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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age Aegean civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands, flourishing from c. 2700 to c. 1450 BC until a late period of decline ending around 1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in Europe, leaving behind massive building complexes, stunning artwork, writing systems, a massive network of trade; the civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. The name "Minoan" derives from the mythical King Minos and was coined by Evans, who identified the site at Knossos with the labyrinth and the Minotaur; the Minoan civilization has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe, historian Will Durant called the Minoans "the first link in the European chain". The Minoan civilization is notable for its large and elaborate palaces up to four stories high, featuring elaborate plumbing systems and decorated with frescoes; the most notable Minoan palace is that of Knossos, followed by that of Phaistos.

The Minoan period saw extensive trade between Crete and Mediterranean settlements the Near East. Through their traders and artists, the Minoans' cultural influence reached beyond Crete to the Cyclades, the Old Kingdom of Egypt, copper-bearing Cyprus and the Levantine coast and Anatolia; some of the best Minoan art is preserved in the city of Akrotiri on the island of Santorini, destroyed by the Minoan eruption. The Minoans wrote in the undeciphered Linear A and in undeciphered Cretan hieroglyphs, encoding a language hypothetically labelled Minoan; the reasons for the slow decline of the Minoan civilization, beginning around 1550 BC, are unclear. The term "Minoan" refers to the mythical King Minos of Knossos, its origin is debated, but it is attributed to archeologist Arthur Evans. Minos was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth. However, Karl Hoeck had used the title Das Minoische Kreta in 1825 for volume two of his Kreta. Evans read Hoeck's book, continued using the term in his writings and findings: "To this early civilization of Crete as a whole I have proposed—and the suggestion has been adopted by the archaeologists of this and other countries—to apply the name'Minoan'."

Evans said. Hoeck, with no idea that the archaeological Crete had existed, had in mind the Crete of mythology. Although Evans' 1931 claim that the term was "unminted" before he used it was called a "brazen suggestion" by Karadimas and Momigliano, he coined its archaeological meaning. Instead of dating the Minoan period, archaeologists use two systems of relative chronology; the first, created by Evans and modified by archaeologists, is based on pottery styles and imported Egyptian artifacts. Evans' system divides the Minoan period into three major eras: early and late; these eras are subdivided—for example, Early Minoan I, II and III. Another dating system, proposed by Greek archaeologist Nikolaos Platon, is based on the development of architectural complexes known as "palaces" at Knossos, Phaistos and Zakros. Platon divides neo - and post-palatial sub-periods; the relationship between the systems in the table includes approximate calendar dates from Warren and Hankey. The Minoan eruption of Thera occurred during a mature phase of the LM IA period.

Efforts to establish the volcanic eruption's date have been controversial. Radiocarbon dating has indicated a date in the late 17th century BC. Although stone-tool evidence suggests that hominins may have reached Crete as early as 130,000 years ago, evidence for the first anatomically-modern human presence dates to 10,000–12,000 YBP; the oldest evidence of modern human habitation on Crete is pre-ceramic Neolithic farming-community remains which date to about 7000 BC. A comparative study of DNA haplogroups of modern Cretan men showed that a male founder group, from Anatolia or the Levant, is shared with the Greeks; the Neolithic population lived in open villages. Fishermen's huts were found on the shores, the fertile Messara Plain was used for agriculture; the Early Bronze Age has been described as indicating a "promise of greatness" in light of developments on the island. The Bronze Age began on Crete around 3200 BC. In the late third millennium BC, several locations on the island developed into centers of commerce and handiwork, enabling the upper classes to exercise leadership and expand their influence.

It is that the original hierarchies of the local elites were replaced by monarchies, a precondition for the palaces. At the end of the MMII period there was a large disturbance on Crete—probably an earthquake, but an invasion from Anatolia; the palaces at Knossos, Phaistos and Kato Zakros were destroyed. At the beginning of the neopalatial period the population increased again, the palaces were rebuilt on a larger scale and new settlements were built across the island; this period was the apex of Minoan civilization. After around 1700 BC, material culture on the Greek mainland reached a new high due to Minoan influence. Another natural catastrophe occurred around 1600 BC an eruption of the Thera volcano; the Minoans rebuilt the palaces with several

American Indian Film Festival

The American Indian Film Festival is an annual non-profit film festival in San Francisco, United States. It is the world's oldest venue dedicated to Native American/First Nations films and prepared the way for the 1979 formation of the American Indian Film Institute. According to the Institute, the Festival was first presented Seattle, Washington in 1975 and moved in 1977 to San Francisco, where it remains today. In 1979, the Festival was incorporated. Over 3,100 films have been screened from Native American/First Nations communities in the U. S. and Canada, the festival includes events such as film screenings, panel discussions, an awards ceremony and networking events. This festival is not to be confused by the Native American Film and Video Festival, founded in 1979. Recent festival winners include: films and documentaries: Barking Water, Given to Walk, Le jour avant le lendemain, Expiration Date, Johnny Tootall, The Doe Boy, Smoke Signals, Healing of Nations, PahaSapa... The Struggle for the Black Hills, Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner, Maïna directors and filmmakers: Chris Eyre, Nanci Rossov, Randy Redroad, Steve Barron, Rodrick Pocowatchit, Shirley Cheechoo, Aaron James Sorensen, Rick Stevenson, Sterlin Harjo, Marie-Hélène Cousineau, Madeline Ivalu, Georgina Lightning, Kevin Willmott documentarians: Mel Lawrence, Peter von Puttkamer, actors: Adam Beach, Jay Tavare, James Duval, Jeri Arredondo, Judy Herrera, Robert A. Guthrie, Cody Lightning, Tonantzin Carmelo, Carla-Rae, Trevor Duplessis, Candace Fox, Wes Studi, Misty Upham, Casey Camp-Horinek, Winter Fox Frank, Roseanne Supernault, Michelle Thrush, Earnest "Ernie" David Tsosie III American Indian Film Institute homepage

5th Mounted Rifles (Otago Hussars)

The 5th Mounted Rifles was formed on 17 March 1911. It formed part of the Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment so they saw service during the Battle of Gallipoli, Egypt, they served in France with the New Zealand Division and were the only New Zealand Mounted troops to serve in France. Battle of Gallipoli Battle of Flers - Courcelette Battle of Morval Battle of Le Transloy Battle of Messines Battle of Polygon Wood Battle of Broodseinde Battle of Passchendaele Battle of Arras Battle of the Ancre Battle of Albert Second Battle of Bapaume Battle of Havrincourt Battle of the Canal du Nord Battle of Cambrai Pursuit to the Selle Battle of the Selle Battle of the Sambre The unit amalgamated with 7th Mounted Rifles and the 12th Mounted Rifles to become the 5th New Zealand Mounted Rifles, they were redesignated the 5th New Zealand Mounted Rifles 0n 4 August 1923 and in 1927 they became the Otago Mounted Rifles. 29 March 1944 saw. Don Mackay, The Troopers’ Tale: The History of the Otago Mounted Rifles, ISBN 978-0-473-20462-4