Springfield Model 1861
The Springfield Model 1861 was a Minié-type rifled musket shoulder-arm used by the United States Army and Marine Corps during the American Civil War. Commonly referred to as the Springfield, it was the most widely used U. S. Army weapon during the Civil War, favored for its range and reliability. The barrel was 40 inches long, firing a.58 caliber Minié ball, the Springfield had a general effective range of 200 to 300 yards but could reliably hit man sized targets out to 500 yards when used by marksmen, and used percussion caps to fire. Well-trained troops were able to fire at a rate of three aimed shots per minute while maintaining accuracy up to 500 yards, though firing distances in the war were much shorter. The most notable difference between the Model 1861 and the earlier Model 1855 was the elimination of the Maynard tape primer for the Model 1861, unlike the Model 1855, the Model 1861 was never produced in a two-banded rifle configuration. The Springfield was aimed using flip-up leaf sights, the sight had two leaves, one for 300 yards and the other for 500 yards, and with both leaves down, the sight was set for a range of 100 yards.
While the Enfields sights did allow finer range settings, the Springfields simple leaves were more rugged and were expensive to produce. The Enfields sights extended to 900 yards, compared to the 500 yard maximum range of the Springfields sights, though, hitting anything beyond 600 yards with either weapon was mostly a matter of luck. While the sight designs were different, the two weapons were otherwise very similar, and had very similar effective ranges. The Springfield Rifle cost $20 each at the Springfield Armory where they were officially made, overwhelmed by the demand, the armory opened its weapons patterns up to twenty private contractors. The most notable producer of contract Model 1861 Springfields was Colt, who made several design changes in their version. These changes included redesigned barrel bands, a new hammer, several of these changes were eventually adopted by the Ordnance Department and incorporated into the Model 1863 rifled musket. The Springfield Model 1861 was equipped with a square socket bayonet, the Model 1861 was relatively scarce in the early years of the Civil War.
It is unlikely any of these were available for use in the First Battle of Bull Run. However, over time and more regiments began receiving Model 1861 rifled muskets, over 1,000,000 Model 1861 rifles were produced, with the Springfield Armory increasing its production during the war by contracting out to twenty other firms in the Union. The number of Model 1861 muskets produced by the Springfield Armory was 265,129 between January 1,1861 and December 31,1863, according to United States Muskets and Carbines by Arcadi Gluckman Colonel Infantry, United States Army, published 1949. The Model 1861 was certainly a forward in U. S. small arms design. However, some argue that its impact on the Civil war has been overstated, while more accurate in the hands of an experienced marksman, the rifled muskets accuracy was often lost in the hands of recruits who received only limited marksmanship training
A cap gun, cap pistol, or cap rifle is a toy gun that creates a loud sound simulating a gunshot and a puff of smoke when a small percussion cap is exploded. Cap guns were made of cast iron, but after World War II were made of zinc alloy. Some are arranged in rings of eight or twelve. There are single caps, roll caps, and disk caps, cap guns first appeared following the end of the American Civil War in the mid-1860s, when firearms companies experimented with toy guns in order to stay in business. Cap guns became popular when the heroes of cinema and television rode through the West ridding the territories of villains. Many cap guns were named after or endorsed by leading matinee idols like Roy Rogers, Gene Autry, Hopalong Cassidy, The Lone Ranger, Dale Evans, Marshal Matt Dillon, children all over the world emulated their heroes and collected and played with these toy guns. There were many types of cap guns, including guns from small Derringers, to larger rifles, one of the last famous ones to sell widely was a toy rifle named after the television show, The Rifleman, which aired from 1958 through early 1963.
Other shows lasted longer, such as Gunsmoke, but those did not have as much kid-appeal as the shows. The pistols generally were in 3 styles, the semi-automatic, the revolver and the mock-revolver that looked like a regular revolver, the circular cap was placed into the 2-piece bullet and when the gun was loaded and fired, it seemed more realistic. When the gun was fired, the spring pressure shot the plastic out of the end of the barrel. Eventually Mattel came out with a model called Shootin Shells. Mattel produced an automatic firing cap weapon styled after the Thompson submachine gun, pulling back on a slide, which simulated the charging handle of the real Thompson, prepared the gun for firing by tensioning a spring. When the trigger was pulled the power would drive the mechanism. It was made initially for a Dick Tracy line of toys, camouflaged for a Green Beret Guerilla Fighter line of weapons, ring cap guns are usually modeled after revolver pistols, with the cap ring placed in the cylinder section of the toy gun.
Strip or paper cap guns use the cap strip in lieu of the cap ring. As in the style of gun, each pull of the trigger advances the cap strip forward, pulls back the hammer to the point where it releases. Potato or spud guns occasionally use a cap to provide a burst of gas to fire the projectile, one design employs a small reusable metal cartridge which has a recess for a cap at one end and a small drilling through to the other end, which holds the potato. Due to the low energy contained in a cap and the poor seal around the cartridge
Jubal Anderson Early was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. He served in the Eastern Theater of the war for the conflict, as a division commander under Stonewall Jackson and Richard Stoddert Ewell. He was the Confederate commander in key battles of the Valley Campaigns of 1864, including a raid to the outskirts of Washington. The articles written by him for the Southern Historical Society in the 1870s established the Lost Cause point of view as a long-lasting literary, Early was born in the Red Valley section of Franklin County, third of ten children of Ruth and Joab Early. The Early family was a well-connected old Virginia family, Earlys father operated an extensive tobacco plantation of more than 4,000 acres at the foot of the Blue Ridge. Early attended local schools as well as academies in Lynchburg. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1837, ranked 18th of 50, during his tenure at the Academy he was engaged in a dispute with a fellow cadet named Lewis Addison Armistead.
Armistead broke a plate over Earlys head, an incident that prompted Armisteads resignation from the Academy. After graduating from the Academy, Early fought against the Seminole in Florida as a lieutenant in the 3rd U. S. Artillery regiment before resigning from the Army for the first time in 1838 and he practiced law in the 1840s as a prosecutor for both Franklin and Floyd Counties in Virginia. He was noted for a case in Mississippi, where he beat the top lawyers in the state and his law practice was interrupted by the Mexican-American War, in which he served as a Major with the 1st Virginia Volunteers from 1847 to 1848. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1841 to 1843, Early was a Whig and strongly opposed secession at the April 1861 Virginia convention. However, he was roused by the actions of the Federal government when President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion. He accepted a commission as a general in the Virginia Militia. He was sent to Lynchburg, Virginia, to three regiments and commanded one of them, the 24th Virginia Infantry, as a colonel in the Confederate army.
Early was promoted to general after the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. In that battle, he displayed valor at Blackburns Ford and impressed General P. G. T, during the Gettysburg Campaign, Earlys Division occupied York, the largest Northern town to fall to the Rebels during the war. Early was trusted and supported by Robert E. Lee, the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, Lee affectionately called Early his Bad Old Man, because of his short temper
The cylindro-conoidal bullet was invented by Captain John Norton of the British 34th Regiment in 1832. It had a base, so that, when fired. In 1836, Mr. W. Greener, a London gunsmith, although both inventions were rejected by the British Ordnance Department, the idea was taken up in France, and in 1849 C. Minié adopted Greeners design and produced the Minié ball, glossary of firearms terminology Major General J. F. C. The Conduct of War, A Study of The Impact of The French and Russian Revolutions on war and its conduct
A mallet is a kind of hammer, often made of rubber or sometimes wood, that is smaller than a maul or beetle, and usually has a relatively large head. The term is descriptive of the size and proportions of the tool. Tool mallets come in different types, the most common of which are and they are typically used to form sheet metal, since they do not leave marks and are less likely to dent the workpiece. Rubber mallets are used for forcing tight-fitting parts together, for shifting plasterboard into place, in upholstery work. It is a tool of preference for wood workers using chisels with plastic, metal, or wooden handles and it is the most commonly used mallet. Wooden mallets are used in carpentry to knock wooden pieces together. A wooden mallet will not deform the striking end of a metal tool and it is used to reduce the force driving the cutting edge of a chisel, giving better control. Hardwood mallets are used to knock in cricket bats. Copper and leaden mallets are used on machinery to apply force to parts with a reduced risk of damaging them.
As these metals are softer than steel, the mallet is deformed by any excessive force, meat mallets tenderise or flatten meat. Made from wood or metal, they are typically two-sided, one flat or with slight bumps, and their use has been reduced with the invention of cube steak machines and other electric tenderisers, but they can still be readily found at cookery stores and in professional use. Plastic mallets, made of nylon, polycarbonate, or polystyrene are used especially in leatherwork, split head mallets have removable faces which can be changed to an appropriate material for the job. Beetle mallets are large mallets with a wood or plastic head, with rounded ends about 15 to 18 inches in diameter. It is used by paviours for tapping paving stones into position when bedding them, beetles are used in jobs such as timber framing to shift the bases of large wooden posts, to fit joints, and to drive in pegs. Dead blow mallets typically have an internal cavity partially filled with shot, lead shot.
This modification evens out the curve of the impact, enabling a more powerful blow to be delivered without risk of marring the target. Mallets of various types are some of the oldest forms of tools, Mallets used as drumsticks are often used to strike a marimba, glockenspiel, metallophone, or vibraphone, collectively referred to as mallet percussion. The sticks usually have made of rattan, birch, or fiberglass
The French Army, officially the Land Army is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. Along with the French Air Force, the French Navy and the National Gendarmerie, the current Chief of Staff of the French Army is General Jean-Pierre Bosser, a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. All soldiers are considered professionals following the suspension of conscription, voted in parliament in 1997, as of 2014, the French Army employed 111,628 personnel. In addition, the element of the French Army consisted of 15,453 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Kings of France needed reliable troops during and after the Hundred Years War and these units of troops were raised by issuing ordonnances to govern their length of service and payment. These Compagnies dordonnance formed the core of the Gendarme Cavalry into the sixteenth century, stationed throughout France and summoned into larger armies as needed. There was made for Francs-archers units of bowmen and foot soldiers raised from the non-noble classes.
The bulk of the infantry for warfare was still provided by urban or provincial militias, raised from an area or city to fight locally and named for their recruiting grounds. Gradually these units became more permanent, and in 1480s Swiss instructors were recruited and these men would be paid and contracted and receive training. Henry II further regularised the French army by forming standing Infantry regiments to replace the Militia structure, the first of these the Régiments de Picardie, Piémont and Champagne were called the Les Vieux Corps. It was normal policy to disband regiments after a war was over as a cost saving measure with the Vieux Corps and the Kings own Household Troops the Maison du Roi being the only survivors. Regiments could be raised directly by the King and so called after the region in which they were raised, or by the nobility and so called after the noble or his appointed colonel. In 1684 there was a reorganisation of the French infantry and again in 1701 to fit in with Louis XIVs plans.
This reshuffle created many of the regiments of the French Army and standardised their equipment. The army of the Sun King tended to wear coats with coloured linings. There were exceptions and the troops, recruited from outside France. In addition to these regiments of the line the Maison du Roi provided several elite units, the Swiss Guards, French Guards, the revolution split the army with the main mass losing most of its officers to aristocratic flight or guillotine and becoming demoralised and ineffective. The French Guard joined the revolt and the Swiss Guards were massacred during the storming of the Tuileries palace, under Napoleon I, the French Army conquered most of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars
A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling are called lands, which contact with the projectile. When the projectile leaves the barrel, this spin lends gyroscopic stability to the projectile and prevents tumbling and this allows the use of aerodynamically-efficient bullets and thus improves range and accuracy. The word rifle originally referred to the grooving, and a rifle was called a rifled gun, the word rifle is now used for any long hand-held aimed device activated by a trigger, such as Air rifles and the Personnel halting and stimulation response rifle. Rifles are used in warfare and shooting sports, rifles only fired a single projectile with each squeeze of the trigger. Modern rifles are capable of firing more than one round per trigger squeeze, some fire in an automatic mode. Thus, modern automatic rifles overlap to some extent in design, in fact, many light machine guns are adaptations of existing automatic rifle designs. A militarys light machine guns are chambered for the same caliber ammunition as its service rifles.
Generally, the difference between a rifle and a machine gun comes down to weight, cooling system. Modern military rifles are fed by magazines, while machine guns are generally belt-fed, many machine guns allow the operator to quickly exchange barrels in order to prevent overheating, whereas rifles generally do not. Most machine guns fire from a bolt in order to reduce the danger of cook-off. Machine guns are often crewed by more than one soldier, the rifle is an individual weapon, the term rifle is sometimes used to describe larger crew-served rifled weapons firing explosive shells, for example, recoilless rifles. In many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing, the origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the 15th century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. This might have led to a increase in accuracy.
Rifles were created as an improvement in the accuracy of smooth bore muskets, the black powder used in early muzzle-loading rifles quickly fouled the barrel, making loading slower and more difficult. Since musketeers could not afford to take the time to stop and clean their barrels in the middle of a battle, rifles were limited to use by sharpshooters, muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at relatively low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of manufacturing, and the need to load readily from the muzzle
Henri-Gustave Delvigne was a French soldier and inventor. He became a captain in the French infantry service, from which he resigned on the outbreak of the 1830 July Revolution, Delvigne revolutionized rifle technology and rendered it proper as a weapon. In 1826 Delvigne invented a new method which greatly simplified the use of rifled guns, in this rifle the chamber was smaller than the bore, with which it was connected by a spherical surface equal in radius to the ball used. The powder was poured from the muzzle into the chamber, upon which the ball rested when dropped into the bore, when fired, the bullet would accompany the rifling and spin. According to the artillery historian John Gibbon, In all these cases the radial deformation of the ball against the rifling grooves would permit a more efficient spinning of the ball, as a drawback, the very deformation rendered the bullet aerodynamically less efficient. From 1830, Delvigne started to develop cylindro-conical bullets, the stability of the bullet would be further improved by the introduction of the Tamisier ball groovings.
However the introduction of ball groovings hampered the expansion of the bullet against the rifling grooves, delvignes invention was further improved by the French officer Thouvenin, who induced the deformation of the bullet by placing a stem inside and at the center of the powder chamber. When hit by the ram, the bullet would expand radially against the grooves and at the same time wrap around the stem, giving it a more efficient. These inventions mark important steps in the improvement of the rifle, and are precursors to the Minié ball, Delvigne devised some life-saving apparatus, particularly life rockets. His publications include Exposé dun nouveau système darmement pour linfanterie, the Chamelot-Delvigne was a revolver pistol he developed with the Belgian gunsmith J. Chamelot, and which was adopted by the French Army in 1873. Exposé dun nouveau système darmement pour linfanterie and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Gilman, D. C. Thurston, H. T.
Colby, F. M. eds. article name needed
Harpers Ferry Armory
Harpers Ferry Armory, more formally known as the United States Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, was the second federal armory commissioned by the United States government. It was located in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, while the first federal armory was the Springfield Armory located in Springfield, in many books the town is called “Harper’s Ferry” with an apostrophe. The national armory has been associated with prominent historical events throughout the history of the United States. Harpers Ferry National Armory was both an armory and an arsenal, both Harpers Ferry and Springfield armories were instrumental in the development of machining techniques to make interchangeable parts. Robert Harper founded the community of Harpers Ferry in the mid-18th century, Robert Harper was born in 1718 in Oxford Township near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Since he was a builder, Harper was asked by a group of Quakers in 1747 to build a house in the Shenandoah Valley near the present site of Winchester.
Traveling through Maryland on his way to the Shenandoah Valley, Harper proceeded to the area where the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers met. Attracted and amazed by the ample latent waterpower that resided in the rivers and by the location for travel and transport. He built a ferry to cross the Shenandoah River to help pioneers reach their destination in the new western lands, after the creation of the ferry, more people were attracted to the area and it became a transportation hub dotted with flourishing businesses. In 1794, the United States Congress passed a bill calling for the erecting and repairing of Arsenals, president George Washington, given wide latitude in carrying out this order, selected Harpers Ferry, a part of Virginia, for the location of the Harpers Ferry National Armory. In 1796, the United States government purchased a 125-acre parcel of land from the heirs of Robert Harper, subsequently, in 1799, construction began on the national armory. Three years later, mass production of military arms commenced, the national armory at Harpers Ferry was actually the second national armory.
The first was the Springfield Armory, constructed in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1794 after Congress approved the bill to create the nations first national armory, upon its grand opening, the armorys size seemed inadequate for a work force. It consisted of one room, and the workers numbered a mere twenty-five. Nevertheless, the armory produced many muskets and pistols for the United States, between 1821 -1830 the armory produced 11,855 arms. Each decade after that, production declined, the building relied on river power to drive the armorys machinery. In 1844, the deficient state of the armory was taken into account and demand for military equipment increased, the upgrades of the arsenal began in 1845-1854 with the construction of seven brand new workshops and the installation of 121 new machines. The new workshops had a superstructure with iron framing and slanted sheet metal roofing