Milan Cathedral

Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Italy. Dedicated to the Nativity of St Mary, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan Archbishop Mario Delpini; the cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the third largest in Europe and the fifth largest in the world. Milan's layout, with streets either radiating from the Duomo or circling it, reveals that the Duomo occupies what was the most central site in Roman Mediolanum, that of the public basilica facing the forum; the first cathedral, the "new basilica" dedicated to St Thecla, was completed by 355. It seems to share, on a smaller scale, the plan of the contemporaneous church rediscovered beneath Tower Hill in London. An adjoining basilica was erected in 836; the old octagonal baptistery, the Battistero Paleocristiano, dates to 335 and still can be visited under the Cathedral. When a fire damaged the cathedral and basilica in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo. In 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral.

Start of the construction coincided with the ascension to power in Milan of the archbishop's cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, was meant as a reward to the noble and working classes, who had suffered under his tyrannical Visconti predecessor Barnabò. Before actual work began, three main buildings were demolished: the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St. Stephen at the Spring, while the old church of Sta. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry. Enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress; the construction program was regulated under the "Fabbrica del Duomo", which had 300 employees led by first chief engineer Simone da Orsenigo. Orsenigo planned to build the cathedral from brick in Lombard Gothic style. Visconti had ambitions to follow the newest trends in European architecture. In 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic.

Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica del Duomo exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes. Ten years another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, as the masons needed new technical aid to lift stones to an unprecedented height. Mignot declared all the work done up till as in pericolo di ruina, as it had been done sine scienzia. In the following years Mignot's forecasts proved untrue, but they spurred Galeazzo's engineers to improve their instruments and techniques. Work proceeded and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402 half the cathedral was complete. Construction, stalled totally until 1480, for lack of money and ideas: the most notable works of this period were the tombs of Marco Carelli and Pope Martin V and the windows of the apse, of which those extant portray St. John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de' Mottis, Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, both by Niccolò da Varallo. In 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay.

In 1488, both Leonardo da Vinci and Donato Bramante created models in a competition to design the central cupola. In 1500 to 1510, under Ludovico Sforza, the octagonal cupola was completed, decorated in the interior with four series of 15 statues each, portraying saints, prophets and other Figures from the Bible; the exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dell'Amadeo, constructed 1507-1510. This is a Renaissance masterwork which harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church. During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable though the interior remained unfinished, some bays of the nave and the transepts were still missing. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build a large organ for the north side of the choir, Giuseppe Meda provided four of the sixteen pales which were to decorate the altar area. In 1562, Marco d' Agrate's St. Bartholomew and the famous Trivulzio candelabrum were added. After the accession of Carlo Borromeo to the archbishop's throne, all lay monuments were removed from the Duomo.

These included the tombs of Giovanni, Filippo Maria Visconti, Francesco I and his wife Bianca, Galeazzo Maria, which were brought to unknown destinations. However, Borromeo's main intervention was the appointment, in 1571, of Pellegrino Pellegrini as chief engineer— a contentious move, since to appoint Pellegrino, not a lay brother of the duomo, required a revision of the Fabbrica's statutes. Borromeo and Pellegrini strove for a new, Renaissance appearance for the cathedral, that would emphasise its Roman / Italian nature, subdue the Gothic style, now seen as foreign; as the façade still was incomplete, Pellegrini designed a "Roman" style one, with columns, obelisks and a large tympanum. When Pellegrini's design was revealed, a competition for the design of the façade was announced, this elicited nearly a dozen entries, including one by Antonio Barca This design was never carried out, but the interior decoration continued: in 1575-1585 the presbytery was rebuilt, while new altars and the baptistry were added.

