Eva Gabor was a Hungarian-American actress and socialite. She was known for her role on the 1965–71 television sitcom Green Acres as Lisa Douglas, the wife of Eddie Albert's character, Oliver Wendell Douglas, she voiced "Duchess" in the 1970 Disney film The Aristocats, Miss Bianca in Disney’s The Rescuers and The Rescuers Down Under. Gabor was successful on Broadway and on television, she was a successful businessperson, marketing wigs and beauty products. Her elder sisters, Zsa Zsa and Magda Gabor, were actresses and socialites. Gabor was born in Budapest, the youngest of three daughters of Vilmos Gábor, a soldier, his wife Jolie, a jeweler, her parents were both from Hungarian Jewish families. She was the first of the sisters to immigrate to the US, shortly after her first marriage, to a Swedish osteopath, Dr. Eric Drimmer, whom she married in 1939 when she was 20 years old, her first movie role was in the US in Forced Landing at Paramount Pictures. During the 1950s she appeared in several “A”-movies, including The Last Time I Saw Paris, starring Elizabeth Taylor.
These roles were again bit parts. In 1953, she was given her own television talk The Eva Gabor Show, which ran for one season. Through the rest of the 1950s and early 1960s she appeared in movies, she appeared in one episode of the mystery series Justice and was on the game show What's My Line? as the "mystery challenger." Her film appearances during this era included a remake of My Man Godfrey, Gigi and It Started with a Kiss. In 1965, Gabor got the role for which she is best remembered: Lisa Douglas, whose attorney husband Oliver Wendell Douglas decides to leave the "rat race" of city life, he buys a farm in a rural community, forcing Lisa to leave her beloved big-city urban life, in the Paul Henning sitcom Green Acres, which aired on CBS. Green Acres was set in Hooterville, the same backdrop for Petticoat Junction, would cross over with its sister sitcom. Despite proving to be a ratings hit, staying in the top 20 for its first four seasons, Green Acres, along with another sister show, The Beverly Hillbillies, was cancelled in 1971 in the CBS network's "rural purge"— a policy to get rid of the network's rural-based television shows.
Gabor did voice-over work for Disney movies, providing the European-accented voices of Duchess in The Aristocats, Miss Bianca in The Rescuers and The Rescuers Down Under, as well as the Queen of Time in the Sanrio film Nutcracker Fantasy. She was a panelist on the Gene Rayburn-hosted Match Game. From 1983 -- 84, she was on the Match Game Hollywood Squares Hour starring Jon Bauman. In 1983 she reunited with Eddie Albert on Broadway as the Grand Duchess Olga Katrina in You Can't Take It with You. In 1990, she attempted a TV series comeback in the CBS sitcom pilot Close Encounters, she toured post-communist Hungary after a 40-year absence on an episode of Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous. In 1972 she launched her eponymous fashion collection, with Luis Estevez, a Cuban-born, Coty-award-winning fashion designer. Eva Gabor was married five times, she had no children: Eric Valdemar Drimmer, a Swedish-born masseur turned osteopath and psychologist. They wed in London in June 1937, divorced in Los Angeles, California, on February 25, 1942.
Charles Isaacs, an American investment broker. They married on September 27, 1943, were divorced on April 2, 1949. John Elbert Williams, MD, a plastic surgeon, they married on April 8, 1956 and were divorced on March 20, 1957. Richard Brown, a textile manufacturer, who became a writer and director, they married at the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, on October 4, 1959, divorced in Santa Monica, California, in June 1973. Frank Gard Jameson Sr. an aerospace executive and former vice president of Rockwell International. They married in the Vivian Webb Chapel of The Webb School, California on September 21, 1973; the couple divorced in 1983. Gabor became a stepmother to Jameson's four children. After her final marriage, Gabor was involved in a public relationship with TV producer Merv Griffin until her death, it was rumored. Gabor died in Los Angeles on July 4, 1995, from respiratory failure and pneumonia, following a fall in a bathtub in Mexico, where she had been on vacation, her funeral was held on July 1995, at Good Shepherd Catholic Church in Beverly Hills.
