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Military of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the northern reaches of the Nile River in Egypt. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, it developed over the next three millennia, its history occurred in a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as intermediate periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during the New Kingdom, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in the late period, the rule of the pharaohs ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province. Although the Egyptian military forces in the Old and Middle kingdoms were well maintained, the new form that emerged in the New Kingdom showed the state becoming more organized to serve its needs. For most parts of its long history, ancient Egypt was unified under one government; the main military concern for the nation was to keep enemies out.

The arid plains and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who tried to raid or settle in the fertile Nile River valley. The great expanses of the desert formed a barrier that protected the river valley and was impossible for massive armies to cross; the Egyptians built fortresses and outposts along the borders east and west of the Nile Delta, in the Eastern Desert, in Nubia to the south. Small garrisons could prevent minor incursions, but if a large force was detected a message was sent for the main army corps. Most Egyptian cities lacked other defenses; the history of ancient Egypt is divided into two intermediate periods. During the three kingdoms, Egypt was unified under one government. During the intermediate periods government control was in the hands of the various nomes and various foreigners; the geography of Egypt allowed it to thrive. This circumstance set the stage for many of Egypt's military conquests, they enfeebled their enemies like bows and arrows. They had chariots which they used to charge at the enemy.

The Old Kingdom was one of the greatest times in Egypt's history. Because of this affluence, it allowed the government to stabilize and in turn organize a functioning military. Before Egypt's New Kingdom, there were four major causes of military conflict: the Libyans from the Sahara to the west, the Nubians from the south, the Sinai and Canaanites to the north, internal conflict when the regions, or nomes, divided from the monarchy to form rival factions. All of the areas outside Egypt were connected in conflict either by raiding parties entering Egypt or Egypt maintaining a policy of eradication imperialism; the Old Kingdom's military was most marked by their construction of forts along the Nile River. At this time, the main conflict was with Nubia and Egypt felt the urge to defend their borders by building forts deep into this country; these forts were never attacked, but they acted as a deterring factor towards potential invaders. Many are underwater in Lake Nasser, but while they were visible they were a true testament to the affluence and military prowess of ancient Egypt during this time.

During the Old Kingdom, there was no professional army in Egypt. All the armies would come together under the Pharaoh to battle; because military service was not considered prestigious, the army was made up of lower-class men, who could not afford to train in other jobsOld Kingdom soldiers were equipped with many types of weapons, including shields, cudgels, maces and bows and arrows. The most common Egyptian weapon was the arrow. During the Old Kingdom, a single-arched bow was used; this type of bow was difficult to draw, there was less draw length. After the composite bow was introduced by the Hyksos, Egyptian soldiers used this weapon, as well; the pharaoh Mentuhotep II commanded military campaigns south as far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. He restored Egyptian hegemony over the Sinai region, lost to Egypt since the end of the Old Kingdom. From the Twelfth Dynasty onwards, pharaohs kept well-trained standing armies, which formed the basis of larger forces raised for defense against invasion.

Under the rule of Senusret I, Egyptian armies built a border fort at Buhen and incorporated all of lower Nubia as an Egyptian colony. After Merneferre Ay of the mid-13th dynasty fled his palace, a Canaanite tribe called the Hyksos sacked Memphis and claimed dominion over Upper and Lower Egypt. After the Hyksos took control, many Egyptians fled to Thebes, where they began to oppose the Hyksos rule; the Hyksos, Asiatics from the Northeast, set up a fortified capital at Avaris. The Egyptians were trapped at this time, they were in the middle of an "enemy sandwich" between the Hyksos in the north and the Kushite Nubians in the south. This period marked a great change for Egypt's military; the Hyksos have been credited with bringing to Egypt the horse, the Ourarit, the composite bow—tools that drastically altered the way Egypt's military functioned. The composite bow, which allowed for more accuracy and greater kill distance with arrows, along with horses and chariots assisted the Egyptian military in ousting the Hyksos from Egypt, beginning when Seqenenre Tao

Shahrizor Eyalet

Shahrizor Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire covering the area of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan. When the Ottomans conquered the region in 1554, they decided to leave the government of the region to Kurd leaders, so it was not incorporate it directly into the Ottoman administrative system; the governors were members of Kurdish clans, only were there Ottoman garrisons in the province. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the eyalet came to be dominated by the Baban clan; the members of this clan were able to maintain their rule by guaranteeing the security of the Ottoman Empire's volatile border with Iran in exchange of full autonomy. The sanjak of Baban, which included the town of Kirkuk, was named after the family; the Baban considered the Kurdish princes of Ardalan, who controlled the Iranian portions of Kurdistan, to be their natural rivals, in 1694 Sulayman Beg invaded Iran and defeated the mir of Ardalan. After 1784, the Babans moved their capital to the new town of Sulaymaniya, named after the dynasty's founder.