The wooden choir stalls were constructed by 1614 for the

Sophie Drinker

Sophie Lewis Drinker was an American author and musicologist. She is considered a founder of women's gender studies. Born Sophie Lewis Hutchinson on 24 August 1888 in Haverford, Philadelphia, to Sydney Pemberton Hutchinson and Amy Lewis, she enjoyed a genteel childhood with nannies and domestic staff; the Hutchinson family had a high social status, dated back to the seventeenth century. As a child, she had piano lessons and developed a general interest in music, attended St. Timothy's School, an exclusive private school in Maryland. Upon graduation in 1906, Hutchinson was accepted to Bryn Mawr College, but she decided against attending. In 1911, she married Henry Sandwith Drinker, a lawyer and musicologist, moved with him to Merion, Pennsylvania. Henry Drinker was a successful lawyer, but spent every minute of his spare time playing music, a passionate hobby, as important to him as his real profession. Apart from active music-making, he devoted himself to the translation of the German text of vocal compositions of great composers into English.

Among them are Schubert's songs and Haydn's Creation, a variety of works by Johann Sebastian Bach, among others, the Christmas Oratorio, the St. John Passion and the St. Matthew Passion; the couple had five children together: Sophie, Henry S. Jr. Cecelia and Pemberton, all of whom had daily music lessons, the whole family sat down together to sing, they visited musical events such as concerts, opera performances and music festivals, were for 25 years subscribers to the Philadelphia Orchestra. In 1928, the Drinkers built a new house, which contained a large music room where they organized singing evenings, sometimes they used the premises of the American Musicological Society for their gatherings. Most well-known were their exclusive singing parties that were invitation only, involved a dinner prepared by the Drinker household staff with group song and music before and after. Oftentimes these evenings involved the accompaniment of musicians invited from prestigious institutions, such as the Philadelphia Orchestra and Curtis Institute.

Sophie Drinker's attention lighted on the fact that there was little quality music for female choirs, saw that there were few women composers. This prompted her to conduct extensive research about their place in music history, her results were presented in the book Music and Women: The Story of Women in Their Relation to Music which appeared in 1948. The book is considered of great importance for music research - in the field of gender studies in music - and highlighted the lack of equality for women in music, it brought this fact into the public consciousness. During her life she published other writings, including the book Brahms and His Women's Choruses and articles like What Price Women's Chorus? for Music Journal in 1954. Here she developed criteria for compositions for women's choirs which in her view would utilize the full range of the female voice. Drinker was awarded a doctorate from Smith College, Massachusetts in 1949. In 1965 Sophie Drinker wrote her memoirs, but they were meant for her family and have remained unpublished.

On 6 September 1967, she died of cancer. The Sophie Drinker Institute was founded in Bremen, Germany in 2002, it is a free research institute that specializes in women's gender studies. Music and women: the story of women in their relation to music. New York, 1948. Brahms and his women's choruses. Merion 1952 What Price Women's Choruses, in: p. 19 & 42f. The woman in the music. A sociological study. Zurich: Atlantis 1955th. Hannah Penn and the proprietorship of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: Priv. print. Under the auspices of the National Society of the *Colonial Dames of America in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1958 Eugenie with Andrus Leonard, Miriam Young Holden: The American Woman in colonial and Revolutionary times, 1565-1800: a syllabus with bibliography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 1962nd Women in Music: A Research and Information Guide By Karin Pendle, Melinda Boyd, Routledge, 2012 ISBN 1135848130 Sophie Hutchinson Drinker Papers Finding Aid, Sophia Smith Collection Women in Music full text available at the Internet Archive.

Accessed October 2012

Jarvis Williams (wide receiver)

Jarvis Williams is an American football wide receiver, a free agent. He played college football at the North Carolina State University. Williams continued his football career in college. During his college career, he had 133 receptions for 20 touchdowns. In 2012, Williams was assigned to the Orlando Predators of the Arena Football League. In March 2013, Williams signed with the Jacksonville Sharks. In late May, Williams was placed on recallable reassignment. Williams returned to the Predators to finish the 2013 season. On January 16, 2014, Williams was traded to the San Jose SaberCats for Justin Edison. Williams was plegged with injuries. Williams was assigned to the Tampa Bay Storm in 2015, he was placed on reassignment on May 11, 2015. NC State bio Arena Football bio