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Miller's knot

A miller's knot is a binding knot used to secure the opening of a sack or bag. Large sacks contained grains. Several knots are known interchangeably by these three names. Constrictor makes a fiercer binding knot, but Miller's/Bag is suitable for most applications, is easier to tie/untie. Miller's/Bag makes a great hitch, like the similar Ground-Line. Binding usage has force emanating from inside rope ring evenly, hitch usage has force input from one side reducing around; as noted above, several other distinct knots have been known as miller's, sack, or bag knots. These fit the short description "two crossing turns – ends tucked under"; the following 3 knots do not fit the simple "two crossing turns – ends tucked under" definition but are secure: A slipped constrictor knot where the ends are passed through the opposing slips for security is quite secure as a bag knot. Unslipped, it is more secure, but it may have to be cut at the bridge to open the bag. A slipped strangle knot where the ends are passed through the opposing slips for security is quite secure as a bag knot.

A bottle sling around a swirled and folded neck of the bag is a solid and reliable bag knot. The fold provides the slight bulge a bottle sling needs for a secure hold; the bag may be hanged loaded by the ends of the Bottle sling tied together. The common aspects of the most common bag knots are two crossing turns, both ends tucked under some turns near the crossing point. Two ends, two turns one can tuck under, gives a limited number of alternatives. All of these knots can be made in a slipped form by starting with a bight and/or by completing the final tuck with a bight instead of the end. To avoid ambiguity, versions of these knots that are not slipped are pictured below with the reference numbers found in The Ashley Book of Knots; this is to tie a Constrictor knot version of the miller's knot: Grip the neck of the bag with the left hand, Fix / immobilize one end of the rope tucked upwards over the left hand long finger and under the index finger Make two crossing turns around the neck of the bag.

Detailed steps: Cross over the hand downwards and take one turn around the neck of the bag at the sack side of the hand Cross over the hand upwards as well as over the immobilized other end, Take a second turn around the neck of the bag at the opening side of the hand Cross over the immobilized other end of the rope cross back tucking under the crossing point of step 3.2. To tie the other variants: If at the last step one chooses not to cross the immobilized other end and tuck only inwards under the part between the two turns, the knot will be an ABoK #11 or Clove hitch. If at the last step one chooses to cross the immobilized other end and tuck only under the part between the two turns, the knot will be an ABoK #1242 or a ground-line hitch pictured, it should be tightened by pulling the end first. It is called Spar hitch If at the last step one chooses to cross over the crossing point, tuck outwards under the first turn, the knot will be an ABoK #1241 pictured. If at the last step one chooses to cross over the crossing point, tuck inwards under the first turn, the knot will be an ABoK #1674 pictured.

Shown in a slipped form at entry #1244, this variation is noted by Ashley as having better binding characteristics than the others. Tying other knots that may function well as a bag knot but are different from above descriptions: Strangle knot Grip the neck of the bag with the left hand, Fix / immobilize one end of the rope tucked upwards over the left hand long and under the index finger Make two parallel turns around the neck of the bag. Detailed steps: Cross over the hand downwards and take one turn around the neck of the bag first at the sack side of the hand over the hand and behind the immobilized other end. Take another turn crossing over the immobilized other end, crossing downwards over the hand around the neck of the bag parallel to the first turn Cross over the immobilized other end of the rope cross back tucking under both turns. Bottle sling List of binding knots List of knots

Suffolk (1800 ship)

Suffolk was launched in 1800. She made one voyage for the British East India Company, she was refloated. She made a voyage to the Cape of Good Hope. On her return she became a West Indiaman. A Spanish privateer captured her in 1805. Suffolk entered Lloyd's Register in 1800 with Robinson as master and owner, trade London–CGH. Captain John Robinson acquired a letter of marque on 26 November 1800. Messrs Princip & Saunders had tendered her to the EIC to bring back rice from Bengal, she was one of 28 vessels that sailed on that mission between December 1800 and February 1801. Robinson sailed from Portsmouth on 9 January 1801. Suffolk arrived at Calcutta on 25 June. Homeward bound, she was at Diamond Harbour on 4 September, reached St Helena on 20 December, was at Falmouth on 12 February 1802. Lloyd's List reported that she had left Bengal on 15 September, that on her way she had spoken a number of vessels. On 28 February a gale drove Suffolk ashore on the Cornish coast near Cornwall, she was damaged lost two of her crew.

