In Greek mythology, the Minotaur is a mythical creature portrayed in Classical times with the head and tail of a bull and the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, a being "part man and part bull". He dwelt at the center of the Labyrinth, an elaborate maze-like construction designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus, on the command of King Minos of Crete; the Minotaur was killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. The word Minotaur derives from the Ancient Greek Μῑνώταυρος, a compound of the name Μίνως and the noun ταύρος "bull", translated as " Bull of Minos". In Crete, the Minotaur was known by a name shared with Minos' foster-father. In Etruscan, the Minotaur had the name Θevrumineś. "Minotaur" was a proper noun in reference to this mythical figure. The use of "minotaur" as a common noun to refer to members of a generic species of bull-headed creatures developed much in 20th-century fantasy genre fiction. English pronunciation of the word "Minotaur" is varied; the following can be found in dictionaries: MY-nə-tawr, -noh-, MIN-ə-tar, MIN-oh-, MIN-ə-tawr, MIN-oh-.
After he ascended the throne of the island of Crete, Minos competed with his brothers to rule. Minos prayed to the sea god, to send him a snow-white bull, as a sign of support, he was to kill the bull to show honor to the deity, but decided to keep it instead because of its beauty. He thought Poseidon would not care if he sacrificed one of his own. To punish Minos, Poseidon made Pasiphaë, Minos's wife, fall in love with the bull. Pasiphaë had craftsman Daedalus make a hollow wooden cow, climbed inside it in order to mate with the white bull; the offspring was the monstrous Minotaur. Pasiphaë nursed him, but he grew and became ferocious, being the unnatural offspring of a woman and a beast. Minos, after getting advice from the oracle at Delphi, had Daedalus construct a gigantic labyrinth to hold the Minotaur, its location was near Minos' palace in Knossos. The Minotaur is represented in Classical art with the body of a man and the head and tail of a bull. One of the figurations assumed by the river spirit Achelous in seducing Deianira is as a man with the head of a bull, according to Sophocles' Trachiniai.
From Classical times through the Renaissance, the Minotaur appears at the center of many depictions of the Labyrinth. Ovid's Latin account of the Minotaur, which did not elaborate on which half was bull and which half man, was the most available during the Middle Ages, several versions show the reverse of the Classical configuration, a man's head and torso on a bull's body, reminiscent of a centaur; this alternative tradition survived into the Renaissance, still figures in some modern depictions, such as Steele Savage's illustrations for Edith Hamilton's Mythology. Androgeus, son of Minos, had been killed by the Athenians, who were jealous of the victories he had won at the Panathenaic festival. Others say he was killed at Marathon by the Cretan Bull, his mother's former taurine lover, which Aegeus, king of Athens, had commanded him to slay; the common tradition is that Minos won. Catullus, in his account of the Minotaur's birth, refers to another version in which Athens was "compelled by the cruel plague to pay penalties for the killing of Androgeos."
Aegeus had to avert the plague caused by his crime by sending "young men at the same time as the best of unwed girls as a feast" to the Minotaur. Minos required that seven Athenian youths and seven maidens, drawn by lots, be sent every seventh or ninth year to be devoured by the Minotaur; when the third sacrifice approached, Theseus volunteered to slay the monster. He promised his father, that he would put up a white sail on his journey back home if he was successful, but would have the crew put up black sails if he was killed. In Crete, Minos' daughter Ariadne fell madly in love with Theseus and helped him navigate the labyrinth. In most accounts she gave him a ball of thread. Theseus killed the Minotaur with the sword of Aegeus and led the other Athenians back out of the labyrinth. On the way home, Theseus continued, he neglected, however. King Aegeus, from his lookout on Cape Sounion, saw the black-sailed ship approach and, presuming his son dead, committed suicide by throwing himself into the sea, since named after him.
This act secured the throne for Theseus. This Athenian view of the Minotaur as the antagonist of Theseus reflects the literary sources, which are biased in favour of Athenian perspectives; the Etruscans, who paired Ariadne with Dionysus, never with Theseus, offered an alternative Etruscan view of the Minotaur, never seen in Greek arts: on an Etruscan red-figure wine-cup of the early-to-mid fourth century Pasiphaë tenderly cradles an infant Minotaur on her knee. The contest between Theseus and the Minotaur was represented in Greek art. A Knossian didrachm exhibits on one side the labyrinth, on the other the Minotaur surrounded by a semicircle of small balls intended for stars. While the ruins of Minos' palace at Knossos were discovered, the labyrinth never was; the enormous number of rooms and corridors in the palace has led some archaeologists to suggest that the palace itself was the source of the labyrinth myth, an idea discredited today. Homer, describing the shield of Achilles, remarked that Daedalus had c
Markus Brier is one of few Austrian touring professional golfers, as of 2008 is his country's second highest ranked player, behind Bernd Wiesberger. Brier won the Swiss and German Amateur Opens in the mid-1990s, turned professional in 1995 at a late age. Nine top ten finishes, including five top threes, on the 1999 Challenge Tour earned him third place on the season ending money list and playing privileges on the European Tour for 2000, he retained his tour card through his final position on the order of merit every year, except for 2002 and 2010 when he regained it through final qualifying school. Since joining the European Tour, Brier has continued to play in his home event, the Austrian Open, winning it on two occasions during a period when it was a Challenge Tour event. In 2006 the tournament was promoted back onto the main European Tour schedule, now under the sponsored title BA-CA Golf Open. In its first year back, Brier once again took the title, in the process becoming the first Austrian golfer to win a European Tour event.
This win helped him to his best year-end finish on the Order of Merit of 49th. Brier's second European Tour win came in 2007 at the Volvo China Open and he improved his position on the year end Order of Merit to 32nd, he has featured in the top 100 of the Official World Golf Rankings. In 2012, Brier failed to regain his card at qualifying school, he failed to do so again in 2016 at age 48. He was the oldest competitor during 2016 Q School. Had he placed high enough, he would have been the oldest player to graduate to the European Tour via Q School. 1994 Swiss Amateur Open Championship 1995 German Amateur Open Championship European Tour playoff record 2005 MAN NÖ Open 2013 Zurich Open Irons - Titleist CB 3 - PW, Drivers - Titleist TS 3 Fairway Woods - Titleist TS 3 Wedges - Titleist SM 7, 52 and 58 Ball - Titleist PRO V1 Putter - Scotty Cameron X7 Note: Brier never played in the Masters Tournament nor the U. S. Open. CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" = tied Amateur Eisenhower Trophy: 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994Professional World Cup: 2004, 2007 Seve Trophy: 2007 2010 European Tour Qualifying School graduates Official website Markus Brier at the European Tour official site Markus Brier at the Official World Golf Ranking official site
Border Crossings is a magazine published quarterly from Winnipeg, Canada. It investigates international art and culture; the magazine includes interviews with artists, exhibition reviews, portfolios of drawings and photographs. The magazine covers various forms of arts including paintings, architecture and films. Border Crossings was founded in 1982 by Robert Enright under the title Arts Manitoba. Robert Enright had returned to Manitoba in 1972 to do his post-graduate studies at the University of Manitoba in the English department. During this time a group of professors at St. John's College were toying with the idea of starting a literary press, thus began the Turnstone Press in 1975, it was because of this literary press. Arts Manitoba had intended to be a bi-monthly magazine, which soon proved difficult. By the winter of 1978 they began listing the magazine as "Special Double issues", which would turn into the quarterly publication it is today; the magazine met its end in 1978 when owners were confronted with massive debt.