The youngest sister, Eva predeceased her mother. Eldest sister Magda and mother Jolie Gabor both died two years in 1997. Elder sister Zsa Zsa died from cardiac arrest on December 18, 2016. Gabor is interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery and is buried just yards from both her niece, Francesca Hilton, her friend and former co-star Eddie Albert. Eva Gabor appears in This Is Your Life Gabor sisters Eva Gabor Portrait by Americo Makk Orchids & Salami, by Eva Gabor, Doubleday, 1954 Gaborabilia, by Anthony Turtu and Donald F. Reuter, Three Rivers Press, 2001.
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Axis & Allies
Axis & Allies is a series of World War II strategy board games. Designed by Larry Harris and published by Nova Game Designs in 1981, the game was republished by the Milton Bradley Company in 1984 as part of the Gamemaster Series of board games; this edition has been retroactively named Axis & Allies: Classic to differentiate it from revisions. In 1996, Axis & Allies: Classic was inducted into the Academy of Adventure Gaming Arts & Design Adventure Gaming Hall of Fame. Games magazine has inducted Axis & Allies into their buyers' guide Hall of Fame, an honor the magazine extends to "games that have met or exceeded the highest standards of quality and play value and have been continuously in production for at least 10 years. Long after the Gamemaster name was retired, A&A: Classic lives on having been moved to the Avalon Hill lineup following the acquisition of Milton Bradley Company and Avalon Hill by Hasbro; the game itself has gone through several revisions, most in 2013. The object of the game and its spinoffs is to win the war by capturing enough critical territories to gain the advantage over the enemy in a recreation of World War II.
After acquiring Milton Bradley and Avalon Hill, Hasbro transferred the Axis & Allies: Classic board game from the Milton Bradley division to the Avalon Hill division in 1999. In 1999, Hasbro acquired Wizards of the Coast. In 2004, Hasbro made Avalon Hill a subsidiary of Wizards of the Coast; the Axis & Allies board game series is produced by WotC under the Avalon Hill label. Hasbro is the parent company. There are a total of 11 board games in the Axis & Allies series, 8 of which are available from many game resellers; the two out-of-print A&A board games, Axis & Allies: Classic and Axis & Allies: 50th Anniversary Edition can be found on various auction websites. The original Axis & Allies: Classic board game has been followed by ten spinoff games using more or less the same mechanics: in 1999, Axis & Allies: Europe was released, with updated rules and focus on the European theater of World War II. Axis & Allies: D-Day focused on the Allied liberation of France. In 2004, the first major revision to the core game, Axis & Allies: Revised was released, with elements taken from A&A: Europe and A&A: Pacific celebrating the 20th anniversary of Axis & Allies itself.
Axis & Allies: Battle of the Bulge focused on the Battle of the Bulge in Europe while Axis & Allies: Guadalcanal focused on the Solomon Islands Campaign in the Pacific. In 2008, Axis & Allies: 50th Anniversary Edition was released as one of the three games celebrating the 50th anniversary of its publisher, Avalon Hill; this was followed by Axis & Allies: 1942 in 2009, the second major revision to the core game, with mechanics taken from the anniversary edition celebrating the 25th anniversary of Axis & Allies itself. Axis & Allies: Pacific 1940 was released in December 2009 and Axis & Allies: Europe 1940 was released in the second half of 2010; the 11th A&A board game in the series, Axis & Allies: Europe 1940 was released in August, 2010. The game can be combined with Pacific 1940 to form a Global game of World War II on a combined 175×80 cm map. All nine major powers of World War II, France, Italy, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and the ANZAC forces, are represented in the combined global game with unique units and colors.
