Mission Bay (San Diego)
Mission Bay is a saltwater bay or lagoon located south of the Pacific Beach community of San Diego, California. The bay is part of the recreational Mission Bay Park, the largest man-made aquatic park in the country, consisting of 4,235 acres 46% land and 54% water; the combined area makes Mission Bay Park the ninth largest municipally-owned park in the United States. Wakeboarding, jet skiing and camping are popular on the bay. With miles of light color sandy beaches and an long pedestrian path, it is suitable for cycling, roller skating and skateboarding, or sunbathing. Mission Bay Yacht Club, on the west side of the bay, conducts sailing races year-round in the bay and the nearby Pacific Ocean and has produced national sailing champions in many classes. Fiesta Island, a large peninsular park located within Mission Bay, is a popular location for charity walks and runs, bicycle races, time trials and other special events, it is the home of the annual Over-the-line tournament. Mission Bay is host to the annual Bayfair Cup, a hydroplane boat race that takes place on the H1 Unlimited circuit.
Mission Bay Park was a tidal marsh, named "False Bay" by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo in 1542. It was developed into a recreational water park during the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s; the San Diego River had shifted its terminus back and forth between San Diego Bay to the south and "False Bay" to the north. During the 1820s the river began to empty into San Diego Bay, causing worries that the harbor might silt up. In 1852 the United States Army Corps of Engineers constructed a dike along the south side of the river to prevent water from flowing into San Diego Bay; this made "False Bay". The dike failed within two years. In 1877 the city erected a permanent dam and straightened the river channel to the sea, giving the river its present configuration. Today the San Diego River is constrained on both the north and the south by levees, it no longer drains to the ocean through Mission Bay, other than through a weir located at the entrance to Mission Bay. During the late 1800s some recreational development began in "False Bay" including the building of hunting and fishing facilities.
These facilities were destroyed by flooding. In 1944, a Chamber of Commerce committee recommended development of Mission Bay into a tourism and recreational center, in order to help diversify the city’s economy, military. In the late 1940s, dredging and filling operations began converting the marsh into what today is Mission Bay Park. Twenty-five million cubic yards of sand and silt were dredged to create the varied land forms of the park, which now is entirely man-made; the first modern swim/bike/run event to be called a "triathlon" was held at Mission Bay, San Diego, California on September 25, 1974. The race was conceived and directed by Jack Johnstone and Don Shanahan, members of the San Diego Track Club, was sponsored by the track club. 46 participants entered this event. It was not inspired by the French events, although a race held the following year at Fiesta Island, San Diego, is sometimes called "the first triathlon in America."Approximately half of the park was once state tidelands.
Mission Bay Park was transferred to the City of San Diego with several restrictions, some of which were adopted into San Diego City Charter by public vote, with others implemented as part of the California Coastal Commission's oversight of local planning and land use decisions. One of the restrictions sets a limit on commercial development of leaseholds, so that no more than 25% of the land area and 6.5% of the water area can be used for private purposes. This assures that most of the acres making up Mission Bay Park are available for public recreational use. From 1957 to 1962 large amounts of industrial waste, including millions of gallons of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids, dichromate and carbon tetrachloride, were deposited into an unlined landfill located in the south shores section of Mission Bay Park east of SeaWorld. No remediation efforts have occurred. Mission Bay has 27 miles of shoreline, 19 of which are sandy beaches with eight locations designated as official swimming areas.
Mission Bay is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. Swimmers and sunbathers take advantage of the warm water, calm surf conditions and the sands of Mission Bay’s beaches. Mission Bay offers boat docks and launching facilities and motor rentals, bike/walk paths and basketball courts. There are playgrounds for children. Public restrooms and showers are available, lifeguard stations are located in designated areas. On the east side of the bay is a network of channels and islands which are used by wind surfers and water skiers. Several water areas are dedicated or restricted to particular forms of water recreation, with specific separate areas for sailing, water skiing and personal watercraft use. Mission Bay is one of the premier locations in Southern California for the sport of rowing, or "crew." One of the largest rowing regattas in the country is held on Mission Bay each year: The San Diego Crew Classic is held in Mission Bay every spring, featuring two days of competition in eight-oared shells rowed by more than 100 college and senior crews.
