A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Millersville University of Pennsylvania
Millersville University of Pennsylvania is a public university in Millersville, Pennsylvania. It is one of the fourteen schools. Founded in 1855 as the first Normal School in Pennsylvania, Millersville is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and the Pennsylvania Department of Education. First established in 1854 as the Millersville Academy out of the since-demolished Old Main, the Academy specialized in a series of workshop-style teacher institutes in response to the 1834 Free School Act of Pennsylvania. Millersville University was established in 1855 as the Lancaster County Normal School, the first state normal school in Pennsylvania, it subsequently changed its name to Millersville State Normal School in 1859 and Millersville became a state teachers college in 1927. It was renamed Millersville State College in 1959 and became Millersville University of Pennsylvania in 1983. In November 1852, the Lancaster County Educational Association met in Strasburg to form an institute for teacher training.
The first institute, which led to the Lancaster County Normal School and received major support from Thomas H. Burrowes, was held in January 1853. While the Association was working to organize, Lewis M. Hobbs, a popular teacher of the Manor district, lobbied in Manor township for a more permanent training facility for teachers. Jacob Shenk, a local farmer, donated a tract of five acres with Hobbs collecting investments from local residents. On April 17, 1855, Lancaster County Normal School opened with James P. Wickersham as principal and a peak of 147 teachers in attendance; the president of the school was Thomas H. Burrowes and vice-president was Lewis M. Hobbs. November 5, 1855, marked the start of the first full session, with a new expansion off the original Academy building that made 96 rooms available for nearly 200 students and their teachers. Completed in 1894, the Biemesderfer Executive Center known as the Old Library, is the centerpiece of Millersville University's campus; the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees designated $27,500 for the construction of the library in 1891, with the contract awarded to Lancastrian D.
H. Rapp, who submitted the lowest bid in a blind auction; the Millersville University Library is housed in Ganser Hall. In September 2011, the University closed Ganser Hall for two years for renovations. On August 26, 2013, the Ganser Library reopened as the McNairy Library and Learning Forum at Ganser Hall. Located in Millersville, Pa.. C. 3 hours from New York City 3 1/2 hours from Pittsburgh Housing options include Shenks Hall, Reighard Hall, Brookwood Court and Healthy Living apartments. 2,232 students live in eight suite-style residence halls on campus. Coed, by wing or floor Theme areas: First Year Experience, Honors College, International Students, Center for Service Learning and Leadership 1,228 live in local off-campus housing 5,365 commute from home On August 29, 2015, local community members Samuel and Dena Lombardo announced a gift to Millersville University of $1.2M for the creation of the University's new Welcome Center and first state-of-the-art Net-Zero energy building on campus.
University president, Dr. Anderson, appropriated over $6.3M in university funds, with oil prices near multi year lows, bringing the final cost to over $7.5M. This building, named the Lombardo Welcome Center, opened in January 2018. Equipped with solar panels, state-of-the-art energy-efficient glass, an interior design inspired by feng shui principles, the Lombardo Welcome Center will produce as much energy as it consumes. On the grounds of former Hull Hall, the Lombardo Welcome Center houses the offices of Admissions, Housing & Residential Life, University Marketing and Communications, the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs & Enrollment Management. Built from 1965-1967 on the grounds of Old Main, the Helen Ganser Library closed its doors in 2011 for an extensive 2-year renovation project and re-opened in 2013 as the Francine G. McNairy Library & Learning Forum; the entire complex is named after Millersville's 13th President, Dr. Francine McNairy, who began her career at Millersville first as Provost and Vice President of Academic Affairs before becoming President in 2003.
Ganser Hall, named for Helen A. Ganser and head of the Library Science Department, is the 9-story building that houses the University's academic collection. Serving as the academic heart of campus for over 40 years, Ganser Hall's beginning with the two famous "Bookwalks" of 1967; the Library offers a laptop borrowing service for students, has rooms available for reservation, is home to a 24-hour study room and is a part of the EZ-Borrow network, where students and staff can request a book from another library and arrives in as little as four days to the circulation desk. The Library hosts several student-worker positions each semester. Millersville's Office of Visual and Performing Arts manages two performing arts centers in Lancaster County: The Ware Center and Winter Visual & Performing Arts Center. Built as an expansion of Lyte Auditorium in Alumni Hall, the new Charles R. and Anita B Winter Visual and Performing Arts Center has a new entrance
Akron is a borough in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. It is a mid-sized town with two main roads going through it: Main Street and 7th Street Pennsylvania Route 272; the town is residential with a number of small businesses. The American headquarters of the Mennonite-related relief organizations, the Mennonite Central Committee and Mennonite Disaster Service, are located in the town; the town features the Roland Park which has baseball fields, pavilions, a pond, a gazebo, tennis courts, a playground, a beach volleyball court, a basketball court, an 18 target Disc golf course. Akron was incorporated as a borough in 1895. A railroad served a railroad station in the town. A trolley used to run in parts of the borough; the railroad is now the Warwick to Ephrata Rail Trail. Akron is located at 40°9′23″N 76°12′14″W; the borough is located on a hill. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,046 people, 1,622 households, 1,138 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 3,199.8 people per square mile. There were 1,687 housing units at an average density of 1,334.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.42% White, 0.54% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.79% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 2.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,622 households, out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.5% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.86. In the borough the population was spread out, with 21.7% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 89.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $45,407, the median income for a family was $53,365. Males had a median income of $37,061 versus $24,545 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,983. About 3.4% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. Akron Elementary Akron borough is an independent local government unit located in Lancaster County, it is run by an elected mayor. The current Mayor of Akron is John McBeth; the Borough Council is run by President John Williamson. The Chief of Police is Thomas Zell; the Borough of Akron has a Fire Company established in 1893 the Akron Volunteer Fire Company Lancaster County Station 12, which has 50 active members and 3 pieces of Current Operating Fire Apparatus. The economy is made up of small businesses. There are few large businesses because the town is small and residential.
