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The Mingo people are an Iroquoian-speaking group of Native Americans made up of peoples who migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-18th century Seneca and Cayuga. Anglo-Americans called these migrants mingos, a corruption of mingwe, an Eastern Algonquian name for Iroquoian-language groups in general. Mingos have been called "Ohio Iroquois" and "Ohio Seneca". Most were forced to move to Indian Territory in the early 1830s under the Indian Removal program. At the turn of the 20th century, they lost control of communal lands when property was allocated to individual households in a government assimilation effort related to the Dawes Act and extinguishing Indian claims to prepare for admission of Oklahoma as a state. In the 1930s Mingo descendants reorganized as a tribe and were recognized in 1937 by the federal government as the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma; the etymology of the name Mingo derives from the Delaware word, mingwe or Minque as transliterated from their Algonquian language, meaning treacherous or stealthy.

In the 17th century, the terms Minqua or Minquaa were used interchangeably to refer to the Iroquois and to the Susquehannock, both Iroquoian-speaking tribes. The Mingo were noted for having a bad reputation and were sometimes referred to as "Blue Mingo" or "Black Mingo" for their misdeeds; the people who became known as Mingo migrated to the Ohio Country in the mid-eighteenth century, part of a movement of various Native American tribes away from European pressures to a region, sparsely populated for decades but controlled as a hunting ground by the Iroquois. The "Mingo dialect" that dominated the Ohio valley from the late 17th to early 18th centuries is considered a variant most similar to the Seneca language. After the French and Indian War, many Cayuga people moved to Ohio, where the British granted them a reservation along the Sandusky River, they were joined there by the rest of the Mingo confederacy. Their villages were an amalgamation of Iroquoian Seneca and Susquehannock. Although the Iroquois Confederacy had claimed hunting rights and sovereignty over much of the Ohio River Valley since the late 17th century, these people acted independently.

When Pontiac's Rebellion broke out in 1763 at the end of the French and Indian War, many Mingo joined with other tribes in the attempt to drive the British out of the Ohio Country. At that time, most of the Iroquois nations based in New York were allied to the British; the Mingo-Seneca Chief Guyasuta was one of the leaders in Pontiac's War. Another famous Mingo leader was Chief Logan. Logan was not a village leader. In 1774, as tensions between whites and Indians were on the rise due to a series of violent conflicts, a band of white outlaws murdered Logan's family. Local chiefs acknowledged Logan's right to revenge. Logan exacted his vengeance in a series of raids with a dozen followers, not all of whom were Mingos, his vengeance satisfied, he did not participate in the resulting Lord Dunmore's War. He was not to have been at the climactic Battle of Point Pleasant. Rather than take part in the peace conference, he expressed his thoughts in "Logan's Lament." His speech was printed and distributed.

It is one of the most well-known examples of Native American oratory. By 1830, the Mingo were flourishing in western Ohio, where they had improved their farms and established schools and other civic institutions. After the US passed the Indian Removal Act in that same year, the government pressured the Mingo to sell their lands and migrate to Kansas in 1832. In Kansas, the Mingo joined other Seneca and Cayuga bands, the tribes shared the Neosho Reservation. In 1869, after the American Civil War, the US government pressed for Indian removal to Indian Territory; the three tribes moved to present-day Ottawa Oklahoma. In 1881, a band of Cayuga from Canada joined the Seneca Tribe in Indian Territory. In 1902, shortly before Oklahoma became a state, 372 members of the joint tribe received individual land allotments under a federal program to extinguish common tribal land holdings and encourage assimilation to the European-American model. In 1937 after the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, the tribes reorganized.

They became federally recognized. Today, the tribe numbers over 5,000 members, they continue to maintain religious ties to the Six Nations of the Iroquois. Cobb, William H. Andrew Price and Hu Maxwell, History of the Mingo Indians, Cumberland, Md.: F. B. Jenvy, printer. Hoxie, Frederick E. editor, Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 380–381. ISBN 0-395-66921-9. McConnell, Michael N. A Country Between The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-3142-3

Lake Milh

Lake Milh known as Razzaza Lake, is located a few miles west of Karbala, Iraq. It is alternately called Lake Razazah. Lake Milh is a depression into which excess water from Lake Habbaniyah, which comes from the Euphrates River, is diverted through a controlled escape channel or canal; the lake is listed as a wetland of international importance. The lake is rather shallow and water levels change with the seasons. Due to the salts and the changing water levels, this largest freshwater lake in Iraq has lost its important stock of fish species and only a few recreational areas exist around the lake; the lake termed as "Kerbala Gap” has a large expanse of 156,234 hectares enclosed by deserts with a few low hills on the shore line. The lake and its surrounding areas lie in an elevation range of 28 to 56 metres, it is a deep closed lake in a sand/silt basin. The lake's western part of the valley has thick forest cover, apart from orchards. In the eastern and southern parts, the terrain is of flat arid/semi-desert type.

Mud flats are a common feature in the lake. The geological formation in and around the lake consists of marls, gypsum/anhydrite, limestone bands, but silts; the lake is at a distance of 95 kilometres to the south-west of Baghdad, 10 kilometres to the west of Karbala in the Karbala Governorate. The lake was constructed during the latter half of the 1970s, below the Haur Al Habbaniya as a flood control measure to regulate the flood flows in the Euphrates River; the lake is fed from the excess flood flows diverted from the Majora escape of the Habbaniya Lake. The flow from the escape is diverted through the Sin-Al-Thibban Canal, a narrow channel, aligned through a semi-desert area; this diversion prevents flooding in the northern areas. The salinity of the lake is increasing as result of inadequate supply of water from the link canal. According to a USGS study of Landsat imagery of the area it is noted that the water level of the shallow lake fluctuates with the seasons, in recent years of 1995, 2003, 2013 the area of the lake has reduced considerably.

The local people said that the water depth in the lake was reduced to about 5–10 metres since 1993, during the regime of Saddam Hussein. The reason for this reduction in area is due to inadequate diversion of water from Habbaniya Lake, where the priority of use is irrigation. Diversion has been limited to once in 15 days only; this has affected fishing operations in the lake which in the past used to be throughout the year. As a result, the only fish species surviving in the lake is reported to be "al-Shanik" or Shanak, of marine origin, stocked in the lake by the government. During the Gulf War the area was a military establishment; the vegetation around the periphery of the lake consists of Aeluropus lagapoides, Juncus acutus, Phragmites australis, Salicornia herbacea, Schoenoplectus littoralis. Reported are shrub-lands made up of desert species of Haloxylon salicornicum, Nitraria retusa, Prosopis farcta, Tamarix aucherana, Tamarix macrocarpa, Zygophyllum fabago; the lake area has a large number of wintering waterfowl.

Some of the species reported are Marmaronetta angustirostris, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Pelecanus onocrotalus, Mergellus albellus and Fulica atra. According to a survey 42 bird species have been recorded; the mammal species reported are the: Rüppell's fox, golden jackal, Indian grey mongoose, jungle cat, wild cat. Lake Tharthar Lake Habbaniyah Lake Qadisiyah List of dams and reservoirs in Iraq Mosul Dam Wildlife of Iraq Division, Naval Intelligence. Iraq & The Persian Gulf. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-89266-0. Germany, American Chamber of Commerce in. Transatlantic Trade: The Illustrated Magazine of the American Chamber of Commerce in Germany... American Chamber of Commerce in Germany. Scott, Derek A.. A directory of wetlands in the Middle East. IUCN

Reed St. Mark

Reed St. Mark is an American drummer best known for playing with the avant-garde Swiss heavy metal band Celtic Frost. St. Mark joined Celtic Frost in 1985, after leaving the Swiss hard rock band "Crown", for the recording of their Emperor's Return E. P. and the influential To Mega Therion and Into the Pandemonium albums. After extensive touring with the group, St. Mark left Celtic Frost in 1988 only to join the funk metal group Mindfunk, playing drums on their self-titled debut album for Sony/Epic in 1991, he left Mindfunk in 1992 to re-join Celtic Frost for the writing of the unreleased Under Apollyon's Sun album. During his time with Celtic Frost, St. Mark's various trademarks included rows of women's high-heeled shoes arranged on his drum kit and playing drum solos with oversized sticks, he was noted for his visual and flamboyant drumming style as well as hitting his drums exceedingly hard. He was said to have destroyed drum heads on a daily basis as a result of his hard-hitting technique.