In 1850 the rule of the Babans was brought to an end, the region was placed under the direct control of the governor of Baghdad in 1862. However, the fall of the Babans led to a deterioration of the relations between the clans, the resulting anarchy was only ended with the rise of another Kurdish clan, the Barzinji, in the early 20th century. Sanjaks of Sharazor Eyalet in the 17th century

Chamín Correa

Benjamín "Chamín" Correa was a Mexican guitarist. He was renowned in the Spanish-speaking world for his traditional romantic music. Member of Los Tres Caballeros together with Roberto Cantoral and Leonel Gálvez from 1954. In 1957 they gained 4 golden discs for being the trio of major success on a global scale, he died in Cuernavaca, Morelos at the age of 90. He was only 5 years old when his father Don Manuel Escamilla, director of the Fine Arts Symphony, introduced him to the beautiful world of the guitar, he took classical guitar lessons with his maternal grandfather Judge Enrique Pérez de León. Chicago Tribune: "Chamin Correa Perez de León learned classical guitar when he was kneehigh from his grandfather and by the time he was 11 he was plugged in and gigging all over Mexico City."His career spans over six decades and he has released 150 records on vinyl and in CD format. On his own web site there are a number of videos, one shows him singing in a lead role in a black-and-white movie from the 1950s.

Another video shows him in a recent concert performing with Gloria Estefan. This shows how long he has performed at the forefront of the genre of traditional Latin-American music. Chamin Correa has released many albums, both solo and with groups - including Los Tres Caballeros, he has recorded with many famous artists, including Dave Brubeck, Joan Baez, Gloria Estefan, José José, Enrique Guzmán, Luis Miguel, Victor Yturbe El Piruli, Marco Antonio Muñiz. His main instrument is a nylon-stringed concert guitar, his most popular songs include'El reloj','La barca','Donde estás','Poquita Fe','Regalame esta noche','Alma de Cristal' and'Noche no te vayas'. For thirty years as artistic director he directed and produced with his arrangements for artists such as Enrique Guzman, Oscar Chavez, Julio Iglesias, Lucho Gatica, Olga Guillot, Flor Silvestre, Tony Aguilar, Luis Miguel, Gloria Estefan, Juan Gabriel, Vicente Fernandez, Rocio Durcal, Tania Libertad, José José and Victor Iturbe "El Piruli" among others.

In his role as guitarist in IM Records, he sold over 5 million of the instrumental album "Cuerdas, Amor y Guitarra" playing different kinds of guitars such as the fife, electro- acoustic, steel and different types of electric bass. He has been awarded four golden records and for eight consecutive years "The Golden Guitar" award at the Festival of Pezzaro in Italy. In May 1967 Correa appeared with Dave Brubeck and his quartet in a series of live performances in Mexico City; the concerts were issued on the album Bravo! Brubeck! in 1967. Chamin Correa, internationally renowned artist, is seen as the best Requinto of America; that is why a line of guitars is produced which bears his name, "Correa Chamin Guitars," and has a wide variety of high quality models supervised by him personally. Cuerdas, amor y guitarra, Vol. 5 Éxitos, Vol. 2 30 grandes éxitos 20 éxitos Cuerdas, amor y guitarra Cuerdas, amor y guitarra, Vol. 2 A mi amigo José Colección de Oro Bolero En Vivo, Vol. 1 El Tri, 4 décadas en vivo Su historia y éxitos musicales, Vol. 1 Su historia y éxitos musicales, Vol. 2 De qué manera te olvido/Lobo herido, Vol. 11 El Príncipe con trío, Vol. 3 El Príncipe con trío, Vol. 2 El Príncipe con trío, Vol. 1 Colección RCA: 100 años de música Canciones inéditas de María Greatest Hits, Vol. 2 Dulce romance 30 éxitos 15 éxitos Latinoamor 20 éxitos Lobo herido Todo o nada Te deseo, Vol. 2 Me vas a extrañar Te deseo, amor Time Signatures: A Career Retrospective El dueto del siglo Serie Platino Mi tierra Bravo!

Brubeck! Official website Romaproducciones Chamin Correa Timeline