Rose Creek flows into Mission Bay from the north, creating a rich wetland area called the Kendall Frost Marsh. Attractions at Mission Bay include SeaWorld San Diego, Aqua Adventures for kayaking and paddleboarding, the Mission Bay Cross Country Course, the Mission Bay Golf Course, Belmont Park, which features the Giant
Chromate and dichromate
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO2−4. Dichromate salts contain the dichromate anion, Cr2O2−7, they are moderately strong oxidizing agents. In an aqueous solution and dichromate ions can be interconvertible. Chromates react with hydrogen peroxide giving products in which peroxide, O2−2, replaces one or more oxygen atoms. In acid solution the unstable blue peroxo complex Chromium oxide peroxide, CrO2, is formed. Addition of pyridine results in the formation of the more stable complex CrO2py. In aqueous solution and dichromate anions exist in a chemical equilibrium. 2 CrO2−4 + 2 H+ ⇌ Cr2O2−7 + H2OThe predominance diagram shows that the position of the equilibrium depends on both pH and the analytical concentration of chromium. The chromate ion is the predominant species in alkaline solutions, but dichromate can become the predominant ion in acidic solutions. Further condensation reactions can occur in acidic solution with the formation of trichromates, Cr3O2−10, tetrachromates, Cr4O2−13.
All polyoxyanions of chromium have structures made up of tetrahedral CrO4 units sharing corners. The hydrogen chromate ion, HCrO4−, is a weak acid: HCrO−4 ⇌ CrO2−4 + H+; the red line on the predominance diagram is not quite horizontal due to the simultaneous equilibrium with the chromate ion. The hydrogen chromate ion may be protonated, with the formation of molecular chromic acid, H2CrO4, but the pKa for the equilibrium H2CrO4 ⇌ HCrO−4 + H+is not well characterized. Reported values vary between about −0.8 and 1.6. The dichromate ion is a somewhat weaker base than the chromate ion. HCr2O−7 ⇌ Cr2O2−7 + H+, pK = 1.8The pK value for this reaction shows that it can be ignored at pH > 4. The chromate and dichromate ions are strong oxidizing agents. Three electrons are added to a chromium atom, reducing it to oxidation state +3. In acid solution the aquated Cr3+ ion is produced. Cr2O2−7 + 14 H+ + 6 e− → 2 Cr3+ + 7 H2O ε0 = 1.33 VIn alkaline solution chromium hydroxide is produced. The redox potential shows that chromates are weaker oxidizing agent in alkaline solution than in acid solution.
CrO2−4 + 4 H2O + 3 e− → Cr3 + 5 OH− ε0 = −0.13 V Approximately 136,000 tonnes of hexavalent chromium sodium dichromate, were produced in 1985. Chromates and dichromates are used in chrome plating to protect metals from corrosion and to improve paint adhesion. Chromate and dichromate salts of heavy metals and alkaline earth metals are only slightly soluble in water and are thus used as pigments; the lead containing pigment chrome yellow was used for a long time before environmental regulations discouraged its use. When used as oxidizing agents or titrants in a redox chemical reaction and dichromates convert into trivalent chromium, Cr3+, salts of which have a distinctively different blue-green color; the primary chromium ore is the mixed metal oxide chromite, FeCr2O4, found as brittle metallic black crystals or granules. Chromite ore is heated with a mixture of calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of air; the chromium is oxidized to the hexavalent form, while the iron forms iron oxide, Fe2O3.
4 FeCr2O4 + 8 Na2CO3 + 7 O2 → 8 Na2CrO4 + 2 Fe2O3 + 8 CO2Subsequent leaching of this material at higher temperatures dissolves the chromates, leaving a residue of insoluble iron oxide. The chromate solution is further processed to make chromium metal, but a chromate salt may be obtained directly from the liquor. Chromate containing minerals are rare. Crocoite, PbCrO4, which can occur as spectacular long red crystals, is the most found chromate mineral. Rare potassium chromate minerals and related compounds are found in the Atacama desert. Among them is lópezite - the only known dichromate mineral. All hexavalent chromium compounds are toxic due to their oxidizing power, they may be carcinogenic when airborne. The use of chromate compounds in manufactured goods is restricted in the EU by EU Parliament directive on the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. Chromate conversion coating National Pollutant Inventory - Chromium and compounds fact sheet Demonstration of chromate-dichromate equilibrium
The thong is a garment worn as either underwear or as a swimsuit in some countries. It may be worn for traditional ceremonies or competitions. Viewed from the front, the thong resembles a bikini bottom, but at the back the material is reduced to a minimum. Thongs are always designed to cover the genitals and perineum and leave part or most of the buttocks uncovered; the back of the garment consists of a thin waistband and a thin strip of material, designed to be worn between the buttocks, that connects the middle of the waistband with the bottom front of the garment. It is used as a descriptive term in other types of garment, such as a bodysuit, leotard or one-piece swimsuit in the context "thong backed". One type of thong is the G-string; the two terms G-string and thong are used interchangeably. Thongs come in a variety of styles depending on the thickness, material or type of the rear portion of fabric and are available for both men and women throughout most of the world; the origin of the word thong in the English language is from Old English thwong, a flexible leather cord.
Many languages borrow the English word string to refer to this type of underwear without the G. Another common name is tanga in the German Tanga. A frequent metaphor in Brazil, is dental floss. In Lithuanian it is "siaurikės", in Italian "perizoma" or "tanga", in Turkish "ipli külot", in Bulgarian as "prashka", which means a slingshot. In Israel the thong the G-string, is called Khutini, from the word Khut, which means String. In Iran, it is called "Shortbandi" in which "short" means "briefs" and "bandi" means "with a string". A Puerto Rican Spanish slang term, used by Reggaeton artists, is gistro. Australians colloquially refer to the G-string as a g-banger or banger; some names for the thong reference the bareness of the buttocks, as seen in the Spanish word colaless, in other names the "T"-like shape of the back is highlighted. In Chinese, the T-back is called dingziku which means 丁 character pants. In Korean, it is called 티팬티. However, there are several usages of the term T-back in English as well.
According to the Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion, "The G-string, or thong, a panty front with a half- to one-inch strip of fabric at the back that sits between the buttocks", Knickers: a Brief History says: "Minor tweaks to the cut earned these skimpy panties different titles—from the thong, which has a one-inch strip of fabric down the back, to a G-string, which, as the name equivalent of Spanish suggests, is more like a string of fabric akin between the teeth." Striptease: the Untold History of the Girlie Show says: "The thong an undergarment derived from the stripper's G-string", according to Americanisms: the Illustrated Book of Words Made in the USA a G-string is "a thong panty consisting of a small triangular piece of fabric supported by two elastic straps. Attributed to strippers circa 1936"; the Heinemann English Dictionary defines "thong" as "a pair of underpants or swimming costume in a skimpy style like a G-string". The thong, like its probable predecessor the loincloth, is believed to be one of the earliest forms of human clothing and is thought to have been worn or by men.
It is thought the thong was originally developed to protect, support, or hide the male genitals. The loincloth is the earliest form of clothing used by mankind, having originated in the warmer climates of sub-Saharan Africa where clothing was first worn nearly 75,000 years ago. Many tribal peoples, such as some of the Khoisan people of southern Africa, wore thongs for many centuries. Much like the Japanese fundoshi, these early garments were made with the male genitalia in mind. According to some fashion historians, the first public appearance of the thong in the United States was at the 1939 New York World's Fair; this resulted from Fiorello LaGuardia, the Mayor of New York City, ordering the city's nude dancers to cover themselves. Jacques Heim's and Louis Réard's original bikini from 1946 had a culotte with a thong back. Fashion designer Rudi Gernreich, who in the mid-1960s created the first topless swimsuit, which he called the monokini, is credited with introducing the modern thong in 1974 when he designed a thong bikini in response to a ban on nude sunbathing by the Los Angeles City Council.
Attitudes toward the wearing of g-strings vary geographically and across societies, as is usual with revealing clothing. Prior to its entrance into mainstream fashion, g-strings were worn by exotic dancers. In the modern Western world, g-strings are more marketed towards females but are worn by both sexes. During the 1980s, thongs were worn on stage by pop stars such as Madonna. By the late-1980s, the style had made its way into most of the Western world. In the 1990s, the thong began to gain wider acceptance and popularity in the United States
Giant Dipper (Belmont Park)
The Giant Dipper known as the Mission Beach Roller Coaster and by other names, is a historical wooden roller coaster located in Belmont Park, a small amusement park in the Mission Beach area of San Diego, California. Built in 1925, it and its namesake at the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk are the only remaining wooden roller coasters on the West Coast designed by noted roller coaster designers Frank Prior and Frederick Church, the only whose construction they supervised, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978. The Giant Dipper is located at the northeast corner of Belmont Park, a waterfront amusement park at the junction of Mission Boulevard and West Mission Bay Drive; the coaster occupies an irregular area about 100 by 500 feet in size, is accessed via a terminal structure on its west side. It has a track length of 2,800 feet, its highest hills, located at opposite ends of the area, reach 75 feet in height. A sign with the name "Belmont" is affixed to the wooden trestle structure at its northeast edge.
The coaster was built in 1925 as part of a major real estate development led by John D. and Adolph Spreckels to attract visitors and residents to the Mission Beach area. The Mission Beach Amusement Center was built at a cost of $2.5 million and opened in 1925, with this roller coaster as one of its main attractions. It was designed by Church and Prior, coaster designers based in Venice, who oversaw its construction; the Spreckelses bequeathed the attraction to the city. He renamed the park Belmont Park, after another park in Montreal; the roller coaster was damaged by fire in 1955, Ray subsequently declared bankruptcy. Threatened with demolition by the city in 1978, local citizens banded together to rescue it and a few surviving attractions of the defunct park, it underwent a full restoration in 1989–90. In 1997, the Giant Dipper held a coaster–riding marathon sponsored by local radio station, Star 100.7. The marathon consisted of eleven consecutive days riding the coaster for more than 12 hours per day.
The radio station arranged a second marathon in 1998, won by contestants who split a check for $50,000 in cash prize after riding the coaster for 70 days. Media related to Giant Dipper at Wikimedia Commons Official website
A frisbee is a gliding toy or sporting item, plastic and 8 to 10 inches in diameter with a pronounced lip. It is used recreationally and competitively as in flying disc games; the shape of the disc is an airfoil in cross-section which allows it to fly by generating lift as it moves through the air. Spinning it imparts a stabilizing gyroscopic force, allowing it to be both aimed and thrown for distance. A wide range is available of flying disc variants; those for disc golf are smaller but denser and tailored for particular flight profiles to increase or decrease stability and distance. The longest recorded disc throw is by Jr. with a distance of 1,109 feet. Disc dog sports use slow-flying discs made of more pliable material to better resist a dog's bite and prevent injury to the dog. Flying rings are available which travel farther than any traditional flying disc. Illuminated discs are made of phosphorescent plastic or contain chemiluminescent fluid or battery-powered LEDs for play after dark. Others whistle.
The term frisbee is used generically to describe all flying discs, but is a registered trademark of the Wham-O toy company. This protection results in organized sports such as Ultimate or disc golf having to forgo the word "Frisbee". Humans have been tossing disc-shaped objects since time immemorial. At first these were found objects such as rocks worn smooth in stream beds; some were tossed for fun. Throwing the discus became an event in the Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. Objects such as mats, lids, pie tins, cake pans were found to be perfect for tossing. Walter Frederick Morrison and his future wife Lucile had fun tossing a popcorn can lid after a Thanksgiving Day dinner in 1937, they soon discovered a market for a light duty flying disc when they were offered 25 cents for a cake pan that they were tossing back and forth on a beach near Los Angeles, California. "That got the wheels turning, because you could buy a cake pan for five cents, if people on the beach were willing to pay a quarter for it, well—there was a business," Morrison told The Virginian-Pilot newspaper in 2007.
The Morrisons continued their business until World War II, when he served in the Army Air Force flying P-47s, was a prisoner of war. After the war, Morrison sketched a design for an aerodynamically improved flying disc that he called the Whirlo-Way. After the famous racehorse, he and business partner Warren Franscioni began producing the first plastic discs by 1948, after design modifications and experimentation with several prototypes. They renamed them the Flyin-Saucer in the wake of reported unidentified flying object-sightings."We worked fairs, demonstrating it," Morrison told the Virginian-Pilot. The two of them once overheard someone saying that the pair were using wires to make the discs hover, so they developed a sales pitch: "The Flyin-Saucer is free, but the invisible wire is $1." "That's where we learned we could sell these things," he said, because people were enthusiastic about them. Morrison and Franscioni ended their partnership in early 1950, Morrison formed his own company in 1954 called American Trends to buy and sell Flyin Saucers, which were being made of a flexible polypropylene plastic by Southern California Plastics, the original molder.
He discovered that he could produce his own disc more cheaply, he designed a new model in 1955 called the Pluto Platter, the archetype of all modern flying discs. He sold the rights to Wham-O on January 23, 1957. In 1958, Morrison was awarded U. S. Design Patent D183,626 for his product. In June 1957, Wham-O co-founders Richard Knerr and Arthur "Spud" Melin gave the disc the brand name "Frisbee" after learning that college students were calling the Pluto Platter by that term, derived from the Connecticut-based pie manufacturer Frisbie Pie Company, a supplier of pies to Yale University where students had started a campus craze tossing empty pie tins stamped with the company's logo—the way that Morrison and his wife had in 1937; the man behind the Frisbee's success, was Southern Californian Edward Headrick, hired in 1964 as Wham-O's general manager and vice president of marketing. Headrick redesigned the Pluto Platter by reworking the mold to remove the names of the planets, but fortuitously increasing the rim thickness and mass in the process, creating a more controllable disc that could be thrown more accurately.
Wham-O changed their marketing strategy to promote Frisbee use as a new sport, sales skyrocketed. In 1964, the first professional model went on sale. Headrick patented its design. Headrick became known as the father of Frisbee sports. Roddick began establishing North American Series tournament standards for various Frisbee sports, such as Freestyle, Double Disc Court, overall events. Headrick helped to develop the sport of disc golf by inventing standardized targets called "pole holes", first played with Frisbees and with more aerodynamic beveled rim discs. Headrick was cremated, his ashes were molded into memorial discs and given to family and close friends and sold to benefit The Ed Headrick Memorial Museum; the Frisbee was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame in 1998. The IFT guts competitions in Northern Michigan, the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships, Toronto, ON, the Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships, Vancouver, BC, the Octad (
Cycling called biking or bicycling, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number one billion worldwide, they are the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is regarded as a effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits in comparison with motor vehicles, including the sustained physical exercise involved in cycling, easier parking, increased maneuverability, access to roads, bike paths and rural trails. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fossil fuels, less air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion; these lead to less financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can increase the areas they can serve.
Among the disadvantages of cycling are the requirement of bicycles to be balanced by the rider in order to remain upright, the reduced protection in crashes in comparison to motor vehicles longer travel time, vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, the fact that a basic level of fitness is required for cycling moderate to long distances. Cycling became an activity after bicycles were introduced in the 19th century. Today, over 50 percent of the human population knows. In many countries, the most used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle; these have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road and easing steering at low speeds. Utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis; as the bicycle is so effective as a means of transportation various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles.
Certain countries rely on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a primary form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita and most use bicycles for everyday transport. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly; the design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles and reducing air resistance at high speed. The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate. Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying; the drivetrain components of the bike should be considered. A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears. If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred.
Otherwise, the lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available. Many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include front and rear lights, bells or horns, child carrying seats, cycling computers with GPS, bar tape, baggage racks, baggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a puncture repair kit, a spare inner tube, tire levers and a set of allen keys. Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes and shorts. In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket and overshoes and high-visibility clothing is advisable to reduce the risk from motor vehicle users. Items required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lights and audible signalling devices such as a bell or horn.
Extras include a bicycle computer. Bikes can be customized, with different seat designs and handle bars, for example. Many schools and police departments run educational programs to instruct children in bicycle handling skills and introduce them to the rules of the road as they apply to cyclists. In different countries these may be known as bicycle rodeos or operated as schemes such as Bikeability. Education for adult cyclists is available from organizations such as the League of American Bicyclists. Beyond riding, another skill is riding efficiently and safely in traffic. One popular approach to riding in motor vehicle traffic is vehicular cycling, occupying road space as car does. Alternately, in countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands, where cycling is popular, cyclists are segregated into bike lanes at the side of, or more separate from, main highways and roads. Many primary schools participate in the national road test in whi
Flowriding is a late-20th century alternative boardsport incorporating elements of surfing, skateboarding, skimboarding and wakeboarding. Flowriders ride on artificial waves that are technically called "sheet waves". Powerful pumps project a three-inch layer of water at speeds ranging from 20 MPH to 30 MPH; the water flows over surfaces engineered to replicate the shape of ocean waves. Sheet waves are stationary waves, in that the wave does not move forward, the movement is derived from water flowing over a stationary surface. Flowriders get their speed from the energy of the water flowing at them, can perform basic to sophisticated turns and tricks within a small area. Though there are a number of different types of structures used for flowriding, the two which are recognized at a competitive level are the WhiteWater West Single and Double FlowRiders and the WhiteWater West FlowBarrel; the sports has two main divisions, based on the type of board: the bodyboard. The flowboard is known as the'stand-up board' in flowriding.
There are three mainstream board brands: Outlaw, ShuvIt and Carve. These boards differ in shape, materials and the angle at which the board curves, they take a similar appearance to that of a wakeboard and can be further categorized into strapped and strapless boards. Boards with footstraps are used only on the FlowBarrel, but strapless boards are used on both the FlowRider and FlowBarrel. Flowboards range in length from: 910 millimeters to 1070 millimeters, they weigh between 1.4 kilograms and 2.8 kilograms Many of the tricks incorporated in flowriding are inspired by skateboarding and wakeboarding. Riders are able to perform various maneuvers varying in difficulty such as carving, rotations varying in degree, pop-shuvits and variations, kick-flips, foot-plant and fast-plant variations, many more. Bodyboarders ride standard bodyboards in the kneeling, or drop-knee position; each position forms the basis for its own set of tricks. In most competitions, bodyboarders are required to do tricks in both kneeling positions.
There are three brands most would look to for bodyboards: Flowrider, Custom X and World Class Bodyboards The Flowboarding League of the World, run by WhiteWater West Inc, hosts flowboarding competitions. They host the North American Flow Tour, Flow Tour Asia, Flow Tour Europe, as well as the World Flowboarding Championship, with occasional Special Events as well. There are two main categories of competitions in the United States, The North American Flow Tour Prime Events as well as Flow Series events. Both hold contests at different venues around the country. Competitors compete in divisions by age and gender and are given three 30-45 second judged runs and the best two are counted. Past reputable judges have included Sean Silveira, JP O'Brien, Eric Silverman, Chuck Wright, Theo Koby, Nick Sanchez, Adam Muller, Brad Spencer as well as many others. There are two main categories of competitions in the United Kingdom, European Flow Tour and UK Flow Tour. Wave House website Wave Loch website Flowboarders website Flowrider, Inc. website