She was refloated and taken in to St. Ives These reports give the name of Suffolk's master as "Miller", they report that her bale goods and some of her cargo of rice was saved. Suffolk made a trip to the Cape between 21 September and 5 June 1803; because she was not sailing east of the Cape, she did not require any sanction from the EIC. Lloyd's Register for 1805, shows Suffolk with R. Murray and owner, trade London–St Vincent. Captain Richard Murray acquired a letter of marque on 17 December 1804. Lloyd's List reported on 14 June 1805 that the Spanish privateer Vangalure, of 16 guns, had captured Suffolk, master, on 21 May at 48°30′N 16°30′W. Suffolk had been sailing to London from St Vincent. On 14 June, Lloyd's List transmitted a report from the Journal of Commerce dated 6 June that Suffolk, master, sailing from St Vincent to London, had been carried into a port, but had not specified which port. Lloyd's Register for 1807 still showed Suffolk with R. Murray and owner, trade still London–St Vincent.

However, the entry has the notation "captured" underneath her name. Notes Citations References Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7. Hardy, Charles A Register of Ships, Employed in the Service of the Hon. the United East India Company, from the Union of the Two Companies, in 1707, to the Year 1760: Specifying the Number of Voyages, Tonnage and Stations. To, Added, from the Latter Period to the Present Time, the Managing Owners, Principal Officers and Pursers.

Göhren, Rügen

Göhren is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Rügen district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. The municipality of Göhren adjoins the easternmost point of the island of Rugen: Cape Nordperd, it separates the North Beach from the South Beach. The North Beach is the actual bathing beach with a seaside promenade. Between Göhren Pier and the Nordperd lies the Buskam, the largest glacial erratic boulder in North Germany, which rises one metre about the sea. Göhren Pier was rebuilt in the 1990s, it is 270 metres long. Speckbusch Barrow is next to Göhren church and dates to the Bronze Age; the Mönchguter Museums are four museums that are protected and, form an open-air museum. There is a local history museum, the motor yacht Luise, the museum farm, a thatched fisherman's house, the Rookhuus; the Drachenhaus was the last home and workshop of the "Poet of the Baltic" and important playwright, Max Dreyer. Buskam: the largest glacial erratic in Germany is located ca. 300 metres offshore, east of Göhren. Memorial for the victims of Action Rose in 1953 on the Baltic Sea Göhren Village Church dates to the 20th century.

The area monument, the Hessenlager, on the road to Lobbe is an 1812 military camp. The beaches merge into each other. North Beach: up to 30-metre-wide, fine-sand beach with a 270-metre-long pier South Beach: rockier and narrower beach, which runs to Lobbe. Media related to Göhren at Wikimedia Commons

Archdeacon of Ardagh

The Archdeacon of Ardagh was a senior ecclesiastical officer within the Anglican Diocese of Ardagh. As such he was responsible for the disciplinary supervision of the clergy within the Diocese; the archdeaconry can trace its history back to Joseph Magodaig who became the Bishop of Ardagh. The Archdeaconry is now combined with that of Elphin, one of two within the United Diocese of Kilmore and Ardagh Previous holders include: 1683–1696 Andrew Charlton 1705–1747 Thomas Taylor 1751–1762 Robert Hort 1762–1778 John Oliver 1778–1790 Chambre Corker 1805–1820 Robert Beatty 1820–1839 Charles Le Poer Trench, a younger son of William Trench, 1st Earl of Clancarty, 1839– Marcus Gervais Beresford, DD, PCi, Thomas Carson, LL. D. Later Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, 1870 –1874 John Richard Darley DD Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, 1874 –1884, 1874–1891 Fitzmaurice Hunt 1891–1896 Frederic Potterton 1896–1915 William Moore Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, 1915–1930


