Saint Francis Xavier, S. J. was a Navarrese-Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier, Kingdom of Navarre, and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was a companion of Saint Ignatius of Loyola and one of the first seven Jesuits who took vows of poverty and chastity at Montmartre, Paris in 1534. He led a mission into Asia, mainly in the Portuguese Empire of the time and was influential in evangelization work. He was the first Christian missionary to venture into Japan, the Maluku Islands, in those areas, struggling to learn the local languages and in the face of opposition, he had less success than he had enjoyed in India. Xavier was about to extend his missionary preaching to China but died in Shangchuan Island shortly before he could do so and he was beatified by Pope Paul V on 25 October 1619 and canonized by Pope Gregory XV on 12 March 1622. In 1624 he was made co-patron of Navarre alongside Santiago, known as the Apostle of the Indies, and the Apostle of Japan, he is considered to be one of the greatest missionaries since Saint Paul.
In 1927, Pope Pius XI published the decree Apostolicorum in Missionibus naming Saint Francis Xavier, along with Saint Thérèse of Lisieux and he is now co-patron saint of Navarre with San Fermin. The Day of Navarre in Spain marks the anniversary of Saint Francis Xaviers death, Francis Xavier was born in the royal castle of Xavier, in the Kingdom of Navarre, on 7 April 1506 according to a family register. Francis mother was Doña María de Azpilcueta y Aznárez, sole heiress of two noble Navarrese families and he was thus related to the great theologian and philosopher Martín de Azpilcueta. In 1512, King of Aragon and regent of Castile, invaded Navarre, three years later, Francis father died when Francis was only nine years old. In 1516, Franciss brothers participated in a failed Navarrese-French attempt to expel the Spanish invaders from the kingdom. The Spanish Governor, Cardinal Cisneros, confiscated the lands, demolished the outer wall, the gates. In addition, the height of the keep was reduced by half, only the family residence inside the castle was left.
In 1525, Francis went to study in Paris at the Collège Sainte-Barbe, University of Paris, in the early days he acquired some reputation as an athlete and a fine high-jumper. In 1529, Francis shared lodgings with his friend Pierre Favre, a new student, Ignatius of Loyola, came to room with them. At 38, Ignatius was much older than Pierre and Francis, Pierre was won over by Ignatius to become a priest, but Francis had aspirations of worldly advancement. At first Francis was not much taken with Ignatius and he regarded the new lodger as a joke and was sarcastic about his efforts to convert students. Only after Pierre left their lodgings to visit his family, when Ignatius was alone with the proud Navarrese, was he was able to break down Franciss stubborn resistance
An aisle is, in general, a space for walking with rows of seats on both sides or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other. Aisles can be seen in shops and factories, in warehouses and factories, aisles may consist of storage pallets, and in factories, aisles may separate work areas. In health clubs, exercise equipment is arranged in aisles. Aisles are distinguished from corridors, walkways, footpaths/pavements, paths, aisles have certain general physical characteristics, They are virtually always straight, not curved. An open space that had three rows of chairs to the right of it and three to the left generally would not be considered an aisle. Theatres, meeting halls, etc. usually have aisles wide enough for 2-3 strangers to walk past each other without feeling uncomfortably close. In such facilities, anything that could accommodate more than 4 people side-by-side would generally be considered an open area. Factory work area aisles are wide enough for workers to comfortably sit or stand at their work area, while allowing safe and efficient movement of persons.
Passage aisles usually are quite enough for a large person to carry a suitcase in each hand. Usually, even without luggage one person must turn sideways in order for the one to pass. Warehouse aisles normally are at least 8–10 feet wide, to use of mechanical loading equipment. Wedding aisles are wide enough to allow two people to walk comfortably beside each other and still have space, the width of these aisles varies and is up to those who design the layout of the wedding. Vehicle aisles are wide enough to allow a type of vehicle to pass one or two way. Width generally varies for vehicle type and other variables like no of parking accessibility etc. Note that spaces between buildings, e. g. rows of storage sheds, would not be considered aisles, in architecture, an aisle is more specifically the wing of a house, or a lateral division of a large building. The earliest examples of aisles date back to the Roman times and can be found in the Basilica Ulpia, the church of St. Peters in Rome has the same number.
In cathedral architecture, an aisle is more specifically a passageway to either side of the nave that is separated from the nave by colonnades or arcades, occasionally aisles stop at the transepts, but often aisles can be continued around the apse. Aisles are thus categorized as nave-aisles, transept-aisles or choir-aisles, a semi-circular choir with aisles continued around it, providing access to a series of chapels, is a chevet
Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. The most common species is the Indian fig opuntia. Most culinary uses of the prickly pear refer to this species. Prickly pears are known as tuna, nopal from the Nahuatl word nōpalli for the pads, or nostle, from the Nahuatl word nōchtli for the fruit, or paddle cactus. The genus is named for the Ancient Greek city of Opus, according to Theophrastus, like all true cactus species, prickly pears are native only to the Americas, but they have been introduced to other parts of the globe. Prickly pear species are found in abundance in Mexico, especially in the central and western regions, Prickly pear cactus is native to coastal beach scrub environments and low open areas of the East Coast from Florida to Connecticut/Long Island. Prickly pears produce a fruit, commonly eaten in Mexico and in the Mediterranean region, known as tuna, the fruit can be red, wine-red, green, or yellow-orange. The first introduction of prickly pears into Australia is ascribed to Governor Philip, brought from Brazil to Sydney, prickly pear grew in Sydney, New South Wales, where they were rediscovered in a farmers garden in 1839.
They appear to have spread from New South Wales and caused great damage in the eastern states. In the Galápagos Islands, six different species are found, O. echios, O. galapageia, O. helleri, O. insularis, O. saxicola and these species are divided into 14 different varieties, most of these are confined to one or a few islands. For this reason, they have described as an excellent example of adaptive radiation. On the whole, islands with tall, trunked varieties have giant tortoises, Prickly pears are a prime source of food for the common giant tortoises in the Galápagos islands so they are important in the food web. Charles Darwin was the first to note that these cacti have thigmotactic anthers and this movement can be seen by gently poking the anthers of an open Opuntia flower. The same trait has evolved convergently in other cacti, now recognized to belong to the distinct genus Cylindropuntia, are distinguished by having cylindrical, rather than flattened, stem segments with large barbed spines.
The barbed spines can remain embedded in the skin, causing discomfort, opuntias and related plants are sometimes called opuntiads. When Carl Linnaeus published Species Plantarum in 1753 – the starting point for botanical nomenclature – he placed all the species of cactus known to him in one genus, Cactus. In 1754, the Scottish botanist Philip Miller divided cacti into several genera and he distinguished the genus largely on the form of its flowers and fruits. Also, not all species listed here may actually belong in this genus, – quipá Opuntia insularis Opuntia invicta syn. O. leptocarpa MacKensen, O. tenuispina Engelm
Santa Cruz River (Arizona)
The Santa Cruz River is a river in southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. It is approximately 184 miles long, between Nogales and Tucson the river valley is flanked by the San Cayetano and Santa Rita Mountains on the east and the Atascosa and Sierrita Mountains on the west. Most of the Santa Cruz River is usually a dry riverbed and this was not always the case, as it was a combination of human errors and natural catastrophes in the late nineteenth century that led to the decline of the Santa Cruz. The city of Nogales, has been releasing treated sewage into the Santa Cruz River and this has resulted in the revival of several miles of riverbank within and north of the city of Nogales, Arizona. The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail parallels much of the Santa Cruz, in Marana, there are approximately ten paved miles of multi-use recreational path along the Santa Cruz, located on Tangerine Road and through the Gladden Farms community park
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus Latin, Societas Iesu, S. J. SJ or SI) is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in Spain. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents, Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice, Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ, ignatiuss plan of the orders organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the Formula of the Institute. Ignatius was a nobleman who had a background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world. The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council, the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General.
The Society of Jesus on October 3,2016 announced that Superior General Adolfo Nicolás resignation was officially accepted, on October 14, the 36th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus elected Father Arturo Sosa as its thirty-first Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome, the historic curia of St. Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit Pope, the Jesuits today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. As of 1 January 2015, Jesuits numbered 16,740,11,986 clerics regular,2,733 scholastics,1,268 brothers and 753 novices. In 2012, Mark Raper S. J. wrote, Our numbers have been in decline for the last 40 years—from over 30,000 in the 1960s to fewer than 18,000 today. The steep declines in Europe and North America and consistent decline in Latin America have not been offset by the significant increase in South Asia, the Society is divided into 83 Provinces with six Independent Regions and ten Dependent Regions.
On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and their average age was 57.3 years,63.4 years for priests,29.9 years for scholastics, and 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa, the Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines. In the United States it maintains 28 colleges and universities and 58 high schools and he ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life and apostolate of the new religious order, the meeting is now commemorated in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, Montmartre
A cavalcade is a procession or parade on horseback, or a mass trail ride by a company of riders. The focus of a cavalcade is participation rather than display, the participants do not wear costumes or ride in formation. Often, a cavalcade re-enacts an important historical event and follows a long distance trail, a cavalcade may be a pilgrimage. Many cavalcades involve ceremonial entries into and departures from towns and villages along the way, a small version of such a ceremonial entry is the grand entry that is traditional in many rodeos. Long-distance cavalcades may acquire more riders who join from populated places along its route, the term cavalcade comes from the classical Latin word caballus, used to describe a strong work horse. This developed into the word caballicare, to ride horseback, which in Italian became cavalcare, in Spanish the term for cavalcade is cabalgata. In New Mexico, Philmont Scout Ranch includes a week-long cavalcade among its programs, the annual pilgrimage to El Santuario de Chimayó includes a cavalcade of classic cars on Good Friday.
Traditionally, the pilgrimage had been made on foot, today, in addition to traveling by car and foot, a few pilgrims ride horses. Columbus, New Mexico is the end point of the annual Cabalgata Binacional Villista, a 110-mile cavalcade is held annually on the Chisholm Trail from Cuero to San Antonio in conjunction with the San Antonio Livestock Show and Rodeo. In Sonora, cavalcades are regular events in March and October. S. The cavalcade was called Remontando El Río Sahuaripa 2007, and the route covered 61 kilometers, the cowboys and horses were fed and supplied by an elaborate Chuck Wagon system. That cavalcade is the end stage of the 500 km Cabalgando por Sonora from the Río Sonora to the Sierra Alta. In Chihuahua, two separate cavalcades commemorate the history of the Mexican Revolution and Francisco Villa, each year in February and March, the Cabalgata Binacional Villista commemorates the 9 March 1916 invasion of the United States by Pancho Villas men. The first cavalcade took place in 1999 and followed the route that Pancho Villa used, coming from the Hacienda de San Jeronimo.
A handful of riders were expected but more than 125 showed up, the Cabalgata passed Namiquipa and Cruces, as during the original 1916 event. In 2008 the 9th cavalcade began on 27 February in Ciudad Madera with more than 200 riders, on 8 March 100 riders continued across the United States–Mexico border 3 miles to the Pancho Villa State Park and Museum in the village of Columbus, New Mexico. From the border the Villistas were accompanied by 200 American riders, the 8th cavalcade in 2007 was larger, with 500 riders arriving in Puerto Palomas de Villa. The cavalcade in 2010 was the event of the centennial celebrations Tres Siglos
History of Mexico
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century and this era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became the Spanish capital Mexico City, from 1521, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire incorporated the region into the Spanish Empire, with New Spain its colonial era name and Mexico City the center of colonial rule. It was built on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, during the colonial era, Mexicos long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking, after a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba.
A brief period of monarchy, called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, legal racial categories were eliminated, abolishing the system of castas. Slavery was not abolished at independence in 1821 or with the constitution in 1824, Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The Age of Santa Anna is the period of the late 1820s to the early 1850s that was dominated by criollo military-man-turned-president Antonio López de Santa Anna. In 1846, the Mexican–American War was provoked by the United States, even though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office. The Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, the Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The US was engaged in its own Civil War, so did not attempt to block the foreign intervention, abraham Lincoln consistently supported the Mexican liberals.
At the end of the war in the US and the triumph of the Union forces. France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867 and his monarchist rule collapsed in 1867, with the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period often called the Restored Republic brought back Benito Juárez as president. Following his death from an attack, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada succeed him. He was overthrown by liberal military man Porfirio Diaz, who after consolidating power ushered in a period of stability, the half-century of economic stagnation and political chaos following independence ended. The Porfiriate is the era when army hero Porfirio Díaz held power as president of Mexico almost continuously from 1876-1911 and he promoted order and progress that saw the modernization of the economy and the flow of foreign investment to the country. The period is called the Porfiriato, which ended with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Under Díaz, Mexicos industry and infrastructure were modernized by a strong, increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, mining, foreign trade, and national finances
Demolition is the tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures. Demolition contrasts with deconstruction, which taking a building apart while carefully preserving valuable elements for re-use purposes. For small buildings, such as houses, that are two or three stories high, demolition is a rather simple process. The building is pulled down either manually or mechanically using large hydraulic equipment, elevated platforms, cranes. Larger buildings may require the use of a ball, a heavy weight on a cable that is swung by a crane into the side of the buildings. Wrecking balls are especially effective against masonry, but are easily controlled. Newer methods may use rotational hydraulic shears and silenced rock-breakers attached to excavators to cut or break through wood, the use of shears is especially common when flame cutting would be dangerous. The tallest planned demolition of a building was the 47-story Singer Building in New York City, the typical razing of a building is accomplished as follows, Hydraulic excavators may be used to topple one- or two-story buildings by an undermining process.
The strategy is to undermine the building while controlling the manner, the demolition project manager/supervisor will determine where undermining is necessary so that a building is pulled in the desired manner and direction. The walls are typically undermined at a base, but this is not always the case if the building design dictates otherwise. Safety and cleanup considerations are taken into account in determining how the building is undermined. In some cases a crane with a ball is used to demolish the structure down to a certain manageable height. At that point undermining takes place as described above, however crane mounted demolition balls are rarely used within demolition due to the uncontrollable nature of the swinging ball and the safety implications associated. High reach demolition excavators are often used for tall buildings where explosive demolition is not appropriate or possible. Excavators with shear attachments are used to dismantle steel structural elements. Hydraulic hammers are used for concrete structures and concrete processing attachments are used to crush concrete to a manageable size.
To control dust, fire hoses are used to maintain a wet demolition, hoses may be held by workers, secured in fixed location, or attached to lifts to gain elevation. Loaders or bulldozers may be used to demolish a building and they are typically equipped with rakes that are used to ram building walls
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from the Pope in 1209. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, the austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans traveled and preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties, Saint Clare, under Franciss guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans. The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in final revision of the Rule in 1223, the degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the Observant branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the Capuchins and Conventuals.
The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases, Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, the name of original order, Friars Minor, means lesser brothers, and stems from Francis of Assisis rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully. Francis adopted of the tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order. Those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First Order The First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are commonly called simply the Franciscans and this Order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi.
Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum, St. Francis thus referred to his followers as Fraticelli, meaning Little Brothers. Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor, known as the Observants, most commonly simply called Franciscan friars, official name, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or simply Capuchins, official name, Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name, Friars Minor Conventual, Second Order The Second Order, most commonly called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters. The order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as The Poor Ladies, The Poor Enclosed Nuns
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid. It is used as coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually means a coating for the outside of a building, and plaster one for interiors, as described below, but other European languages, importantly including Italian, do not have the same distinction, stucco means plaster in Italian and serves for both. This has led to English often using stucco for interior decorative plasterwork in relief, especially in art history, the difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition. Animal or plant fibers were often added for additional strength, in the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster, traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water, lime is added to increase the permeability and workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the properties of the stucco. This is usually done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, lime stucco is a relatively hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty. The lime itself is white, color comes from the aggregate or any added pigments. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is very hard and brittle and can easily crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, typically its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Todays stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
As a building material, stucco is a durable, attractive and it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick or stone surface. The finish coat usually contained a color and was typically textured for appearance. The lath added support for the wet plaster and tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco, while the increased thickness, the traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat