A Mithraeum, sometimes spelled Mithreum, is a Mithraic temple, erected in classical antiquity by the worshippers of Mithras. Most Mithraea can be dated between 100 B. C. and A. D. 300 in the Roman Empire. The Mithraeum was either an adapted natural cave or cavern; when possible, the Mithraeum was constructed within or below an existing building, such as the Mithraeum found beneath Basilica of San Clemente in Rome. While a majority of Mithraea are underground, some feature open holes in the ceiling to allow some light in to relate to the connection of the universe and the passing of time; the site of a Mithraeum may be identified by its singular entrance or vestibule, which stands opposite from an apse-shaped wall in which a pedestal altar at the back stood in a recess, its "cave", called the Spelaeum or Spelunca, with raised benches along the side walls for the ritual meal. Many mithraea that follow this basic plan are scattered over much of the Roman Empire's former territory where the legions were stationed along the frontiers.
Others may be recognized by their characteristic layout though converted as crypts beneath Christian churches. From the structure of the Mithraea it is possible to surmise that worshippers would have gathered for a common meal along the reclining couches lining the walls; the ubiquity of the Mithraeums’ distinctive banqueting benches implies the ubiquity of the cult meal as the liturgie ordinaire. The Mithraeum functioned as an area for initiation, in which the soul descends and exits; the Mithraeum itself was arranged as an "image of the universe". It is noticed by some researchers that this movement in the context of mithraic iconography, seems to stem from the neoplatonic concept that the "running" of the sun from solstice to solstice is a parallel for the movement of the soul through the universe, from pre-existence, into the body, beyond the physical body into an afterlife; the Persians call the place a cave where they introduce an initiate to the Mysteries, revealing to him the path by which souls descend and go back again.
For Eubulus tells us that Zoroaster was the first to dedicate a natural cave in honour of Mithras, the creator and father of all… this cave bore for him the image of the cosmos which Mithras had created, the things which the cave contained, by their proportionate arrangement, provided him with symbols of the elements and climates of the cosmos Belgium Tienen MithraeumBosnia Jajce KonjicFrance Angers Biesheim Mackwiller Mariana Sarrebourg Strasbourg Germany Cologne Dieburg/Darmstadt Frankfurt-Heddernheim Freiburg im Breisgau, mithraeum relics from Riegel displayed in Freiburg museum Gimmeldingen, Mithras-Heiligtum Gimmeldingen Sehenswertes Güglingen Hanau Heidelberg, Kurpfälzisches Museum Königsbrunn Mainz, Consecration Altars of the Mithraeum Mogontiacum Neuss Osterburken Riegel am Kaiserstuhl Saalburg Saarbrücken Schwarzerden WieslochHungary Aquincum Mithraeum. Remains open within Aquincum Archaeological Park. Savaria Mithraeum Fertorakos MithraeumIsrael Caesarea Maritima Possibly in Jerusalem, Via Dolorosa, near the Second Station, where two vases with specific iconography were excavatedItaly In the city of Rome: Mithraeum of the Circus Maximus.
Remains open by appointment. Barberini Mithraeum. Remains open by appointment. Mithraeum of San Clemente, under the basilica of San Clemente. Remains visible in archaeological museum. Mithraeum of the Baths of Caracalla. Remains open by appointment. Castra Peregrinorum mithraeum, under the church of Santo Stefano Rotondo. Remains open by appointment. Mithraeum under the Santa Prisca basilica. Remains open by appointment. Mithraeum of the Seven Spheres, in Ostia Antica In Campania: Mithraeum of Santa Maria Capua Vetere Mithraeum of NaplesRomania A reconstructed Mithraeum in the Brukenthal Museum's Lapidarium, with some of the items unearthed at Apulum. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa. Spain Roman Ville of Fuente Álamo's Mithraeum. Archaeological site at Emerita Augusta. Switzerland Martigny - a reconstructed Mithraeum Syria Duro-Europos - Transported to and rebuilt at Yale University's Gallery of Fine Arts. United Kingdom Caernarfon Mithraeum, Wales. Carrawburgh, Hadrian's Wall, England. Remains open. London Mithraeum, England.
Remains open. Rudchester Mithraeum, England. List of mithraea from Mithraeum.eu Capua's Mithraeum
Andrew O'Connor was an American-Irish sculptor whose work is represented in museums in America, Ireland and France. O'Connor was born in Worcester and died in Dublin, Ireland. For a time he was in the London studio of the painter, John Singer Sargent, worked for the architects, McKim and White in America and with the sculptor Daniel Chester French. Settling in Paris in the early years of the 20th century, he exhibited annually at the Paris Salon. In 1906 he was the first foreign sculptor to win the Second Class medal for his statue of General Henry Ware Lawton, now in Garfield Park in Indianapolis. In 1928 he achieved a similar distinction by being awarded the Gold Medal for his Tristan and Iseult, a marble group now in the Brooklyn Museum. A number of his plaster casts are in the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery and there are works in Tate Britain, the Walters Art Museum, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Musée d'Art Moderne, Paris. O'Connor was involved in a minor controversy in 1909 when he was commissioned to design a statue for Commodore John Barry, of the American Revolutionary-era navy.
O'Connor's first design was heatedly attacked by Irish-American groups. He submitted a second version, but it too was rejected, the sculptor John J. Boyle received the commission. Vanderbilt Memorial Doors, St Bartholomew's Church, New York City, 1901–03 General Henry Ware Lawton, Garfield Park, Indiana, 1906 Lew Wallace, National Statuary Hall Collection, U. S. Capitol, Washington, D. C. 1910 Governor John Albert Johnson, Minnesota State Capitol, St. Paul, 1912 1898 Soldier, Spanish–American War Memorial, Wheaton Square, Massachusetts, 1917; the model for O'Connor's statue was Vincent Schofield Wickham. Abraham Lincoln, Illinois State Capitol, Springfield, 1918 The Victims, Merrion Square, Ireland, c. 1923. Intended for a World War I Memorial in Washington, D. C. it depicts a standing mother mourning a dead soldier. A copy of Kneeling Wife is at the Tate Britain. Lafayette Monument, Mount Vernon Place, Maryland, 1924 Christ the King, Dún Laoghaire, Ireland, 1926 Tristan and Iseult, Brooklyn Museum, New York City, 1928 Bust of Abraham Lincoln, Royal Exchange, United Kingdom, 1930 Seated Abraham Lincoln, Fort Lincoln Cemetery, Maryland, 1931.
The statue was commissioned for the Rhode Island Statehouse, but the project was abandoned during the Depression
Francisca MAX Okeke is a Nigerian physicist. She is and Professor of Physics at the University of Nigeria and first female head of a department in the University, she was the First female Dean, Faculty of Physical Sciences, UNN, 2008-2010. She has been advocating for inclusion of more women in the department, which has led to the hiring of three new female faculty members. In addition, she encourages women to participate in science and technology. Fransicsa Nneka Okeke was the Dean faculty of Physical Sciences University of Nigeria, Nsukka from 2008 to 2010. In 2011, she was elected as fellow of the Nigerian Academy of Science, the apex scientific organization in Nigeria, she was inducted into the academy alongside Abba Gumel, a Professor of Mathematical biology and fellow of the African Academy of Sciences. She hails from Idemili North in Anambra State. Okeke has dedicated much of her career to studying the ionosphere and the “equatorial electrojet phenomenon.” Energized by the sun, the electrojet is a river of electric current that traverses the globe eastward around the dip equator and causes the magnetic field at the dip equator to vary fives time more than anywhere else on the planet.
Okeke's research on how solar activity in the ionosphere affects the Earth's magnetic field could lead to a better understanding of climate change and help pinpoint sources of dramatic phenomena like tsunamis and earthquakes. She has supervised 12 Ph. D. and about 28 M. Sc students, she was named L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Awards Laureate for Africa in 2013 for her significant contributions to the understanding of daily variations of the ion currents in the upper atmosphere which may further our understanding of climate change. At age 18 Francisca married the renowned physicist P. N. Okeke; the couple have six children • Fellow, Nigerian Academy of Science, FAS • Fellow, Japanese Society for Promotion of Science, FJSPS • Fellow, Nigeria Institute of Physics, FNIP. • Member, Governing Council of ANSTI. • Member of Jury: Regional Fellowship for women in science in sub Saharan Africa. • ASEG Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists • AAWS African Association of Women Society • OWSD Organization of Women in Science for the Developing world • AGU American Geophysical Union • NIP Nigerian Institute of Physics • SAN Science Association of Nigeria.
• IAU International Astronomical Union • Board member, INWES, International Women in Engineering and Science. Member, WIP, Women in Physics ● SGEPSSA Society of Geomagnetism and Earth and Space Sciences ● ANSTI African Network for Science and Technological Institution, Governing Council Member