However, in 1982 it had a second chance. A small group agreed that Arts Manitoba was worth reviving, they were aware that in order for the magazine to be successful they needed government funding and they needed to restructure the magazine. The members of the board realized that their current magazine title restricted their literary audience, their first step to a new title was Volume 4, Number 4 titled "Special Canada/U. S. Issue". Only a few issues the title had made the transition to Border Crossings: A Quarterly Magazine of the Arts from Manitoba. In 1993 Meeka Walsh became the official editor of Border Crossings, her first issue as editor was titled "Silencers", featuring the painter and performance artist, Gathie Falk. Over the years the magazine has explored themes like War, Animals and Technology, Landscape, Love and many more; each issue the magazine uses thematic qualities present in art and culture to help give a comprehensive view of art in context with the rest of the world. Robert Enright'Meeka Walsh The Border Crossings magazine publishes quarterly in February, May and November.
Each issue features a different cover portraying a work of art. An example of this is an issue from February 2008: Wangechi Mutu designed the cover named "Perhaps the Moon Will Save Us." The cover is a collage shaped like a moon made from mixed media, plastic pearls, aluminum foil, animal pelts, packaging tape and other materials. The first 110 issues of the magazine were in an 8½×11-inch format, saddle-stitched at first, but perfect bound; the current format is now 9×11 ¾ inches. The layout for the magazine has been renowned for its contemporary design and high production values; the photography portfolios have contributed to the magazine's success as well as several awards for Best Non-Fiction Feature, Manitoba Magazine of the Year and several gold medals from the Western Magazine Awards. Each issue has several articles ranging from films to theatre, from architecture to writing, many interviews and reviews; the magazine is structured with seven different sections: Bordernotes, Bordercolumn, articles, art pages and crossovers.
The National Magazine Awards has given Border Crossings a total of 7 gold medals, 8 silver medals and 38 honourable mentions since 1985. NMAF is known for their recognition of excellence in content and creation of various Canadian magazines; the NMAF has a total of 47 categories of awards: 23 written, 9 visual, 7 online, 4 integrated and 4 special awards. The 4 special awards categories are: Outstanding achievement, Best New Visual Creator, Best New Magazine Writer, Magazine of the Year. Most of the gold and silver awards for Border Crossings were in Poetry, Illustration and columns. Many of the honourable mentions were dispersed in a wide variety of categories ranging from travel, to essays to fiction and homes and gardens; the Western Magazine Awards Foundation has presented Border Crossings with more than 55 awards in various categories including, Magazine of the Year, Best Article, Best Review and Best Photographic Feature. The WMAF honours and celebrates excellence in western Canadian magazine writing, art direction and illustration.
This non-profit organization has a strong ethic to raise the profile of western Canadian magazines among readers, creators and advertisers. WMAF works to enhance the professional development of Canadian magazines to ensure their long-term vibrancy; the Western Publishing Association hosts an annual Maggie awards ceremony and has awarded Border Crossings 2 Maggies. The WPA takes pride in promoting the pursuit of excellence among publishing professionals. Beale, Nigel. "Walsh on: How to Write an Art Review." Nigel Beale Nota Bene Books 2008: n. pag. Web. 15 Jun 2010. <http://nigelbeale.com/2008/02/18/meeka-walsh-on-how-to-write-an-art-review/>. "The Very Rich Collaboration Between Leon Rooke." Word Pictures n. pag. Web. 15 Jun 2010. <http://www.artishell.com/calzetta/enright.html>. "Orders of Canada." Honours. Governor General of Canada, n.d. Web. 15 Jun 2010. <http://archive.gg.ca/honours/search-recherche/honours-desc.asp?lang=e&TypeID=orc&id=9451>. Safam. "Robert Enright." University of Guelph. University of Guelph, n.d.
Web. 28 Jun 2010. <https://web.archive.org/web/20091213172541/http://www.uoguelph.ca/sofam/cv_enright.html%3E. "Biography for Robert Enright." IMDb. N.p. 2010. Web. 29 Jun 2010. <https://www.imdb.com/name/nm0258018/bio>. "Border Crossings Magazine About Us." BorderCrossings. Visual L