St. Mark performed with Celtic Frost on a Sonor Phonic Plus series double bass kit, that included a Sonor Signature Series 8" steel snare drum, his cymbals used were Paiste RUDE series known for their durability and powerful tone. In the studio and sometimes live, he would include some of the Paiste 2002 line. In 2008, St. Mark was involved in a new project called Triptykon with former Celtic Frost band mate Thomas Gabriel Fischer, he is listed as a contributing artist for the Septimus Orion project which released its first album in 2008. Reed St. Mark's official website Reed St. Mark on MySpace Celtic Frost's official website Septimus Orion official website

Jubilee College State Park

Jubilee College State Park is an Illinois state park located 6 miles west of Peoria, Illinois. It contains Jubilee College State Historic Site, a frontier Illinois college active from 1840 to 1862. Jubilee College, the frontier community that supported it, was founded in 1839 by Episcopal bishop Philander Chase. Earlier in his career Chase had founded Kenyon College in Ohio; this was one of the earliest educational enterprises in Illinois. After the Bishop's death, the college closed in 1862. In 1933 the college and grounds consisting of 93 acres, were presented to the state of Illinois; the site has since been expanded to 3,200 acres and includes the original Chase residence and church. The entire Jubilee College site is still owned by the U. S. state of Illinois. The 90-acre college grounds are operated by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, the surrounding 3,100 acres of open space are operated by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources; the State of Illinois offers guided tours of the centerpiece of Jubilee College, the 1840s building that housed the school's Episcopal chapel and dormitory facilities.

Restored in the 1970s, one wing contains the recreated schoolmaster's office and library, which features a video theater and museum exhibits about the college. The Jubilee College site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Though the state park is still open, the historic site was closed November 30, 2008. Jubilee College State Historic Site, as well as 17 other historic sites and state parks, was closed by former Governor Rod Blagojevich to help close Illinois' multimillion-dollar budget deficit; the park was reopened by Blagojevich's successor, Pat Quinn, but closed again on October 9, 2009. However, the natural area surrounding the historic site, Jubilee College State Park contains multi-use trails maintained by volunteer user groups; the trails are shared with hikers and mountain bikers. The state park contains various camping areas, for which reservations are suggested. "Jubilee College State Park". Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2018-07-17. Jubilee College State Historic Site - Illinois Historic Preservation Agency Mountain bike trails at Jubilee College State Park

Shelf Awareness

Shelf Awareness is an American publishing company that produces two electronic publications/newsletters focused on bookselling and book reviews. With offices in Seattle and Montclair, New Jersey, Shelf Awareness publishes an e-newsletter for the book industry and an e-newsletter for general readers. Shelf Awareness Pro is a daily trade magazine for booksellers, publishers and literary agents with a circulation of 39,000. Shelf Awareness for Readers is a twice-weekly book review publication for consumers with a circulation of 399,000. 130 independent bookstores send out a version of Shelf Awareness for Readers to their customers. The company was founded by editor/journalist John Mutter and Jenn Risko in 2005 to produce a trade magazine for booksellers; the circulation of Shelf Awareness Pro is more than 39,000 industry professionals and is considered an essential trade publication for booksellers, publishers and literary agents. The publication reports on independent bookstores, including openings, moves and closures.

Shelf Awareness Pro is cited and/or sourced by other publications covering books and bookselling. In 2011, Shelf Awareness launched; the company hired Marilyn Dahl as the review editor and Jennifer Brown as the children’s literature editor. The consumer version, called Shelf Awareness for Readers, has an approximate circulation of 399,000 readers. Key features include book reviews, author interviews and book-related news. A version of Shelf Awareness for Readers is sent out by 130 independent bookstores to their customers; the “Bookstore Edition” includes the bookstore’s events and the ability for readers to buy books reviewed directly from the store, as well as the bookstore’s logo and other branding. New York Review of Books Kirkus Reviews Booklist Library Journal Publishers Weekly San Francisco Review of Books Official website Malapros Bookstore, Library Thing Richard Hugo House Kristen Steenbeeke, Hugo Blog, August 31, 2011

Lil Weavah

Lil Weavah is an American writer and producer of television shows. He has appeared on MTV and Showtime. Early in his career, Weavah produced features on major network television stations such as MTV, his initial role was a Showtime reality based series titled 16 Bars. After corporate sponsors backed out due to budget restrictions, most of the production and footage from the show became promotional material; this was one of the main causes of his mixtape surge and local popularity in 2005. Songs such as "My Rims" appeared as a theme song on popular TV shows such as Rob & Big, Unique Whips, Breaking Bad; as an actor, Weavah acts in stage plays. These plays reflect political or religious topics. In 2008, he played the lead role in a college drama titled The Exonerated" where he played the role of Delbert Tibbs. In 2008, he played the character Thomas Brown in the religious drama titled "Note to God". In 2009, he played a lead role in the Gospel stage play titled "Power of One". In 2012, he co-produced another Religious drama titled "Love Others".

His production has appeared in films such as Ping Pong Playa and Hurricane Season. Lil Weavah's official site