Maelienydd, sometimes spelt Maeliennydd, was a cantref and lordship in east central Wales covering the area from the River Teme to Radnor Forest and the area around Llandrindod Wells. The area, upland, is now in Powys. During the Middle Ages it was part of the region known as Rhwng Gwy a Hafren. According to historic manuscripts, the region between Wye and Severn was once regarded as a unit. Manuscripts use various alternative spellings for this, such as Ferlix, Fferllys and Fferreg. Welsh tradition, claims that Ferlix was part of the realm of King Caradoc, but on his death, the realm was divided between his sons. In any case, manuscripts give Tangwydd ap Tegid, an 8th-century ruler of Ferlix, the following pedigree: Cawrdaf ap Caradoc Caw ap Cawrdaf Gloyw ap Caw Hoyw ap Gloyw Cynfarch ap Hoyw Cyndegg ap Cynfarch Teithwalch ap Cyndegg Tegid ap Teithwalch Tangwydd ap TegidWelsh annals claim that during the reign of Tangwydd's father, the Mercians seized parts of Ferlix, by constructing Offa's Dyke through it.

For unclear reasons, Tangwydd became ruler of Brycheiniog, which lay adjacent to Ferlix. Hwgan, Tangwydd's son and successor, attempted to invade Mercia, while King Edward the Elder was distracted by the Viking invasion. Æthelflæd defeated Hwgan, in battle invaded his lands, captured Hwgan's castle. and took his wife prisoner. Hwgan decided to form an alliance with the Vikings, but died soon after, while defending Derby from the Saxons. Hwgan having been an aggressor against the Saxons, his son Dryffin was forced by King Athelstan to pay tribute, deposed from Ferlix by Elystan Glodrydd, Athelstan's god-son, who took added Ferlix to his existing realm of Buellt. Elystan was succeeded by his son, succeeded by his eldest son, Idnerth. Due to their allegiances to the Saxon Kings, once the Normans invaded England, many Welsh princes had assisted anti-Norman revolts like that of Eadric the Wild. Hence, in 1080, when a revolt broke out in Northern England, the Normans pre-emptively occupied Wales, to prevent any further Welsh assistance to the Saxons.

In turn, this led to a Welsh revolt in 1094, but by the end of the century it was suppressed by a number of Norman magnates. He founded the castles of Cymaron. Ranulph's daughter had married Stephen of the cousin of William Rufus, the King. In 1095, Ranulph took part in an unsuccessful conspiracy to replace the king with his son-in-law, was exiled. Idnerth was able to recover his lands in northern Ferlix. Idnerth passed his lands to his son, but when Madog died, in 1140, Ferlix was divided between Madog's sons; the exile of Ranulph and his family had continued throughout this time, due to supporting a rival of William's brother Henry. After Henry's death, in 1135, Ranulph's family had supported the successful invasion of England by Stephen of Blois, were able to return. In 1142, once forces loyal to Empress Matilda managed to capture Stephen, Stephen's partisans began to abandon his cause, Hugh de Mortimer invaded northern Ferlix, killing Hywel and Cadwgan, sons of Madog, in the process. In 1144, Hugh repaired Cymaron Castle, from this base, two years he invaded the south of Ferlix, leading to the death of Maredudd, another of Madog's sons.

After 1148, Matilda's son, Henry weakened Stephen's position, was acknowledged his heir. During this period, Henry's growing political strength enabled him to force Hugh to surrender his Welsh castles; the two remaining sons of Madog had by now re-divided Ferlix between them. In 1176 Cadwallon founded Cwmhir Abbey. In 1179, Cadwallon visited King Henry II of England. Upon his return, on 22 September, he was killed by some retainers of Roger. Maelienydd was inherited by Cadwallon's son, Maelgwn ap Cadwallon, but King Henry seized Cymaron castle, to use the income from its lands to pay back large debts that Cadwallon owed him; when Roger Mortimer was released, he seized much of Maelienydd, including Cymaron, though Maelgwn was able to recover it with the help of Rhys ap Gruffydd, prince of Deheubarth, his cousin's father-in-law.