The largest business headquartered in Akron is the non-profit Mennonite Central Committee, which operates the Fair Trade retailer Ten Thousand Villages. The locally well known Weisers Market is in Akron. Loyd H. Roland Memorial Park, is a 70 plus acre park located on Main Street on the East side of Akron; the park has hiking trails, pond, 18 hole disc golf course, picnic pavilions and more. Akron is one of the many Pennsylvania towns to drop or raise a unique item at midnight on New Year's Eve; the "Shoe-In" begins several hours before midnight with children's activities, carriage rides, a bonfire. People donate children's shoes. In honor of the area's former shoe making industry a giant sneaker is lowered at midnight
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Manor Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Manor Township, in west central Lancaster County, United States, was founded upon the genocide of the Native American population known as the Susquehannock, in events collectively known as the Conestoga Massacres. Manor Township takes its name from the Manor of Conestoga, surveyed and reserved for William Penn in 1719. There is evidence that William Penn visited this area prior to 1690. At this time the area was Native American territory; the Susquehannocks were the largest tribe in the Susquenhanna Valley with the center of their community in the Turkey Hill area. The Quaker government had surveyors lay off a large area bounded by the Little Conestoga Creek near Millersville, to the Susquehanna River, to the Conestoga Creek; this area was called the Manor of Conestoga, some historians believe it was set aside by William Penn as a domain in which the Indians could live and hunt. The Manor contained 16,000 acres east of the Susquehanna River. For the most part the land was flat and well watered, the soil was rich and fertile.
The Susquehannock tribe had lived on the land, ceded by William Penn to their ancestors in the 1690s. Many Conestoga were Christian, they had lived peacefully with their European neighbors for decades, they lived by bartering handicrafts and from subsistence food given them by the Pennsylvania government. In the aftermath of the French and Indian War, the frontier of Pennsylvania remained unsettled. A new wave of Scots-Irish immigrants now known locally as "The Paxton Boys" encroached on Native American land in the back country in blatant violation of signed treaties; these settlers claimed that Indians raided their homes, killing men and children. Reverend John Elder, the parson at Paxtang, became a leader of the settlers, he was known as the "Fighting Parson" and kept his rifle in the pulpit while he delivered his sermons. Elder helped organize the settlers into a mounted militia and was named Captain of the group known as the "Pextony boys." Although there had been no Indian attacks in the area, the Paxton Boys claimed that the Conestoga secretly provided aid and intelligence to the hostiles.
At daybreak on December 14, 1763, the vigilante group of the Scots-Irish frontiersmen attacked Conestoga homes at Conestoga Town, scalped or, mutilated the males and murdered the women and children, burned their cabins, in what was their final massacre of the native American tribe. To this day, Manor Township uses an Indian Chief in full headdress with the date 1763 below, as its official township logo; the colonial government determined that the killings were murder. The new governor, John Penn offered a reward for capture of the Paxton Boys. Penn placed the remaining sixteen Conestoga in protective custody in Lancaster but the Paxton Boys broke in on December 27, 1763, they killed and dismembered six adults and eight children. The government of Pennsylvania offered a new reward after this second attack, this time $600, for the capture of anyone involved; the attackers were never identified. It was changed to its present form in 1759; the population was 19,612 at the 2010 census. For the next 100 years the Township was subdivided as the large plantations were cut into smaller tracts to accommodate growing families.
The iron industry came to the Township in 1846 when the Iron Works was built in the village of Safe Harbor. The T-shape rail was the principal produce of the mill; the Civil War came close to Manor Township in 1863. Governor Curtin called every able-bodied man to enroll for the defense of the States. Citizens of Manor and Millersville assembled at the headquarters at Safe Harbor; the invasion threat to Lancaster County ended as the Columbia-Wrightsville bridge was burned and Lee's army was defeated at Gettysburg. By 1880 the population of Manor Township was 4,000 people. From the late 1800s through the mid 1900s Manor Township was known for producing fine tobacco crops. Manor farmers produced more tobacco than any township in Lancaster County. Churches and schools were built; the railroad along the western boundary of the township enabled industries to develop, including a woolen factory near Safe Harbor, match factory in Safe Harbor, an implement factory near Millersville. In April 1930, construction began on the dam for the Safe Harbor Water Power Corporation and was completed twenty months in 1931.
In 1973, Washington Boro merged into Manor Township. Most of Manor Township remains agricultural in use; the land is considered by soil scientists to be as fertile as any in the United States. The vast majority of development has occurred in the north eastern section of the Township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 48.6 square miles, of which, 38.5 square miles of it is land and 10.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,498 people, 6,464 households, 4,699 families residing in the township; the population density was 427.9 people per square mile. There were 6,710 housing units at an average density of 174.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 95.64% White, 1.35% African American, 0.10% Native American, 1.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.28% of the population. There were 6,464 households, out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families.
22.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 8
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University