San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
Providence Mountains State Recreation Area
The Providence Mountains State Recreation Area is located in the Providence Mountains, within the Mojave National Preserve in San Bernardino County, California. It is home to the Mitchell Caverns Natural Preserve; the Recreation Area is located on the east side of the Providence Mountains range and has dramatic views of the surrounding Mojave Desert. On approaching the Providence Mountains State Recreation Area one can see layers of tilted grey rock that are ancient limestone formed during the Paleozoic period; the base elevation of the park is 4,300 feet with the Providence Mountains reaching to 6608 feet. Vegetation on the lower parts of the mountains is xeric shrublands scrub habitat, composed of Creosote bush, California Barrel Cactus, Joshua trees, Mojave yucca; the habitat shifts with elevations above 4000 feet to a sky island where numerous animals and plants flourish in the added moisture caught by the mountains. The plant habitat includes forests of Single-leaf Pinyon and California Juniper, remnant chaparral and woodlands with Oaks and Manzanita in these higher parts of the mountains.
Mitchell Caverns is home to two endemic species of insects found nowhere else. The Providence Mountains State Recreation Area is located at the north-western end of Essex Road, off of Interstate 40; the visitor center is located in a historic 1934 stone dwelling. There is camping. Providence Mountain Recreation Area was one of the 48 California State Parks proposed for closure in January 2008 by California's Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger as part of a deficit reduction program; as of fall 2016, the Recreation Area, including Mitchell Caverns, remains closed. Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and Mitchell Caverns reopened on November 3, 2017, after being closed for nearly seven years due to major infrastructure upgrades. Mitchell Caverns Natural Preserve Mojave National Preserve Official Providence Mountains State Recreation Area website
World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument
The World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument was a U. S. National Monument honoring events and sites of the Pacific Theater engagement of the United States during World War II; the John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act, signed into law March 12, 2019, abolished the National Monument, replacing it with Pearl Harbor National Memorial, Aleutian Islands World War II National Monument, Tule Lake National Monument; the national monument included 9 sites in 3 states, totaling 6,310 acres: Hawaii – sites administered by the National Park Service At Pearl Harbor on Oahu in Hawaii. USS Arizona Memorial and Visitor Center USS Utah Memorial USS Oklahoma Memorial Six Chief Petty Officer Bungalows on Ford Island Mooring Quays F6, F7, F8, which formed part of Battleship Row Alaska – sites administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service as park of Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Battle of Attu battlefield remnants on Attu Island, Aleutian Islands Japanese occupation of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands Atka B-24D Liberator crash site on Atka Island, Aleutian Islands California – site jointly administered by both NPS and FWS Tule Lake Unit, World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, in Modoc County, northeastern California.
The monument was administered by the National Park Service and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; the actual shipwrecks of the Arizona and Oklahoma were not parts of the monument and remained under the jurisdiction of the US Navy. The monument was created on December 5, 2008, through an executive order issued by President George W. Bush under the authority of the Antiquities Act of 1906; the proclamation date was selected in anticipation of the 67th anniversary of the Attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 2008. This was the first proclamation of a national monument in Alaska since passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Proclamation 8327 of December 5, 2008, Establishment of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, 73 FR 75293. National Park Service−NPS.gov: Official World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, Hawaii Unit websiteNPS.gov: World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, Tule Lake Unit U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service − Foundation Statement–Alaska Unit, World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument NPS.gov: Aleutian World War II
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms and eggs. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale, it is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous. Calcium carbonate shares the typical properties of other carbonates. Notably it reacts with acids, releasing carbon dioxide:CaCO3 + 2 H+ → Ca2+ + CO2 + H2Oreleases carbon dioxide upon heating, called a thermal decomposition reaction, or calcination, to form calcium oxide called quicklime, with reaction enthalpy 178 kJ/mol:CaCO3 → CaO + CO2Calcium carbonate will react with water, saturated with carbon dioxide to form the soluble calcium bicarbonate. CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca2This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rock, forming caverns, leads to hard water in many regions.
An unusual form of calcium carbonate is the hexahydrate, ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O. Ikaite is stable only below 8 °C; the vast majority of calcium carbonate used in industry is extracted by quarrying. Pure calcium carbonate, can be produced from a pure quarried source. Alternatively, calcium carbonate is prepared from calcium oxide. Water is added to give calcium hydroxide carbon dioxide is passed through this solution to precipitate the desired calcium carbonate, referred to in the industry as precipitated calcium carbonate: CaO + H2O → Ca2 Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3↓ + H2O The thermodynamically stable form of CaCO3 under normal conditions is hexagonal β-CaCO3. Other forms can be prepared, the denser orthorhombic λ-CaCO3 and μ-CaCO3, occurring as the mineral vaterite; the aragonite form can be prepared by precipitation at temperatures above 85 °C, the vaterite form can be prepared by precipitation at 60 °C. Calcite contains calcium atoms coordinated by six oxygen atoms, in aragonite they are coordinated by nine oxygen atoms.
The vaterite structure is not understood. Magnesium carbonate has the calcite structure, whereas strontium carbonate and barium carbonate adopt the aragonite structure, reflecting their larger ionic radii. Calcite and vaterite are pure calcium carbonate minerals. Industrially important source rocks which are predominantly calcium carbonate include limestone, chalk and travertine. Eggshells, snail shells and most seashells are predominantly calcium carbonate and can be used as industrial sources of that chemical. Oyster shells have enjoyed recent recognition as a source of dietary calcium, but are a practical industrial source. Dark green vegetables such as broccoli and kale contain dietarily significant amounts of calcium carbonate, they are not practical as an industrial source. Beyond Earth, strong evidence suggests the presence of calcium carbonate on Mars. Signs of calcium carbonate have been detected at more than one location; this provides some evidence for the past presence of liquid water.
Carbonate, is found in geologic settings and constitutes an enormous carbon reservoir. Calcium carbonate occurs as aragonite and dolomite as significant constituents of the calcium cycle; the carbonate minerals form the rock types: limestone, marble, travertine and others. In warm, clear tropical waters corals are more abundant than towards the poles where the waters are cold. Calcium carbonate contributors, including plankton, coralline algae, brachiopods, echinoderms and mollusks, are found in shallow water environments where sunlight and filterable food are more abundant. Cold-water carbonates do exist at higher latitudes but have a slow growth rate; the calcification processes are changed by ocean acidification. Where the oceanic crust is subducted under a continental plate sediments will be carried down to warmer zones in the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Under these conditions calcium carbonate decomposes to produce carbon dioxide which, along with other gases, give rise to explosive volcanic eruptions.
The carbonate compensation depth is the point in the ocean where the rate of precipitation of calcium carbonate is balanced by the rate of dissolution due to the conditions present. Deep in the ocean, the temperature pressure increases. Calcium carbonate is unusual in. Increasing pressure increases the solubility of calcium carbonate; the carbonate compensation depth can range from 4,000 to 6,000 meters below sea level. Calcium carbonate can preserve fossils through permineralization. Most of the vertebrate fossils of the Two Medicine Formation—a geologic formation known for its duck-billed dinosaur eggs—are preserved by CaCO3 permineralization; this type of preservation conserves high levels of detail down to the microscopic level. However, it leaves specimens vulnerable to weathering when exposed to the surface. Trilobite populations were once thought to have composed the majority of aquatic life during the Cambrian, due to the fact that their calcium carbonate-rich shells were more preserved than those of other species, which had purely chitinous shells.
The main use of calcium ca
Joshua Tree National Park
Joshua Tree National Park is an American national park in southeastern California, east of Los Angeles, near San Bernardino and Palm Springs. The park is named for the Joshua trees native to the Mojave Desert. Declared a national monument in 1936, Joshua Tree was redesignated as a national park in 1994 when the U. S. Congress passed the California Desert Protection Act. Encompassing a total of 790,636 acres —an area larger than the state of Rhode Island—the park includes 429,690 acres of designated wilderness. Straddling the border between San Bernardino County and Riverside County, the park includes parts of two deserts, each an ecosystem whose characteristics are determined by elevation: the higher Mojave Desert and the lower Colorado Desert; the Little San Bernardino Mountains traverse the southwest edge of the park. The earliest known residents of the land in and around what became Joshua Tree National Park were the people of the Pinto Culture, who lived and hunted here between 8000 and 4000 BCE.
Their stone tools and spear points, discovered in the Pinto Basin in the 1930s, suggest that they hunted game and gathered seasonal plants, but little else is known about them. Residents included the Serrano, the Cahuilla, the Chemehuevi peoples. All three lived at times in small villages in or near water the Oasis of Mara in what non-aboriginals called Twentynine Palms, they were hunter-gatherers who subsisted on plant foods supplemented by small game and reptiles while using other plants for making medicines and arrows, other articles of daily life. A fourth group, the Mojaves, used the local resources as they traveled along trails between the Colorado River and the Pacific coast. In the 21st century, small numbers of all four peoples live in the region near the park. In 1772, a group of Spaniards led by Pedro Fages, made the first European sightings of Joshua trees while pursuing native converts to Christianity who had run away from a mission in San Diego. By 1823, the year Mexico achieved independence from Spain, a Mexican expedition from Los Angeles, in what was Alta California, is thought to have explored as far east as the Eagle Mountains in what became the park.
Three years Jedediah Smith led a group of American fur trappers and explorers along the nearby Mojave Trail, others soon followed. Two decades after that, the United States defeated Mexico in the Mexican–American War and took over about half of Mexico's original territory, including California and the future parkland. In 1870, white settlers began grazing cattle on the tall grasses. In 1888, a gang of cattle rustlers moved into the region near the Oasis of Mara. Led by brothers James. B. and William S. McHaney, they hid stolen cattle in a box canyon at Cow Camp. Throughout the region, ranchers dug wells and built rainwater catchments called "tanks", such as White Tank and Barker Dam. In 1900, C. O. Barker, a miner and cattleman, built the original Barker Dam improved by William "Bill" Keys, a rancher. Grazing continued in the park through 1945. Barker Dam was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. Between the 1860s and the 1940s, miners worked about 300 pit mines small, in what became the park.
The most successful, the Lost Horse Mine, produced gold and silver worth about $5 million in today's currency. Johnny Lang and others, the original owners of the Lost Horse Mine, installed a two-stamp mill to process ore at the site, the next owner, J. D. Ryan, replaced it with a 10-stamp steam-powered mill. Ryan pumped water from his ranch to the mill and cut timber from the nearby hills to heat water to make steam. Most of the structures associated with the mine fell apart, for safety reasons the National Park Service plugged the mine, which had collapsed; the Desert Queen Mine on Keys' Desert Queen Ranch was another productive gold mine. In the early 1930s, Keys bought a gasoline-powered two-stamp mill, the Wall Street Mill, moved it to his ranch to process ore; the ranch and mill were added to the NRHP in 1975 and the mine in 1976. Some of the mines in the park yielded copper and iron. On August 10, 1936, after Minerva Hoyt and others persuaded the state and federal governments to protect the area, president Franklin D. Roosevelt used the power of the 1906 Antiquities Act to establish Joshua Tree National Monument, protecting about 825,000 acres.
In 1950, the size of the park was reduced by about 290,000 acres to open the land to more mining. The monument was redesignated as a national park on October 31, 1994, by the Desert Protection Act, which added 234,000 acres. In 2019, the park expanded by 4,518 acres under a bill included in the John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation and Recreation Act; the higher and cooler Mojave Desert is the special habitat of Yucca brevifolia, the Joshua tree for which the park is named. It occurs in patterns from dense forests to distantly spaced specimens. In addition to Joshua tree forests, the western part of the park includes some of the most interesting geologic displays found in California's deserts; the dominant geologic features of this landscape are hills of bare rock broken up into loose boulders. These hills are popular among rock scrambling enthusiasts; the flatland between these hills is sparsely forested with Joshua trees. Together with the boulder piles and Skull Rock, the trees make the landscape otherworldly.
Temperatures are most comfortable
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun