Military aircraft

A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft, operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. Military aircraft can be either combat or non-combat: Combat aircraft are designed to destroy enemy equipment using their own aircraft ordnance. Combat aircraft are developed and procured only by military forces. Non-combat aircraft are not designed for combat as their primary function, but may carry weapons for self-defense; these operate in support roles, may be developed by either military forces or civilian organizations. In 1783, when the first practical aircraft were established, they were adopted for military duties; the first military balloon unit was the French Aerostatic Corps, who in 1794 flew an observation balloon during the Battle of Fleurus, the first major battle to feature aerial observation. Balloons continued to be used throughout the 19th Century, including in the Napoleonic Wars and the Franco-Prussian war, for observation and propaganda distribution.

During the First World War, German Zeppelin airships carried out multiple air raids on British cities, as well as being used for observation. In the 1920s, the US Navy acquired several non-rigid airships, the first one to see service being the K-1 in 1931. Use by the US as well as other countries continued into the Second World War, the US Navy retiring its last balloons in 1962. Soon after the first flight of the Wright Flyer, several militaries became interested in powered aircraft. In 1909 the US Army purchased the Wright Military Flyer, a two-seat observation aircraft, for the Aeronautical Division, U. S. Signal Corps, it served until 1911, by which time powered aircraft had become an important feature in several armies around the world. Airplanes performed reconnaissance and tactical bombing missions in the Italo-Turkish war, the First Balkan War saw the first naval-air operations. Photoreconnaissance and propaganda leaflet drops followed in the Second Balkan War. Air combat was a notable component of World War I, as fighter aircraft were developed during the war, long-range strategic bombing became a possibility, airplanes were deployed from aircraft carriers.

Airplanes took on a greater variety of support roles, notably medical evacuation, deployed new weapons like air-to-air rockets for use against reconnaissance balloons. Aviation technology advanced in the interwar period, military aircraft became capable. Autogyros and helicopters were developed at this time. During World War II, military aviation reached new heights. Decisive air battles influenced the outcome of the war, early jet aircraft flew combat missions, cruise missiles and ballistic missiles were deployed for the first time, airborne troops and cargo parachuted into battle, the nuclear weapons that ended the war were delivered by air. In the Cold War era, aviation technology continued to advance at an rapid pace. Jet aircraft exceeded Mach 1 and Mach 2, armament focus switched to missiles, aircraft began carrying more sophisticated avionics, air-to-air refueling matured into practicality, transport aircraft grew in size. Stealth aircraft saw combat in the 1980s. Combat aircraft, or "Warplanes", are divided broadly into multi-role, bombers and electronic warfare support.

Variations exist between them, including fighter-bombers, such as the MiG-23 ground-attack aircraft and the Soviet Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik. Included among combat aircraft are long-range maritime patrol aircraft, such as the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod and the S-3 Viking that are equipped to attack with anti-ship missiles and anti-submarine weapons; the primary role of fighters is destroying enemy aircraft in air-to-air combat, as part of both offensive and defensive counter air operations. Many fighters possess a degree of ground attack capability, allowing them to perform surface attack and close air support missions. In addition to their counter air duties they are tasked to perform escort mission for bombers or other aircraft. Fighters are capable of carrying a variety of weapons, including machine guns, rockets, guided missiles, bombs. Many modern fighters can attack enemy fighters from a great distance, before the enemy sees or detects them. Examples of fighters include the F-22 Raptor, F-15 Eagle, Su-27.

Bombers are larger and less maneuverable than fighter aircraft. They are capable of carrying large payloads of torpedoes or cruise missiles. Bombers are used exclusively for ground attacks and not fast or agile enough to take on enemy fighters head-to-head; some have a single engine and require one pilot to operate, while others have two or more engines and require crews of two or more. A limited number of bombers, such as the B-2 Spirit, have stealth capabilities that keep them from being detected by enemy radar. An example of a conventional modern bomber would be the B-52 Stratofortress. An example of a World War II bomber would be a B-17 Flying Fortress. Bombers include light bombers, medium bombers, heavy bombers, dive bombers, torpedo bombers. Attack aircraft can be used to provide support for friendly ground troops; some are able to carry conventional or nuclear weapons far behind enemy lines to strike priority ground targets. Attack helicopters provide close air support for ground troops.

An example historical ground-attack aircraft is the Soviet Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik. Several types of transport airplanes have been armed with sideways firing weapons as gunships for ground attack; these include the AC-130 aircraft. An electronic warfare aircraft is a military aircraft equipped for electronic warfare - i.e. degrading the effecti

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The men's and women's field hockey competitions at the 2014 South American Games were the second inclusion of hockey at the South American Games. Both tournaments were held in conjunction with one another between 8 and 16 March 2014 at Club Deportivo Manquehue in Santiago, Chile. In the men's tournament, Argentina won the gold medal for the second time by defeating Chile 8–1 in the final. Venezuela won the bronze medal by defeating Brazil 3–2 in the bronze medal match. In the women's tournament, Argentina won the gold medal for the second time by defeating Chile 3–1 in the final. Uruguay won the bronze medal by defeating Brazil 3–0 in the bronze medal match; the top two teams in the men's tournament and Chile, the top two teams in the women's tournament and Chile all qualified to compete at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Canada. * Host nation Qualified for the 2015 Pan American Games There were 144 goals scored in 18 matches, for an average of 8 goals per match. 16 goals 13 goals 10 goals 6 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Source: FIH Qualified for the 2015 Pan American Games

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