The Minnesota Golden Gophers football program represents the University of Minnesota in college football at the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision level. Founded in 1882, the program is one of the oldest in college football. Minnesota has been a member of the Big Ten Conference since its inception in 1896 as the Western Conference; the Golden Gophers claim seven national championships: 1904, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1940, 1941, 1960. Since 2009, the Gophers have played all their home games at TCF Bank Stadium in Minneapolis, Minnesota; the Minnesota Golden Gophers college football team played its first game on September 29, 1882, a 4–0 victory over Hamline University. Eight years in 1890, the Gophers played host to Wisconsin in a 63–0 victory. With the exception of 1906, the Gophers and Badgers have played each other every year since then; the 128 games played against each other is the most played rivalry in Division I-A college football. The sport's beginnings were humble. Students began gathering to play the game recreationally and its popularity grew.
Once the sport had taken off, it was only a matter of time before a team was formed to play against other schools. Early teams were loosely organized, not requiring all of the players to be students and not having designated coaches; the players on the team started to recruit faculty members who had played football at schools in the East to help organize the team. Some years, they played without a coach. Other years, they played with multiple coaches. In total, from 1882 through 1899, the team played 16 seasons of football and had 15 different coaches; as the years went by, the leadership structure started to become more formal. In 1900, the hiring of Dr. Henry L. Williams, the school’s first full-time salaried coach, signaled the end of the early, chaotic days; the Gophers enjoyed quite a bit of success in the early 20th century, posting winning records from 1900 to 1919. Head coach Henry L. Williams developed the "Minnesota shift", a predecessor to quick line shifts, adopted widely. Henry L. Williams led Minnesota to one of the NCAA's longest unbeaten streaks of 35 games, from 1903 to 1905 with 34 wins and 1 tie.
In 1932, Bernie Bierman led the Gophers to their first dynasty. From 1934 to 1936 the Gophers went on a run of winning three straight National Championships, the last Division I team to accomplish this feat. During the run, Minnesota went unbeaten in 28 straight games, 21 of which were consecutive victories; the school record for consecutive victories is 24, which spanned 3 seasons from 1903 to 1905. Led by halfback Bruce Smith, the Gophers won two more national championships in 1940 and 1941, with Smith winning the Heisman Trophy in 1941; those two seasons comprised most of an 18-game winning streak that stretched from 1939 to 1942. After some mediocre seasons throughout the remainder of the 1940s and 1950s, the Gophers rose back to prominence in 1960 with their seventh national championship; that national championship followed a 1–8 record in 1958 and 2–7 record in 1959. Minnesota played in bowl games the two following years as well, in 1961 and 1962; the Gophers earned their first berth in the Rose Bowl by winning the 1960 Big Ten title.
The following year, Minnesota returned to Pasadena despite a second-place finish in the conference. The Ohio State Buckeyes, the Big Ten champions in 1961, declined an invitation to the Rose Bowl because of tension between academics and athletics at the school. Minnesota beat UCLA 21 -- 3 to claim its only Rose Bowl victory. Minnesota's last Big Ten title was in 1967, tying the Indiana Hoosiers and Purdue Boilermakers atop the standings. After their 8–2 record in 1967, the Gophers would not win 8 games in a season again until they went 8–4 in 1999, their 10–3 record in 2003 gave the Gophers their first 10 win season since 1905. The 2006 team had the dubious distinction of blowing a 38–7 third-quarter lead in the Insight Bowl against Texas Tech, losing 44–41 in overtime; the collapse, the biggest in the history of Division I-A postseason football, directly led to the firing of head coach Glen Mason. On January 17, 2007, Tim Brewster was announced as the next head coach of the Minnesota Golden Gophers.
In 1981, the Gophers played their last game in Memorial Stadium and played their home games in the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome until 2008; the Gophers moved back to campus with a 20–13 win against Air Force on September 12, 2009, when their new home, TCF Bank Stadium, opened. In 2010, after a 1–6 record to start the season, the Gophers football head coach Tim Brewster was fired. Jeff Horton served as the interim head coach going 2–3. On December 6, 2010, Jerry Kill, former Northern Illinois University head coach, was hired to take over the University of Minnesota football program. In 2014, The Gophers reached an 8–4 record while going 5–3 in Big Ten games, falling just short of making the Big Ten Championship Game by losing to The Wisconsin Badgers in the season finale. After being revitalized in the Big Ten contention, The Gophers were awarded an appearance in the Citrus Bowl on January 1 against Missouri. In 2018, the Gophers defeated the Badgers to reclaim Paul Bunyan's Axe and end a 14 season losing streak.
Independent Big Ten Conference Western Conference Big Ten Conference Minnesota has won nine national championships from NCAA-designated major selectors. Minnesota claims seven of these championships; the 1960 championship is a consensus national championship. Claimed national championships Minnesota has won 18 conference championshi
The Distomo massacre was a Nazi war crime perpetrated by members of the Waffen-SS in the village of Distomo, Greece, in 1944, during the German occupation of Greece during World War II. On June 10, 1944, for over two hours, Waffen-SS troops of the 2nd company, I/7 battalion, 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division under the command of the 26-year-old SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Lautenbach went door to door and massacred Greek civilians as part of "savage reprisals" for a partisan attack upon the unit's convoy. A total of 228 men and children were killed in Distomo, a small village near Delphi. According to survivors, SS forces "bayoneted babies in their cribs, stabbed pregnant women, beheaded the village priest."Following the massacre, a Secret Field Police agent accompanying the German forces informed the authorities that, contrary to Lautenbach's official report, the German troops had come under attack several miles from Distomo and had not been fired upon "with mortars, machine-guns and rifles from the direction of Distomo".
An inquiry was convened. Lautenbach admitted that he had gone beyond standing orders, but the tribunal found in his favour, holding that he had been motivated, not by negligence or ignorance, but by a sense of responsibility towards his men. Four relatives of victims brought legal proceedings against the German government to court in Livadeia, demanding reparations. On October 30, 1997, the court ruled in favour of the plaintiffs and awarded damages of 28 million Euros. In May 2000, the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court of Greece, confirmed this ruling; the judgement, could not be enforced in Greece because, as necessary under Greek law, the execution of a judgement against a sovereign State is subject to the prior consent of the Minister of Justice, not given. The plaintiffs brought the case to court in Germany, demanding the aforementioned damages be paid to them; the claim was rejected at all levels of German court, citing the 1961 bilateral agreement concerning enforcement and recognition of judgements between Germany and Greece, Section 328 of the German Code of Civil Procedure.
Both required that Greece have jurisdiction, which it does not as the actions in question were sovereign acts by a state. According to the fundamental principles of international law, each country is immune from another state's jurisdiction. In November 2008, an Italian court ruled that the plaintiffs could take German property in Italy as compensation, awarded by the Greek courts; the plaintiffs were awarded a villa in Menaggio, near Lake Como, owned by a German state nonprofit organization, as part of the restitution. In December 2008, the German government filed a claim at the International Court of Justice in the Hague; the German claim was that the Italian courts should have dismissed the case under the international law of sovereign immunity. In January 2011, the Prime Minister of Greece, George Papandreou, announced that the Greek Government will be represented at the International Court of Justice in relation to the claim for reparations by relatives of victims. In its 2012 final judgement, the court ruled that Italy had violated Germany's state immunity, directed that the judgement by the Italian courts be retracted.
In 2014 the Italian Constitutional Court ruled that sovereign immunity for crimes such as Distomo violated the core rights guaranteed by the Italian constitution. Sovereign immunity would therefore no longer be applicable law in Italy for the war crimes cases in question. New claims for compensation for the Distomo massacre could therefore be brought before Italian courts. A Song for Argyris is a 2006 documentary film that details the life story of Argyris Sfountouris, a survivor of the massacre; the massacre is described in Peter Nestler's experimental documentary Von Griechenland. List of massacres in Greece Hellmuth Felmy Krupki massacre Marzabotto massacre Massacre of Kalavryta Oradour-sur-Glane massacre, which occurred on the same date Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre Szczurowa massacre What the Germans did to Greece. Life Magazine, Nov. 27, 1944, pp 21-27. On google books. Municipality of Distomo on massacre German website describing the Distomo massacre Dutch website with reference to the Distomo massacre Ein Lied für Argyris.
A documentary with Argyris Sfountouris, a survivor of the massacre. Chandrinos, Iasonas. Η σφαγή στο Δίστομο και στο Καλάμι. Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World, Boeotia. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Retrieved 9 July 2012
The Honolulu Police Department is the principal law enforcement agency of the City and County of Honolulu, headquartered in the Alapa'i Police Headquarters in Honolulu CDP. Recognized as a part of the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1846, the police department serves the entire island of O'ahu, covering over 600 square miles of territory, with just over 900,000 residents and over four million annual visitors; the island is divided into 8 patrol districts which are subdivided into sectors and beats. HPD has more than 2,500 employees, 2,134 of which are full-time sworn officers. A 2003 Department of Justice report listed HPD as the 20th largest police department in the nation. Unlike the other 49 states, Hawaii does not have a state police agency per se or individual city agencies. HPD is nationally accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies and received the CALEA TRI-ARC Excellence Award from them in 2006. In 1840, the Supreme Court of Kamehameha III established the first constitution for the Kingdom of Hawaii.
The constitution paved the way for the Act to Organize the Executive Departments of the Government signed on April 27, 1846. The law created the office of marshal of the kingdom, the highest ranking police officer in the Hawaiian nation, he nominated, instructed and controlled the sheriffs of the kingdom of which there were four, one for each administrative region of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Mau'i and Hawaii. Each sheriff administered a corps of constables appointed by the four royal governors. Constables wore a distinct police insignia that consisted of a scarlet crown with the initials KIII in honor of Kamehameha III; the insignia was worn on a red band on their police hats. In 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaii was replaced by the Provisional Government of Hawaii which deposed the marshal of the kingdom and dissolved the constabulary. In 1894, the newly proclaimed Republic of Hawaii formed its own police system. After a few years under the governance of the Territory of Hawaii, four county governments were established out of the original administrative regions of the monarchy.
In 1905, each county established a police department led by an appointed sheriff. Police officers wore an octagon-shaped police badge similar in appearance to those of other police departments of the period. In the 1920s the badge was redesigned with an eagle on top. In Hawaii, the Office of Sheriff falls under the Sheriff Division of the Hawaii Department of Public Safety, it is the functional equivalent of a state police department and has the distinction of making Hawaii the only U. S. state without an named state police department and one of two with a statewide Sheriff's Department. Although the Sheriff Division's jurisdiction covers the entire state, its primary functions are judicial and executive protection, security at the Hawaii State Capitol, law-enforcement at Hawaii's airports, narcotics enforcement, prisoner transportation, the processing and service of court orders and warrants, the patrol of certain roads and waterways in conjunction with other state agencies. Additional statewide law enforcement is provided by the Department of Land and Natural Resources which patrols State lands, State Parks, historic sites, forest reserves, aquatic life and wildlife areas, coastal zones, Conservation districts, State beaches, as well as county ordinances involving county parks.
The division enforces laws relating to firearms and dangerous weapons. DLNR officers have full police powers. In response to a crime wave in the late 1920s and early 1930s as a combined result of increased racial tensions between whites and local ethnics and the outcome of the Massie case involving too much political influence on the Police, Territorial Governor Lawrence M. Judd appointed a Governor's Advisory Committee on Crime; the committee recommended that a police commission be appointed by the mayor of Honolulu whose duty would be to appoint a chief of police and to supervise the operating of the police department. The committee advised that the office of sheriff should be retained and charged with the duty of serving civil process, of maintaining the Honolulu prison system and to act as coroner. On January 22, 1932, a special session of the territorial legislature passed Act 1, establishing the Honolulu Police Commission and creating the office of chief of police, thus was born the modern Honolulu Police Department as it exists today.
After the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Territorial Governor Joseph B. Poindexter declared martial law and Hawaii fell under military governance under the Judge Advocate General's Corps; the Honolulu Police Department became a deputized military force. The word "Emergency" was etched above the "Honolulu" on the seven-point star badges of police officers. For the duration of World War II, the Honolulu Police Department was forced to impose restrictions on civil liberties and hand people over for trial by a military judge. Martial law ended after the end of the war in 1945; the San José State Spartans football team served with the Honolulu Police Department for the duration of World War II. The first instance of modernization came in 1952 with the introduction of the Honolulu Police Department's current badge, it was designed by Detective Alfred Karratti and embodies Hawaiian tradition and culture in its motifs. One feature that Detective Karratti kept was the use of the Pulo'ulo'u or kapu sta