Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome. Milan served as the capital of the Western Roman Empire, the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia; the city proper has a population of about 1.4 million while its metropolitan city has 3.26 million inhabitants. Its continuously built-up urban area, that stretches well beyond the boundaries of its administrative metropolitan city, is the fourth largest in the EU with 5.27 million inhabitants. The population within the wider Milan metropolitan area known as Greater Milan, is estimated at 8.2 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 4th largest in the EU. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange, the headquarters of national and international banks and companies. In terms of GDP, it has the second-largest economy among EU cities after Paris, is the wealthiest among EU non-capital cities.
Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe". The city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth, it hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that include some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by many luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide. The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Europe's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano. Milan will host the 2026 Winter Olympics together with Cortina d'Ampezzo.
The etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French. According to this theory, the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account; the Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC.
According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes. The Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC, they conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan. Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain.
Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. In 402 the Visigoths besieged the city and the Emperor Honorius
The Brandon University Students' Union represents undergraduate and distance students at Brandon University in Manitoba, Canada. BUSU is a not-for-profit organization that represents ~3662 students. BUSU was incorporated in 1969, joined the Canadian Federation of Students as Local 37 in 1984. BUSU hosts a variety of events such as speakers and free food giveaways as well as organizing orientation events at the beginning of each September and January. BUSU is contracted by the Knowles-Douglas Commission to maintain the day-to-day operations of the Knowles-Douglas Centre, which includes the campus bookstore, Headlines Hair Studio, Forbidden Flavors, Look Music as tenants; the BUSU office is located on the first floor of the Knowles-Douglas Centre at Brandon University. The BUSU office functions as the central lost and found for BU; each year the students' union produces ~3,000 student planners, which are available to students for free. The handbook provides information about the university and the students' union along with a weekly calendar for students to track course assignments and all of their extra curricular activities.
BUSU and BU each contribute $15,000 annually to the work study program annually. The funding is granted to professors and other members of the BU Community to hire students to assist in research projects, or in other engagement with the local community. BUSU and BU each contribute $6,000 annually to the Student Conference Fund; this service is intended to assist students in covering their travel expenses and conference fees associated with participation in off-campus learning experiences. BUSU works with the BU Career Planning office and other employers to provide students with a current website for part-time and summer jobs. In 2015 the Assiniboine Community College Students' Association and BUSU began a partnership to implement a student discount program with participating businesses throughout out Brandon. Between May 2015 and April 2016 over 300 hampers were distributed helping 900 people by the food bank; every year BUSU hosts the Halloween Food Drive. Student clubs from BU compete to collect the most weight of non-perishable food by trick-or-treating around Brandon.
In 2008, Brandon University students voted in favor of creating a Health and Dental Plan for students who do not have alternative coverage. BUSU administers the Health and Dental plan provided by C&C Insurance and Student VIP. BUSU funds and helps organize four Collectives on the BU campus; the Collectives have guaranteed funding from BUSU each year and deal with topics of gender, diversity and inclusion. Womens' Collective LGBTTQ* Collective Brandon University Aboriginal Student Council International Students' Collective The following are fees collected by BUSU through the Brandon University. Brandon University Students' Union Membership: This fee goes towards the student union's annual operating budget to provide services and governance for students, in addition to organizing events and campaigns. Knowles Douglas Centre Student Building Fund: This fee covers the day to day operating costs of the Knowles Douglas Centre known as the Student Union Building. Costs such as maintenance, hydro, steam and cleaning.
Surplus funds from this fee are allocated towards increasing student space on campus. Health and Dental: Only students registered in 12 credit hours or more from September to April or Graduate students are automatically enrolled in the plan; this fee provides Dental coverage all year. U-Pass: This fee provides all students on the Brandon campus with access to regular Brandon Transit Bus service all year. Canadian Federation of Students Membership: All members of BUSU are members of the CFS; the CFS provides students with a range of services from the International Student Identity Card to government lobbying on a provincial and national level. Quill Levy: This levy allows for BU students to have access to a weekly Student newspaper, both in print and online. World University Service of Canada: The World University Service of Canada provides funding for refugee students to attend university in Canada; this fee helps sponsor two refugee students to attend BU. The BUSU Council is elected on an annual basis from May 1 to April 30 every year.