Liu Congyi

Liu Congyi was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong. Liu Congyi was born during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong, he came from a line of officials of Tang Dynasty, starting with his great-great-grandfather Liu Linfu. His great-granduncle Liu Xiangdao served as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong, Liu Xiangdao's son Liu Jingxian served as a chancellor late in the reign of Emperor Gaozong as well as the regency of Emperor Gaozong's wife Empress Dowager Wu over their sons Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong. Liu Congyi's grandfather Liu Lingzhi served as a deputy minister, while his father Liu Ruzhi served as the deputy mayor of Jingzhao Municipality, which included the Tang capital Chang'an. Liu Congyi himself passed the imperial examinations when he was young, during the Dali era of Emperor Xuanzong's grandson Emperor Daizong, he passed a special examination for those who could write in a grand style, he was thereafter made an editor at the Palace Library.

He subsequently served as the sheriff of Weinan County. Because his behavior was elegant, he was respected by the official Chang Gun, after Chang became chancellor in 777, he made Liu Jiancha Yushi, an imperial censor. Though, when Liu's mother died, he left governmental service to observe a period of mourning for her; when Liu Congyi's mourning period was complete, the emperor was Emperor Daizong's son Emperor Dezong, the most powerful chancellor was Lu Qi. Lu recommended Liu, Liu returned to the bureau of censors as Shiyushi. After several months, because a relative of his was becoming an imperial censor, under Tang regulations that relatives should not serve at the same agency, he was made Xingbu Yuanwailang, a low-level official at the ministry of justice. In 783, with Li Xilie the military governor of Huaixi Circuit rebelling against imperial rule, Emperor Dezong, believing that the armies sent against Li Xilie needed a supreme commander to coordinate their actions, commissioned his son Li Yi the Prince of Pu to be the supreme commander of the forces against Huaixi, he made Liu a secretary for Li Yi.

However, before Li Yi could depart Chang'an, soldiers from Jingyuan Circuit, at Chang'an to await deployment to the east against Li Xilie or other warlords, mutinied after they were not awarded as they believed they deserved. Emperor Dezong fled to Fengtian. Many officials followed him there, including Liu; the Jingyuan soldiers supported the general Zhu Ci as their leader, Zhu soon claimed imperial title of his own state of Qin, competing with Emperor Dezong. While Emperor Dezong was thus kept at Fengtian, he made Liu the deputy minister of justice and gave him the designation of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi, making him a chancellor de facto, along with Xiao Fu and Jiang Gongfu; when Emperor Dezong was forced to further flee to Liang Prefecture in 784, he made Liu Zhongshu Shilang, the deputy head of the legislative bureau, continued to have Liu serve as chancellor. It was said that Liu was much liked by Emperor Dezong and was known for being careful and virtuous but did not help Emperor Dezong correct his ways.

After the general Li Sheng destroyed Zhu's regime in 784 and allowed Emperor Dezong to return to Chang'an, there was an incident in which Xiao, who had just returned from a mission to survey the southern circuits, recommended that Chen Shaoyou, the military governor of Huainan Circuit, who had submitted to Li Xilie during the time Emperor Dezong was away from Chang'an, be replaced by Wei Gao — a Fengxiang officer who had resisted Li Chulin. Emperor Dezong agreed, he sent the imperial eunuch messenger Ma Qinxu to inform Liu and ask Liu to discuss this matter with Xiao without consulting fellow chancellors Li Mian and Lu Han. However, Xiao was surprised by this, finding it inappropriate that Emperor Dezong was keeping secrets away from Li Mian and Lu, as fellow chancellors, stated: When Emperor Yao and Emperor Shun promoted or demoted an official, their officials and the people all agreed. If Li and Lu should not be chancellors they should be removed. If they are to be chancellors, how can such important matters be hidden from them and not discussed with them.

This is a great problem with the imperial governance. This morning, the Emperor told me this, I told him that this is inappropriate, I am surprised that he is doing this, it is not that I would not be willing to coauthor a petition with you, but I am afraid that this would become precedent. Therefore, I do not dare to inform you; when Liu informed Emperor Dezong about this, Emperor Dezong was displeased. Xiao, resigned. Further, when Emperor Dezong tried to promote Lu Qi, exiled after being blamed for causing Zhu's rebellion, in 785, the imperial attendant Yuan Gao objected, Liu and Lu Han did not dare to support Yuan's position. Yuan had to protest the decision along with several of his junior colleagues and prevailed on Emperor Dezong to change Emperor Dezong's mind. Liu offered to resign. On November 3, 785, Emperor Dezong removed him from his chancellor position and made him the minister of census (