a civil and administrative lawyer and associate professor of Compared Public Law at the University of Bologna, where she taught Institutions of Public Law, Law of International and Internal Arbitration and of the alternative procedures. In 2007, Bernini was one of the promoters of the FareFuturo association founded by Gianfranco Fini, she joined Fini's National Alliance party. She was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in the 2008 Italian general election with The People of Freedom. In 2010 she was candidate in the Emilia-Romagna regional election, losing against Vasco Errani. On 27 July 2011 she was appointed Minister of European Affairs, following the resignation of Andrea Ronchi. In the 2013 Italian general election she was elected to the Senate of the Republic, she is re-elected at the 2018 general election and proposed by the Northern League as a possible candidate for the role of President of the Senate, but she refused, choosing to endorse her party colleague Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati.
On 27 March 2018, Bernini is elected group leader of Forza Italia at the Senate. Dissenting from the majority of her party, Bernini is favourable to the recognition of same-sex unions in Italy and to the stepchild adoption. Anna Maria Bernini is the daughter of Giorgio Bernini, a lawyer for the United Nations and Forza Italia politician, minister of foreign trade in Berlusconi's first cabinet, she was married to Luciano Bovicelli, a noted gynecologist, who died in 2011
Prima is a Russian brand of cigarettes, manufactured at the Kyiv Tobacco Factory in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Today, it is manufactured in Russia by various tobacco manufacturers. Prima cigarettes were created by the leadership of the German Labor Front during the occupation of Ukraine by Germany in the Second World War; the tutu was painted with colors of fascist symbols and the name was written in the German Blackletter font. In 1970, these cigarettes were produced again in the Soviet Union, becoming popular because of their low price and the better quality of their tobacco than that of another popular Russian brand, Belomorkanal. Prima cigarettes are now produced by a number of tobacco factories throughout Russia. Prima cigarettes are sold in the following countries: Moldova, the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuania, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Soviet Union, Novorossiya, the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Indonesia.
Prima cigarettes were shown in the film Sportloto-82. The cigarettes were mentioned in the lyrics of Konstantin Belyaev's song "some cigarettes are extinguished..." "and a box of matches gasket I/three Prima cigarettes. Tobacco smoking Фото и описание сигаретных пачек Прима