Mission San Juan Bautista is a Spanish mission in San Juan Bautista, San Benito County, California. Founded on June 24, 1797 by Fermín Lasuén of the Franciscan order, the mission was the fifteenth of the Spanish missions established in present-day California. Named for Saint John the Baptist, the mission is the namesake of the city of San Juan Bautista. Barracks for the soldiers, a nunnery, the Jose Castro House, other buildings were constructed around a large grassy plaza in front of the church and can be seen today in their original form; the Ohlone, the original residents of the valley, were brought to live at the mission and baptized, followed by Yokuts from the Central Valley. Mission San Juan Bautista has served mass daily since 1797, today functions as a parish church of the Diocese of Monterey. Following its creation in 1797, San Juan's population grew quickly. By 1803, there were 1,036 Native Americans living at the mission. Ranching and farming activity had moved apace, with 1,036 cattle, 4,600 sheep, 22 swine, 540 horses and 8 mules counted that year.
At the same time, the harvest of wheat and corn was estimated at 2,018 fanegas, each of about 220 pounds. Father Pedro Estévan Tápis joined Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta, at Mission San Juan Bautista in 1815 to teach singing to the Indians, he employed a system of notation developed in Spain that uses varied colors or textures for polyphonic music solid black, solid red, black outline and red outline. His choir of Native American boys performed for many visitors, earning the San Juan Bautista Mission the nickname "the Mission of Music." Two of his handwritten choir books are preserved at the San Juan Bautista Museum. When Father Tapis died in 1825 he was buried on the mission grounds; the town of San Juan Bautista, which grew up around the mission, expanded during the California Gold Rush and continues to be a thriving community today. The mission is situated adjacent to the San Andreas Fault, has suffered damage from numerous earthquakes, such as those of 1800 and 1906. However, the mission was never destroyed at once.
It was restored in 1884, again in 1949 with funding from the Hearst Foundation. The three-bell campanario, or "bell wall," located by the church entrance, was restored in 2010. An unpaved stretch of the original El Camino Real, just east of the mission, lies on a fault scarp. Although secularized in 1835, the church was reconsecrated by the Roman Catholic Church in 1859, continues to serve as a parish of the Diocese of Monterey; the mission includes a cemetery, with the remains of over 4,000 Native American converts and Europeans buried there. The mission and its grounds were featured prominently in the 1958 Alfred Hitchcock film Vertigo. Associate producer Herbert Coleman's daughter Judy Lanini suggested the mission to Hitchcock as a filming location. A steeple, added sometime after the mission's original construction and secularization, had been demolished following a fire, so Hitchcock added a bell tower using scale models, matte paintings, trick photography at the Paramount studio in Los Angeles.
The tower does not resemble the original steeple. The tower's staircase was assembled inside a studio. Spanish missions in California Rancho San Justo Teatro Campesino USNS Mission San Juan – a Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II. Mission San Juan Bautista – official site Early photographs, land surveys of Mission San Juan Bautista, via Calisphere, California Digital Library Vertigo on IMDb Listing and photographs of church at the Historic American Buildings Survey Listing and photographs of mission at the Historic American Buildings Survey Another view of the Mission Facade, circa 1980s Howser, Huell. "California Missions". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mission San Juan Bautista Mission San Juan Bautista Cemetery at Find a Grave
There are many longstanding unsolved problems in mathematics for which a solution has still not yet been found. The unsolved problems in statistics are of a different flavor. A list of "one or two open problems" was given by David Cox. How to detect and correct for systematic errors in sciences where random errors are large; the Graybill–Deal estimator is used to estimate the common mean of two normal populations with unknown and unequal variances. Though this estimator is unbiased, its admissibility remains to be shown. Meta-analysis: Though independent p-values can be combined using Fisher's method, techniques are still being developed to handle the case of dependent p-values. Behrens–Fisher problem: Yuri Linnik showed in 1966 that there is no uniformly most powerful test for the difference of two means when the variances are unknown and unequal; that is, there is no exact test, the most powerful for all values of the variances. Though there are many approximate solutions, the problem continues to attract attention as one of the classic problems in statistics.
