Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Georgia's 2nd congressional district
Georgia's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Democrat Sanford D. Bishop, Jr. though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. One of the largest districts by size, it comprises much of the southwestern portion of the state of Georgia. Much of the district is rural, although the district has a number of small cities and medium-sized towns, such as Albany, Americus and portions of Columbus and Macon; the district is the historic and current home of President Jimmy Carter. The district is one of the most Democratic in the country, as Democrats have held the seat since 1875; as of May 2017, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 2nd congressional district, living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 2nd district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 2nd district at GovTrack.us
Baker County, Georgia
Baker County is a county in Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,451; the county seat and only city is Newton. The county was created December 12, 1825 from the eastern portion of Early County by an act of the Georgia General Assembly and is named for Colonel John Baker, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. Baker County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Baker County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Three other properties in Newton are listed on the register: Notchaway Baptist Church and Cemetery, Pine Bloom Plantation, Tarver Plantation. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 349 square miles, of which 342 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. The eastern half of Baker County is located in the Lower Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the western half of the county is located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin. State Route 37 State Route 91 State Route 200 State Route 216 State Route 253 Dougherty County, Georgia - northeast Mitchell County, Georgia - east Decatur County, Georgia - southwest Early County, Georgia - west Miller County, Georgia - west Calhoun County, Georgia - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,451 people, 1,372 households, 892 families residing in the county.
The population density was 10.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,652 housing units at an average density of 4.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 48.5% white, 46.7% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 7.3% were English, 0.0% were American. Of the 1,372 households, 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families, 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age was 41.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,462 and the median income for a family was $42,585. Males had a median income of $25,954 versus $25,688 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,379.
About 23.1% of families and 30.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.1% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,074 people, 1,514 households, 1,094 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 1,740 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 50.39% Black or African American, 47.42% White, 0.22% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.33% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 2.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,514 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.70% were married couples living together, 19.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,338, the median income for a family was $36,438. Males had a median income of $25,891 versus $16,462 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,969. About 19.90% of families and 23.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.50% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over. Baker County School System operates public schools. Although Barry Goldwater, George Wallace and Richard Nixon carried it in successive elections between 1964 and 1972, Baker County is Democratic. In 1956 Adlai Stevenson received over 96% of the county's vote, it has gone majority Democratic from 1992 to 2012, but by much closer margins than that.
In 2008 Barack Obama won with just 50.1% to John McCain's 49.1%. Newton Cheevertown Dewsville Fish Trap LedbetterSource: National Register of Historic Places listings in Baker County, Georgia Baker County Sheriff's Office Baker County historical marker
ACF River Basin
The ACF River Basin is the drainage basin, or watershed, of the Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee River, Flint River, in the Southeastern United States. This area is alternatively known as the Apalachicola Basin and is listed by the United States Geological Survey as basin HUC 031300, as well as sub-region HUC 0313, it is located in the South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region, listed as HUC 03. The basin is further sub-divided into 14 sub-basins; the ACF River Basin begins in the mountains of northeast Georgia, drains much of metro Atlanta, most of west Georgia and southwest Georgia and adjoining counties of southeast Alabama, before it splits the central part of the Florida Panhandle and flows into the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachicola Bay, near Apalachicola, Florida. It drains an area of 20,355 square miles. Most of the northern half of the basin abuts the Eastern Continental Divide on the east, the ACT River Basin to the west; these states and Alabama have been involved in a water-use dispute for two decades, known as the Tri-state water dispute.
Georgia has lobbied the United States Congress to end navigation on the Appalachicola and lower Chattahoochee, to conserve more water during droughts. Keeping the two rivers at a navigable depth during these times requires large releases from dams upstream, sending potential drinking water downstream for shipping, dropping lakes to levels dangerous to boaters. Other ecological conservation and economic concerns include protecting harvests of oysters in Apalachicola Bay, which require a large enough flow of fresh water to prevent excessive saltwater intrusion from the Gulf. Numerous endangered and imperiled species occur in the basin, including many endemic mussels The cost of dredging silt, much of it from uncontrolled growth across metro Atlanta's fine red clay soil, has been called wasteful to float so little ship traffic. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: ACF Basin website Florida DEP: Apalachicola River Watershed
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Decatur County, Georgia
Decatur County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,842; the county seat is Bainbridge. Decatur County comprises the Bainbridge, GA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Tallahassee-Bainbridge, FL-GA Combined Statistical Area; the county was created by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 8, 1823, from a portion of Early County. Three other counties were created from land, part of Decatur County. In 1825, a portion of Decatur was used in the creation of Thomas County. In 1905, another portion of Decatur was used in the creation of part of Grady County. In 1920, the western portion of Decatur County was used to form Seminole County in its entirety. Decatur County is named for United States Navy Commodore Stephen Decatur, a hero of the War of 1812. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 623 square miles, of which 597 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water; the bulk of Decatur County, from northeast to southwest, centered on Bainbridge, is located in the Lower Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin.
All of the county's western border is located in the Spring Creek sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin. The southwestern portion of Decatur County, centered on Attapulgus, bordered on the west by State Route 302, is located on the Lower Ochlockonee River sub-basin of the larger Ochlockonee River basin; the county's southwestern corner, west of State Route 302, is located in the Apalachicola River sub-basin of the same larger ACF River basin. Miller County - north Mitchell County - northeast Baker County - northeast Grady County - east Gadsden County, Florida - south Seminole County - west As of the census of 2000, there were 28,240 people, 10,380 households, 7,546 families residing in the county; the population density was 47 people per square mile. There were 11,968 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.10% White, 39.91% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.64% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races.
3.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,380 households out of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.00% were married couples living together, 19.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.50% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,820, the median income for a family was $32,635. Males had a median income of $27,180 versus $20,745 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,063.
About 19.20% of families and 22.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.00% of those under age 18 and 19.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 27,842 people, 10,390 households, 7,255 families residing in the county; the population density was 46.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,125 housing units at an average density of 20.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 54.2% white, 41.1% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 2.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 9.8% were American, 5.9% were English, 5.7% were Irish. Of the 10,390 households, 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families, 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10.
The median age was 37.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,297 and the median income for a family was $44,322. Males had a median income of $36,176 versus $25,750 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,833. About 19.4% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.9% of those under age 18 and 18.7% of those age 65 or over. Attapulgus Bainbridge Climax Brinson Miriam National Register of Historic Places listings in Decatur County, Georgia Sowegalive.com - Bainbridge, GA News and Community Information The New Georgia Encyclopedia entry for Decatur County Decatur County historical marker Amsterdam historical marker Cyrene historical marker