To streamline the game and correct balance issues, Global 1940 was revised and a new rule set was released on the Axis & Allies forums in January 2011. Axis & Allies is not a strict historical wargame, due to its streamlining for ease of play and balancing so that both sides have a chance to win. For instance, the economic model is simplistic, with each territory producing a number of Industrial Production Certificates for the purchase of new units. Moreover, the game is supposed to start in the spring of 1942, but Japan is in position to attack Hawaii again, while Germany is pressed well into the Soviet Union with an superior force. If the game were truer to history, the Axis empires would be at their climax in 1942, about to be pushed back by the Allies. Notes In every edition of Axis & Allies, players play as the major belligerents of World War II: Germany, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States; the A&A: 50th Anniversary Edition includes Italy as the third Axis power and China as the fourth Allied power.
The A&A: Pacific 1940 edition includes China and ANZAC. The A&A: Europe 1940 edition includes Italy and France; the players playing the Axis powers team up against those of the Allied powers in an attempt to conquer key territories, represented by regions on the map board. In earlier editions, this was done by capturing and holding until the end of a round of play certain territories where the opposing alliance's capital cities are located. In editions, this included other territories on the map, where "victory cities" are located. In the original Milton Bradley edition, A&A: Classic, the Axis powers could win by capturing and holding until the end of a round of play enough territories to gain an economic advantage; this "economic victory" was dropped in editions of A&A. Each round of a game involves each of the powers moving in turn according to a specified order; when each power takes its tur
The Game of Life
The Game of Life known as Life, is a board game created in 1860 by Milton Bradley, as The Checkered Game of Life. The Game of Life was America's first popular parlour game; the game simulates a person's travels through his or her life, from college to retirement, with jobs and possible children along the way. Two to four or six players can participate in one game. Variations of the game accommodate up to ten players; the modern version was published 100 years in 1960. It was created and co-designed by toy and game designer Reuben Klamer and was "heartily endorsed" by Art Linkletter, it is now part of the permanent collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History and an inductee into the National Toy Hall of Fame. The game was created in 1860 by Milton Bradley as The Checkered Game of Life, was the first game created by Bradley, a successful lithographer; the game sold 45,000 copies by the end of its first year. Like many 19th-century games, such as The Mansion of Happiness by S. B.
Ives in 1843, it had a strong moral message. The game board resembled a modified checkerboard; the object was to collect 100 points. A player could gain 50 points by reaching "Happy Old Age" in the upper-right corner, opposite "Infancy" where one began. Instead of dice – which were associated with gambling – players used a six-sided top called a teetotum. In 1960 the modern version, The Game of Life, was introduced. A collaboration between Reuben Klamer and Bill Markham, it consists of a track which passes along and through small mountains and other features. A player travels along the track in a small plastic automobile, according to the spins of a small wheel on the board with spaces numbered 1 through 10; each car has six holes into which pegs are added as the player "gets married" and "acquires children". Some "early modern" editions have eight cars. There is a bank which includes money in $5,000, $10,000, $20,000, $50,000, $100,000 bills. Other tangibles vary between versions of the game. $500 bills were dropped in the 1980s as were $1,000 bills in 1992.
The Game of Life, copyrighted by the Milton Bradley Company in 1963, had some differences from versions. For example, once a player reached the "Day of Reckoning", they had to choose between moving on to "Millionaire Acres", or trying to become a "Millionaire Tycoon" with the risk of being sent to the "Poor Farm"; this version had Art Linkletter as the spokesman, included his likeness on the $100,000 bills and a rousing endorsement from Linkletter on the cover of the box. It was advertised as a "Milton Bradley 100th Anniversary Game" and as "A Full 3-D Action Game." Winning Moves markets a classic 1960's edition. About halfway through the production of this version, many dollar values doubled; this description focuses on the version with the larger dollar amounts. The late 1980s version replaced the convertibles from earlier versions with minivans. Early 1960s-era convertibles were still used in the 1978 edition; the "Poor Farm" is not present in this edition. The gold "Revenge" squares added "Sue for damages", in the 1978 edition.