Multiple comparisons: There are various ways to adjust p-values to compensate for the simultaneous or sequential testing of hypothesis. Of particular interest is how to control the overall error rate, preserve statistical power, incorporate the dependence between tests into the adjustment; these issues are relevant when the number of simultaneous tests can be large, as is the case in the analysis of data from DNA microarrays. Bayesian statistics: A list of open problems in Bayesian statistics has been proposed; as the theory of Latin squares is a cornerstone in the design of experiments, solving the problems in Latin squares could have immediate applicability to experimental design. Sampling of species problem: How is a probability updated when there is unanticipated new data? Doomsday argument: How valid is the probabilistic argument that claims to predict the future lifetime of the human race given only an estimate of the total number of humans born so far? Exchange paradox: Issues arise within the subjectivistic interpretation of probability theory.
This is still an open problem among the subjectivists. Examples include: The two envelopes problem The necktie paradox Sunrise problem: What is the probability that the sun will rise tomorrow? Different answers arise depending on the methods used and assumptions made. Linnik, Jurii. Statistical Problems with Nuisance Parameters. American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0-8218-1570-9. Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.. "Fermat, Schubert and Behrens–Fisher: The Probable Difference Between Two Means When σ1 ≠ σ2". Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods. 1. Doi:10.22237/jmasm/1036109940
Kevin Reilly is an American former professional football player, motivational speaker, former broadcaster for the Philadelphia Eagles Network. Kevin was drafted from Villanova by the Miami Dolphins in 1973 in the seventh round, although that year he returned to his Wilmington, DE home and joined the Philadelphia Eagles, serving as captain of the squad's special teams for two seasons before ending his career with the New England Patriots. In 1976, shortly after beginning his NFL career, Kevin was diagnosed with a rare scar tissue tumor known as desmoid tumor; this ended his career in football. He underwent multiple surgeries that were unsuccessful in curing the cancer undergoing an 11 1/2 hour surgery in 1979 at Memorial Sloan Kettering to remove his left arm and five ribs. Recovery from surgery was difficult and Reilly suffered significant depression but was able to overcome it at least in part due to the support of another NFL player who overcame similar physical trauma from injury in the Vietnam War, Rocky Bleier.
After surgery, Kevin worked hard at rehabilitation to overcome the limitations the experts said he would have. He learned to tie a necktie with one hand, to play golf with one hand, ran 5 half marathons and in the Marine Corps Marathon, he went on to a 30-year career with Xerox and now, in retirement, is a sports radio broadcaster, appearing on Eagles' pregame and postgame shows. He does motivational speaking, sharing his story with corporate audiences, business leaders, cancer patients, recuperating soldiers, special needs student. Reilly counseled victims of the Boston Marathon Bombings. In 2015, Kevin was announced as the color analyst for the Villanova Wildcats football radio team on WTEL. In 2018, Kevin Reilly, along with John Riley, wrote the book "Tackling Life: How Faith and Fortitude Kept an NFL Linebacker in the Game." Kevin Reilly – Motivational Speaker, Former NFL Player, Amputee & Cancer Survivor
The Dutch diaspora consists of Dutch people and their descendants living outside the Netherlands. Emigration from the Netherlands has been occurring for at least four hundred years, may be traced back to the international presence of the Dutch Empire and its monopoly on mercantile shipping in many parts of the world. Dutch people settled permanently in a number of former Dutch colonies or trading enclaves abroad, namely the Dutch Caribbean, the Dutch Cape Colony, the Dutch East Indies and New Netherland. Since the end of World War II, the largest proportion of Dutch emigrants have moved to Anglophone countries, namely Canada, New Zealand, the United States seeking better employment opportunities. Postwar emigration from the Netherlands peaked between 1948-63, with occasional spikes in the 1980s and the mid-2000s. Cross-border migration to Belgium and Germany has become more common since 2001, driven by the rising cost of housing in major Dutch cities; the first big wave of Dutch immigrants to leave the Low Countries were from present day Northern Belgium as they wanted to escape the urbanised cities in Western Flanders.
They arrived in Brandenburg in 1157. Due to this, the area is known as "Fläming" in reference to the Duchy that these immigrants came from; because of a number of devastating floods in the provinces of Zeeland and Holland in the 12th century, large numbers of farmers migrated to The Wash in England, the delta of the Gironde in France, around Bremen and western North Rhine-Westphalia. Until the late 16th century, many Dutchmen and women moved to the delta of the Elbe, around Berlin, where they dried swamps, canalized rivers and build numerous dikes. Today, the Berlin dialect still bears some Dutch features; the town of Nymburk in the Kingdom of Bohemia was settled by Dutch colonists during the medieval eastward migration in the 13th century. Overseas emigration of the Dutch started around the 16th century; the first Dutch settlers arrived in the New World in 1614 and built a number of settlements around the mouth of the Hudson River, establishing the colony of New Netherland, with its capital at New Amsterdam.
Dutch explorers discovered Australia and New Zealand in 1606, though they did not settle the new lands. The Dutch were one of the few Europeans to settle Africa prior to the late 19th century; the Cape of Good Hope was first settled by Europeans under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company, which established a victualing station there in 1652 to provide its outward bound fleets with fresh provisions and a harbour of refuge during the long sea journey from Europe to Asia. Since the primary purpose of the Cape settlement at the time was to stock provisions for passing Dutch ships, the VOC offered grants of farmland to its employees under the condition they would cultivate grain for company warehouses, released them from their contracts to save on their wages. Prospective employees had to be married Dutch citizens, considered "of good character" by the Company, had to commit to spending at least twenty years on the African continent, they were issued with a letter of freedom, known as a "vrijbrief", which released them from company service, received farms of thirteen and a half morgen each.
However, the new farmers were subject to heavy restrictions: they were ordered to focus on cultivating grain, each year their harvest was to be sold to Dutch officials at fixed prices. They were forbidden from growing tobacco, producing vegetables for any purpose other than personal consumption, or purchasing cattle from the native tribes at rates which differed from those set by the Company. With time, these restrictions and other attempts by the colonial authorities to control the European population resulted in successive generations of settlers and their descendants becoming localised in their loyalties and national identity and hostile towards the colonial government. Few Dutch women accompanied the first Dutch settlers to the Cape of Good Hope, one natural consequence of the unbalanced gender ratio was that between 1652 and 1672 some 75% of children born to slaves in the colony had Dutch fathers; the majority of slaves had been imported from the East Indies, India and parts of eastern Africa.
This resulted in the formation of a new ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, most of whom adopted the Dutch language and were instrumental in shaping it into a new regional dialect, Afrikaans. In 1691, there were at least 660 Dutch people living at the Cape of Good Hope; this had increased to about 13,000 by the end of Dutch rule, or one half of the Cape's European population. The remaining Europeans settled during the Dutch colonial era were Germans or French Huguenots, reflecting the multi-national nature of the VOC workforce and its settlements. Thereafter the number of people of Dutch ancestry at the Cape became difficult to estimate, due in part to the universal adoption of the Dutch language and the Dutch Reformed Church by those of German or French origin, as well as a significant degree of intermarriage. Since the late nineteenth century, the term Afrikaner has been evoked to describe white South Africans descended from the Cape's original Dutch-speaking settlers, regardless of ethnic heritage.
The Netherlands lost the Cape Colony to a British invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Following the end of that conflict, the Cape was formally ceded to Great Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Many influential South Africans of Dutch descent led the Afrikaner com
Girolamo Li Causi was an Italian politician and a leader of the Italian Communist Party. He was involved in the post World War II struggle for land reform and against the Mafia in Sicily, he labelled the large estate Sicily's central problem. Li Causi was born in Termini Imerese, a town in the province of Palermo on the northern coast of Sicily; the son of a shoemaker, he graduated with an economics degree from the University of Venice in northern Italy. As a student he joined the Italian Socialist Party. Forced to leave Venice by the Fascists after Mussolini’s March on Rome in October 1922, he went to Rome and Milan, where he helped organise the Third Internationalist’ faction of the PSI. In the summer of 1924 he adhered to the Italian Communist Party, he was part of the editorial staff of the magazine Pagine rosse. After the failed assassination attempt on the fascist prime minister Benito Mussolini in September 1926, the PCI was outlawed and the publication of l'Unità suppressed. A clandestine edition resumed on the first day of 1927 in which Li Causi was involved.
Li Causi became the PCI interregional secretary in Piedmont and Liguria, where he succeeded in producing clandestine copies of L’Unità and in helping organise rice workers’ strikes in Piedmont. He fled to Paris in mid-1927, but was arrested on May 10, 1928 in Pisa, during one of his clandestine return trips. Li Causi was sentenced to nine months in prison. In 1937, as the result of a political amnesty, he was released from prison and banished to the penal colony on the island of Ponza; when Mussolini was forced to resign on July 25, 1943, Li Causi stayed in the penal colony on the island of Ventotene, 40 kilometres to the east of Ponza. After his release, he went north to join the resistance against the German occupation and remaining Italian fascists, he was the PCI representative on the National Liberation Committee for Upper Italy in Milan, active in producing L’Unità clandestinely and in organising the resistance. Li Causi became a member of the national directorate of the PCI, reinstated on August 29, 1943, in Rome.
The PCI directorate sent Li Causi to Sicily reinforce the party with an experienced leader. He arrived in Palermo on August 10, 1944. Although the PCI – traditionally weak in Sicily – included a separatist faction, Li Causi led the Communists to a strong anti-separatist stance, by late 1944, Communists and separatists were doing battle in the streets. Li Causi’s arrival in Sicily marked a change in Communist fortunes on the island, he worked to curb dissension, prevent violence, block Sicilian separatism, while supporting autonomy. Li Causi believed. Separatism, which represented a "vague sentimental attitude" that the island’s reactionaries supported, would only cause harm. Li Causi became the main rival of separatist leader Finocchiaro Aprile and the most consistent enemy of separatism. On September 16, 1944, Li Causi and the local socialist leader Michele Pantaleone, as leaders of the Blocco del popolo in Sicily, went to speak to the landless labourers at an election rally in Villalba, challenging the Mafia boss Calogero Vizzini in his own personal fiefdom.
In the morning tensions rose when Christian Democrat mayor Beniamino Farina – a relative of Vizzini as well as his successor as mayor – angered local communists by ordering all hammer-and-sickle signs erased from buildings along the road on which Li Causi would travel into town. When his supporters protested, they were intimidated by thugs; the rally began in late afternoon. Vizzini had agreed to permit the meeting and assured them there would be no trouble as long as local issues, land problems, the large estates, or the Mafia were not addressed. Both speakers who preceded Li Causi, among whom Pantaleone, followed Vizzini’s commands. Li Causi did not, he denounced the unjust exploitation by the Mafia, when Li Causi started to talk about how the peasants were being deceived by'a powerful leaseholder' – a thinly disguised reference to Vizzini – the Mafia boss hurled: It’s a lie. Pandemonium broke out; the rally ended in a shoot-out which left 14 people wounded including Pantaleone. Always the Communist ready to educate the proletariat, Li Causi hurled at one of the peasant attackers: "Why are you shooting, who are you shooting at?
Can’t you see that you're shooting at yourself?" (Don Calò and his bodyguard were accused of attempted manslaughter. The trial dragged on until 1958, but by 1946 the evidence had disappeared. Vizzini was never convicted because by the time of the verdict he was dead; the Villalba attack inaugurated a long series of Mafia attacks in Sicily on political activists, trade union leaders and ordinary peasants resisting Mafia rule and claiming land titles. In the following years many left-wing leaders were otherwise attacked. On April 20–21, 1947, the Blocco del popolo – a coalition of the communist PCI and socialist PSI – won a surprise victory in the elections for the Constituent Assembly of the autonomous region of Sicily; the Blocco obtained 29 percent of the vote, while the got 20.5% and the Common Man-Monarchist bloc came third with 14%. Li Causi furnished an explanation for the success of the left-wing block: "For the Communist Party, there is no question of world revolution, but of feeding and democratising the people.
We plan no Soviet here. We want the big feudal land holdings redistributed, but we respect all properties below 100 hectares. And, a good-sized piece of property. We want industry.... We want to put the idle to work. C
The 1983 Benson & Hedges Masters was a professional non-ranking snooker tournament that took place between from Sunday 23 January to Sunday 30 January 1983 at the Wembley Conference Centre in London, England. The event was extended from 6 to 8 days. Although there were 16 players they were not the top 16 ranked players that would compete in the following years. BBC Television coverage did not start until 26 January and so only two of the eight first round matches were televised. Cliff Thorburn of Canada became the first overseas player to win the competition beating Ray Reardon in the final to win the first of his three titles; the first round match between Bill Werbeniuk and Alex Higgins made a record crowd at the Conference Centre of 2,876. The highest break of the tournament was 128 made by Terry Griffiths. For the first time there were 16 players in the event. Alex Higgins, the World Champion was the number 1 seed with Steve Davis, the defending champion seeded 2. Places were allocated to the leading 8 players in the world rankings.
6 players qualified and there were 2 wild-card entries, Jimmy White and Terry Griffiths. Joe Johnson, Dean Reynolds and Mark Wildman were making their debuts in the Masters. Total: 4 128 Terry Griffiths 114 Tony Meo 113 Ray Reardon 108 Eddie Charlton