The General Election takes place around reading week in late February, the By-election takes place around reading week in early November. The BUSU Council has 17 positions:Executive President Vice President Internal Vice President ExternalDirectors Arts Director Science Director Health Studies Director Music Director Education Director Graduate Studies Director Part-Time/Mature Students Director Women's Director Indigenous Peoples' Director Sexuality and Gender Identity-Based Director International Students Director Residence Director Accessibilities Director Racialized Director List of Canadian students' associations Canadian Federation of Students Official website Brandon University
Tsathoggua is a supernatural entity in the Cthulhu Mythos shared fictional universe. He is part of his Hyperborean cycle. Tsathoggua/Zhothaqquah is described as a god-like being from the pantheon, he was introduced in Smith's short story "The Tale of Satampra Zeiros", written in 1929 and published in the November 1931 issue of Weird Tales. His first appearance in print, was in H. P. Lovecraft's story "The Whisperer in Darkness", written in 1930 and published in the August 1931 issue of Weird Tales; the first description of Tsathoggua occurs in "The Tale of Satampra Zeiros", in which the protagonists encounter one of the entity's idols: He was squat and pot-bellied, his head was more like a monstrous toad than a deity, his whole body was covered with an imitation of short fur, giving somehow a vague sensation of both the bat and the sloth. His sleepy lids were half-lowered over his globular eyes. In Smith's "The Seven Geases", Tsathoggua is described again: In that secret cave in the bowels of Voormithadreth... abides from eldermost eons the god Tsathoggua.
You shall know Tsathoggua by his great girth and his batlike furriness and the look of a sleepy black toad which he has eternally. He will rise not from his place in the ravening of hunger, but will wait in divine slothfulness for the sacrifice. Robert M. Price notes that "Lovecraft's Tsathoggua and Smith's differ at every point". Lovecraft, dropping Smith's bat and sloth comparisons, refers to the entity in "The Whisperer in Darkness" as the "amorphous, toad-like god-creature mentioned in the Pnakotic Manuscripts and the Necronomicon and the Commoriom myth-cycle preserved by the Atlantean high-priest Klarkash-Ton". In "The Horror in the Museum", a story ghost-written by Lovecraft, he writes, Black Tsathoggua moulded itself from a toad-like gargoyle to a sinuous line with hundreds of rudimentary feet, he mentions it in At the Mountains of Madness, in a paragraph mentioning several other gods. Tsathoggua dwells deep beneath the earth in N'kai. Tsathoggua once dwelt inside Mount Voormithadreth in Hyberborea, but left after the continent iced over.
The basin... was filled with a sort of viscous and semi-liquescent substance, quite opaque and of a sooty color.... He center swelled as if with the action of some powerful yeast an uncouth amorphous head with dull and bulging eyes arose on an ever-lengthening neck... Two arms—if one could call them arms—likewise arose inch by inch, we saw that the thing was not... a creature immersed in the liquid, but that the liquid itself had put forth this hideous neck and head, that groped toward us with tentacle-like appendages in lieu of claws or hands!... The whole mass of the dark fluid began to rise poured over the rim of the basin like a torrent of black quicksilver, taking as it reached the floor an undulant ophidian form which developed more than a dozen short legs. —Clark Ashton Smith, "The Tale of Satampra Zeiros" Tsathoggua's will is carried out by the formless spawn, polymorphic entities made of black ichor. They are resilient and difficult to dispatch. Formless spawn can attack their targets in nearly every conceivable way.
They are flexible and plastic-like, can flow into a room through the tiniest of cracks. They attack by biting them, or crushing them with their grasp; the Call of Cthulhu roleplaying game's entry on Formless Spawn claims that they are powerfully acidic in substance and can dissolve human flesh with a slight touch. Formless spawn rest in basins in Tsathoggua's temples and keep the sanctuary from being defiled by nonbelievers. In "The Mound" the people of the subterranean world of K'N-Yan had once worshipped Tsathoggua until a scientific expedition exploring N'Kai encountered the Formless Spawn; those who escaped had all the images of Tsathoggua destroyed, his temple re-dedicated to Shub-Niggurath. In his story At the Mountains of Madness, H. P. Lovecraft states that " few daring mystics have hinted at a pre-Pleistocene origin for the fragmentary Pnakotic Manuscripts, have suggested that the devotees of Tsathoggua were as alien to mankind as Tsathoggua itself" The formless spawn appear as adversaries in the video game Quake.
A race of cave-dwelling humanoids who worship Tsathoggua. They are the primary focus of a "posthumous collaboration" short story by Lin Carter after Clark Ashton Smith's death, The Scroll of Morloc, they are referred to as the Voormi in H. P. Lovecraft's fictional manuscript The Pnakotic Fragments; the Voormis considered themselves the chosen minions of Tsathoggua and his direct descendants....for it was believed that their supreme pontiff and common ancestor had been fathered by none other than Tsathoggua himself during a transient liaison with a minor female divinity who rejoiced in the name of Shathak —Lin Carter and Clark Ashton Smith, "The Scroll of Morloc" Now the Voormis had, from their remotest origins, considered themselves the chosen minions of Tsathoggua, the sole deity whose worship they celebrated. And Tsathoggua was an earth elemental ranged in perpetual and unrelenting enmity against the Rhan-Tegoth and all his kind, who were accounted elementals of the air and were objects of contempt to those of the Old Ones, like Tsathoggua, who abominated the airy emptiness above the world and by preference wallowed i