Miso is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and kōji and sometimes rice, seaweed or other ingredients. The result is a thick paste used for sauces and spreads, pickling vegetables or meats, mixing with dashi soup stock to serve as miso soup called misoshiru, a Japanese culinary staple. High in protein and rich in vitamins and minerals, miso played an important nutritional role in feudal Japan. Miso is still used in Japan, both in traditional and modern cooking, has been gaining worldwide interest. Miso is salty, but its flavor and aroma depend on various factors in the ingredients and fermentation process. Different varieties of miso have been described as salty, earthy and savory; the origin of the miso of Japan is not clear. Grain and fish misos had been manufactured in Japan since the Neolithic era; these are called jōmon miso and are similar to the early fish- and soy-based sauces produced throughout East Asia. This miso predecessor originated in China during earlier.

Hishio and other fermented soy-based foods were introduced to Japan at the same time as Buddhism in the sixth century AD. This fermented food was called shi. In the Kamakura period, a common meal was made up of a bowl of rice, some dried fish, a serving of miso, a fresh vegetable; until the Muromachi period, miso was made without grinding the soybeans, somewhat like nattō. In the Muromachi era, Buddhist monks discovered that soybeans could be ground into a paste, spawning new cooking methods using miso to flavor other foods. In medieval times, the word temaemiso, meaning home-made miso, appeared. Miso production is a simple process, so home-made versions spread throughout Japan. Miso was used as military provisions during the Sengoku period, making miso was an important economic activity for daimyōs of that era. During the Edo period, miso was called hishio and kuki and various types of miso that fit with each local climate and culture emerged throughout Japan. Today, miso is produced industrially in large quantities, traditional home-made miso has become a rarity.

In recent years, many new types of miso have appeared, including ones with added soup stocks or calcium, or made with beans other than soy, or having reduced salt for health, among other varieties, are available. The ingredients used to produce miso may include any mix of soybeans, rice, millet, wheat, hemp seed, cycad, among others. Producers in other countries have begun selling miso made from chickpeas, azuki beans and quinoa. Fermentation time ranges from as little as five days to several years; the wide variety of Japanese miso is difficult to classify, but is done by grain type, color and background. Mugi: barley tsubu: whole wheat/barley genmai: brown rice moromi: chunky, healthy nanban: mixed with hot chili pepper for dipping sauce taima: hemp seed sobamugi: buckwheat hadakamugi: Highland barley nari: made from cycad pulp, Buddhist temple diet gokoku: "five-grain": soy, barley, proso millet, foxtail milletMany regions have their own specific variation on the miso standard. For example, the soybeans used in Sendai miso are much more coarsely mashed than in normal soy miso.

Miso made with rice such as shinshu and shiro are called kome miso. The taste, aroma and appearance of miso all vary by region and season. Other important variables that contribute to the flavor of a particular miso include temperature, duration of fermentation, salt content, variety of kōji, fermenting vessel; the most common flavor categories of miso are: Shiromiso, "white miso" Akamiso, "red miso" Awasemiso, "mixed miso"Although white and red are the most common types of misos available, different varieties may be preferred in particular regions of Japan. In the eastern Kantō region that includes Tokyo, the darker brownish akamiso is popular while in the western Kansai region encompassing Osaka and Kobe, the lighter shiromiso is preferred. A more nuanced breakdown of the flavors is: Kome miso or "rice miso" can be yellow, yellowish white, etc. Whitish miso is made from boiled soybeans, reddish miso is made from steamed soybeans. Kome miso is consumed more in the Hokuriku and Kinki areas. Mugi miso or "barley miso" is a whitish miso, produced in Kyushu, western Chugoku, Shikoku areas.

Another reddish mugi miso is produced in the northern Kanto area. Mugi miso has a peculiar smell. Mame miso or "soybean miso" is a more reddish brown than kome miso; this has some astringency and good umami. This miso requires a long maturing term. Mame miso is consumed in Aichi prefecture, part of Gifu prefecture, part of Mie prefecture. Soybean miso is labeled hatchō miso. Hatchō miso is an Okazaki, Aichi specialty and has its origins in Mikawa Province during the Sengoku period; the processing method with large wooden barrels and stones on the lid remains unchanged. Chōgō or Awase miso, or "mixed miso" comes in many types, because it is a mixture or compound of other varieties of miso; this may improve the weak points of each type of miso. For example, mame miso is salty, but when combined with kome miso the finished product has a mild taste. Akamiso or red miso is aged, sometimes for more than one year. Therefore, due to the Maillard reaction, the color changes from white to red or black, thus giving it the name red miso.

Characteristics of the flavo

China Time-honored Brand

China Time-honored Brand is a title granted by the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China to Chinese enterprises that existed before 1956, sell products, techniques or services passed down through generations, have distinct Chinese cultural characteristics and are recognized by society. This title was first granted soon after the foundation of the PRC in 1949; the current eligibility criteria were set in 2006, when the Ministry of Commerce revised them for the last time. There are around 1,000 brands granted this title, among which are Tongrentang, Quanjude and Go Believe. Many of the shops have a history of over 400 years, in modern times have begun to expand via mass commercialization of their products. Quanjude 全聚德 — Peking duck restaurant Donglaishun 东来顺 — hotpot restaurant Douyichu 都一处 — restaurant famous for its shaomai Bianyifang 便宜坊 — another Peking duck restaurant Goubuli 狗不理 — baozi restaurant Hundun hou 馄饨侯 — wonton restaurant Liubiju 六必居 — sells preserved vegetables and sauces Rongbaozhai 荣宝斋 — sells works of art Tongrentang 同仁堂 — supplier of medicinal herbs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine Zhang Yiyuan 张一元 — teahouse Ruifuxiang 瑞蚨祥 — silk clothing and qipaos Neiliansheng 内联升 — old Chinese cloth shoes Shengxifu 盛锡福 — hats van der Meulen, Bernd.

Compound of twenty octahedra

This uniform polyhedron compound is a symmetric arrangement of 20 octahedra. It is a special case of the compound of 20 octahedra with rotational freedom, in which pairs of octahedral vertices coincide; this compound shares its edge arrangement with the great dirhombicosidodecahedron, the great disnub dirhombidodecahedron, the compound of twenty tetrahemihexahedra. It may be constructed as the exclusive or of the two enantiomorphs of the great snub dodecicosidodecahedron. Compound of three octahedra Compound of four octahedra Compound of five octahedra Compound of ten octahedra Skilling, John, "Uniform Compounds of Uniform Polyhedra", Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 79: 447–457, doi:10.1017/S0305004100052440, MR 0397554