The Game of Life was updated in 1991 to reward players for good behavior, such as recycling trash and helping the homeless. An updated version of the game was released in 2005 with a few gameplay changes; the new Game of Life reduced the element of chance, although it is still based on chance and still rewards players for taking risks. The 2018 version includes pet pegs, pet squares pink squares with a paw print, took away the lawsuit square. Instead, a lawsuit card was added. There is a new "keep this card for 100k." Feature. Hello Kitty Edition The Game of Life in Monstropolis The Game of Life Card Game Fame Edition Star Wars: A Jedi's Path Pirates of the Caribbean The Simpsons Edition Bikini Bottom SpongeBob SquarePants Edition Pokémon Edition Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest Twists and Turns Edition The Game of Life Express Monsters, Inc. version Indiana Jones Edition Family Guy Collectors Edition The Wizard of Oz Edition The Game of Life - Haunted Mansion Theme Park Edition Rite Aid Pharmacy, The Game of Life Collect and Win game The Game of Life High School Edition LIFE: Rock Star Edition The Game of LIFE: It's a Dog's Life Edition The Game of LIFE: Despicable Me LIFE: My Little Pony Edition Inside Out LIFE: Yo-Kai Watch Edition RPG Jinsei Game Nintendo Entertainment System video game Super Jinsei Game series Super Jinsei Game Super Famicom video game Super Jinsei Game 2 Super Famicom video game Super Jinsei Game 3 Super Famicom video game The Game of Life for PC and PlayStation The Game of Life/Yahtzee/Payday Game Boy Advance game The Game of Life Wii game The Game of Life WiiWare game (Ja
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson is an American talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under the Tonight Show franchise from October 1, 1962 through May 22, 1992. It aired during late-night. For its first decade, Johnny Carson's The Tonight Show was based at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, with some episodes recorded at NBC-TV's West Coast studios in Burbank, California. In 2002, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was ranked No. 12 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, in 2013 it was ranked No. 22 on their list of 60 Best Series. Johnny Carson's Tonight Show established the modern format of the late-night talk show: a monologue sprinkled with a rapid-fire series of 16 to 22 one-liners was followed by sketch comedy moving on to guest interviews and performances by musicians and stand-up comedians. During the early years of Carson's tenure, his guests included politicians such as former U. S. Vice President Richard M. Nixon, former U. S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, but by 1970, Carson interviewed as guests people that had a book, television show, or stage performance to promote.
Other regulars were selected for their entertainment or information value, in contrast to those who offered more cerebral conversation. Carson's preference for access to Hollywood stars caused the show's move to the West Coast on May 1, 1972; when asked about intellectual conversation on The Tonight Show and his staff invariably cited "Carl Sagan, Paul Ehrlich, Margaret Mead, Gore Vidal, Shana Alexander, Madalyn Murray O'Hair" as guests. Family therapist Carlfred Broderick appeared on the show ten times, psychologist Joyce Brothers was one of Carson's most frequent guests. Carson, in general, did not feature prop comedy acts. Carson never socialized with guests before or after the show. Unlike his avuncular counterparts Merv Griffin, Mike Douglas, Dick Cavett, Carson was a comparatively "cool" host who only laughed when genuinely amused and abruptly cut short monotonous or embarrassingly inept interviewees. Mort Sahl recalled, "The producer crouches just off camera and holds up a card that says,'Go to commercial.'
So Carson goes to a commercial and the whole team rushes up to his desk to discuss what had gone wrong, like a pit stop at Le Mans." Actor Robert Blake once compared being interviewed by Carson to "facing the death squad" or "Broadway on opening night." The publicity value of appearing on The Tonight Show was so great, that most guests were willing to subject themselves to the risk. The show's announcer and Carson's sidekick was Ed McMahon, who from the first show would introduce Carson with a drawn-out "Heeeeeeeeere's Johnny!". The catchphrase was heard nightly for 30 years, ranked top of the TV Land poll of U. S. TV catchphrases and quotes in 2006. McMahon, who held the same role in Carson's ABC game show Who Do You Trust? for five years would remain standing to the side as Carson did his monologue, laughing at his jokes join him at the guest chair when Carson moved to his desk. The two would interact in a comic spot for a short while before the first guest was introduced. McMahon stated in a 1978 profile of Carson in The New Yorker that "the'Tonight Show' is my staple diet, my meat and potatoes—I'm realistic enough to know that everything else stems from that".
After a 1965 incident in which he ruined Carson's joke on the air McMahon was careful to, as he said, "never to go where's going". He wrote in his 1998 autobiography: My role on the show never was defined. I did. I was there when he needed me, when he didn't I moved down the couch and kept quiet.... I did the audience warm-up, I did commercials, for a brief period I co-hosted the first fifteen minutes of the show... and I performed in many sketches. On our thirteenth-anniversary show Johnny and I were talking at his desk and he said, "Thirteen years is a long time." He paused long enough for me to recognize my cue, so I asked, "How long is it?" "That's why you're here," he said summing up my primary role on the show perfectly... I had to support him, I had to help him get to the punch line, but while doing it I had to make it look as if I wasn't doing anything at all; the better I did it, the less it appeared as if I was doing it.... If I was going to play second fiddle, I wanted to be the Heifetz of second fiddlers....
The most difficult thing for me to learn how to do was just sit there with my mouth closed. Many nights I'd be listening to Johnny and in my mind I'd reach the same ad lib. I'd have to bite my tongue not to say it out loud. I had to m
Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, the seat of Hampden County. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, the eastern Mill River; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 153,060. As of 2017, the estimated population was 154,758, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston and Providence, the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas in Massachusetts, had a population of 692,942 as of 2010; the first Springfield in the New World, during the American Revolution, George Washington designated it as the site of the Springfield Armory for its central location. The Armory would play a pivotal role in the Civil War with its manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles". Today the city is the largest in western New England, the urban and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley.
Springfield has several nicknames – "The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts. Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River; the Hartford-Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges – the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States. The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions. Springfield was founded in 1636 by English Puritan William Pynchon as "Agawam Plantation" under the administration of the Connecticut Colony. In 1641 it was renamed after Pynchon's hometown of Springfield, England, following incidents, including trade disputes as well as Captain John Mason's hostilities toward native tribes, that precipitated the settlement joining the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
During its early existence, Springfield flourished as both an agricultural settlement and trading post, although its prosperity waned during King Philip's War in 1675, when natives laid siege to it and burned it to the ground as part of the ongoing campaign. During that attack, three-quarters of the original settlement was burned to the ground, with many of Springfield's residents survived by taking refuge in John Pynchon's brick house, the "Old Fort", the first such house to be built in the Connecticut River Valley. Out of the siege, Miles Morgan and his sons were lauded as heroes; the original settlement – today's downtown Springfield – was located atop bluffs at the confluence of four rivers, at the nexus of trade routes to Boston, New York City, Montreal, with some of the northeastern United States' most fertile soil. In 1777, Springfield's location at numerous crossroads led George Washington and Henry Knox to establish the United States' National Armory at Springfield, which produced the first American musket in 1794, the famous Springfield rifle.
From 1777 until its closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory attracted skilled laborers to Springfield, making it the United States' longtime center for precision manufacturing. The near-capture of the armory during Shays' Rebellion of 1787 led directly to the formation of the U. S. Constitutional Convention. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Springfielders produced many innovations, including the first American-English dictionary. Springfield underwent a protracted decline during the second half of the 20th century, due to the decommissioning of the Springfield Armory in 1969. During the 1980s and 1990s, Springfield developed a national reputation for crime, political corruption and cronyism. During the early 21st century, Springfield sought to overcome its downgrade in reputation via long-term revitalization projects and undertook several large projects, including a $1 billion intercity rail line a $1 billion MGM casino.