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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate. Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell. Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced; this sequencing revealed that the human mtDNA encodes 13 proteins. Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology, it permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, so has become important in anthropology and biogeography. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells; this theory is called the endosymbiotic theory. In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution.

The reasons why mitochondria have retained some genes are debated. The existence in some species of mitochondrion-derived organelles lacking a genome suggests that complete gene loss is possible, transferring mitochondrial genes to the nucleus has several advantages; the difficulty of targeting remotely-produced hydrophobic protein products to the mitochondrion is one hypothesis for why some genes are retained in mtDNA. Recent analysis of a wide range of mtDNA genomes suggests that both these features may dictate mitochondrial gene retention. There are six main genome types found in mitochondrial genomes, classified by their structure, presence of introns or plasmid like structures, whether the genetic material is a singular molecule or collection of homogeneous or heterogeneous molecules. In many unicellular organisms, in rare cases in multicellular organisms, the mtDNA is found as linearly organized DNA. Most of these linear mtDNAs possess telomerase-independent telomeres with different modes of replication, which have made them interesting objects of research because many of these unicellular organisms with linear mtDNA are known pathogens.

There is only one mitochondrial genome type found in animal cells. This genome contains one circular molecule with between 11–28 kbp of genetic material. In February 2020, a jellyfish-like parasite was discovered that doesn't have a mitochondrial genome - the first multicellular organism known to have this absence, it doesn't breathe. There are three different genome types found in fungi; the first type is a circular genome that may range from 19 to 1000 kbp in length. The second genome type is a circular genome that has a plasmid-like structure; the final genome type that can be found in plant and fungi is a linear genome made up of homogeneous DNA molecules. Great variation in mtDNA gene content and size exists among fungi and plants, although there appears to be a core subset of genes that are present in all eukaryotes; some plant species have enormous mitochondrial genomes, with Silene conica mtDNA containing as many as 11,300,000 base pairs. Those huge mtDNAs contain the same number and kinds of genes as related plants with much smaller mtDNAs.

The genome of the mitochondrion of the cucumber consists of three circular chromosomes, which are or autonomous with regard to their replication. Protists contain the most diverse mitochondrial genomes, with five different types found in this kingdom. Type 2, type 3 and type 5 mentioned in the plant and fungal genomes exist in some protists, as do two unique genome types. One of these unique types is a heterogeneous collection of circular DNA molecules while the other is a heterogeneous collection of linear molecules. Genome types 6 each range from 1 -- 200 kbp in size; the smallest mitochondrial genome sequenced to date is the 5,967 bp mtDNA of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Endosymbiotic gene transfer, the process by which genes that were coded in the mitochondrial genome are transferred to the cell's main genome explains why more complex organisms such as humans have smaller mitochondrial genomes than simpler organisms such as protists. Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by the DNA polymerase gamma complex, composed of a 140 kDa catalytic DNA polymerase encoded by the POLG gene and two 55 kDa accessory subunits encoded by the POLG2 gene.

The replisome machinery is formed by DNA TWINKLE and mitochondrial SSB proteins. TWINKLE is a helicase. All these polypeptides are encoded in the nuclear genome. During embryogenesis, replication of mtDNA is down-regulated from the fertilized oocyte through the preimplantation embryo; the resulting reduction in per-cell copy number of mtDNA plays

Leicester City F.C.

Leicester City Football Club is an English professional football club based in Leicester in the East Midlands. The club competes in the Premier League, England's top division of football, plays its home games at the King Power Stadium; the club was founded in 1884 as Leicester Fosse F. C. playing on a field near Fosse Road. They moved to Filbert Street in 1891, were elected to the Football League in 1894 and adopted the name Leicester City in 1919, they moved to the nearby Walkers Stadium in 2002, renamed the King Power Stadium in 2011. Leicester won the 2015 -- their first top-level football championship, they are one of only six clubs to have won the Premier League since its inception in 1992. A number of newspapers described Leicester's title win as the greatest sporting shock multiple bookmakers had never paid out at such long odds for any sport; as a result, the team was dubbed "The Unbelievables", a spin-off harking back to Arsenal's undefeated team "The Invincibles". The club's previous highest finish was second place in the top flight, in 1928–29 known as the First Division.

Throughout their history, Leicester have spent all but one season in the top two divisions of English football. They hold a joint-highest seven second-tier titles; the club have been FA Cup finalists four times, won the League Cup three times, competed in four European campaigns. Formed in 1884 by a group of old boys of Wyggeston School as "Leicester Fosse", the club joined The Football Association in 1890. Before moving to Filbert Street in 1891, the club played at five different grounds, including Victoria Park south-east of the city centre and the Belgrave Road Cycle and Cricket Ground; the club joined the Midland League in 1891, were elected to Division Two of the Football League in 1894 after finishing second. Leicester's first Football League game was a 4–3 defeat at Grimsby Town, with a first League win the following week, against Rotherham United at Filbert Street; the same season saw the club's largest win to date, a 13–0 victory over Notts Olympic in an FA Cup qualifying game. In 1907–08 the club finished as Second Division runners-up, gaining promotion to the First Division, the highest level of English football.

However, the club were relegated after a single season which included the club's record defeat, a 12–0 loss against Nottingham Forest. In 1919, when League football resumed after World War I, Leicester Fosse ceased trading due to financial difficulties of which little is known; the club was reformed as "Leicester City Football Club" appropriate as the borough of Leicester had been given city status. Following the name change, the club enjoyed moderate success in the 1920s; however the 1930s saw a downturn in fortunes, with the club relegated in 1934–35 and, after promotion in 1936–37, another relegation in 1938–39 would see them finish the decade in Division Two. City reached the FA Cup final for the first time in their history in 1949, losing 3–1 to Wolverhampton Wanderers; the club, was celebrating a week when a draw on the last day of the season ensured survival in Division Two. Leicester won the Division Two championship in 1954, with the help of Arthur Rowley, one of the club's most prolific strikers.

Although they were relegated from Division One the next season, under Dave Halliday they returned in 1957, with Rowley scoring a club record 44 goals in one season. Leicester remained in Division One until 1969, their longest period in the top flight. Under the management of Matt Gillies and his assistant Bert Johnson, Leicester reached the FA Cup final on another two occasions, but lost in both 1961 and 1963; as they lost to double winners Tottenham Hotspur in 1961, they were England's representatives in the 1961–62 European Cup Winners' Cup. In the 1962–63 season, the club led the First Division during the winter, thanks to a sensational run of form on icy and frozen pitches the club became nicknamed the "Ice Kings" placed fourth, the club's best post-war finish. Gillies guided Leicester to their first piece of silverware in 1964, when Leicester beat Stoke City 4–3 on aggregate to win the League Cup for the first time. Leicester reached the League Cup final the following year, but lost 3–2 on aggregate to Chelsea.

Gillies and Johnson received praise for their version of the "whirl" and the "switch" system, a system, used by the Austrian and Hungarian national teams. After a bad start to the season, Matt Gillies resigned in November 1968, his successor, Frank O'Farrell was unable to prevent relegation, but the club reached the FA Cup final in 1969 for the last time to date, losing to Manchester City 1–0. In 1971, Leicester were promoted back to Division One, won the Charity Shield for the only time. Unusually, due to double winners Arsenal's commitments in European competition, Division Two winners Leicester were invited to play FA Cup runners-up Liverpool, beating them 1–0 thanks to a goal by Steve Whitworth. Jimmy Bloomfield was appointed for the new season, his team remained in the First Division for his tenure. No period since Bloomfield has seen the club remain in the top division for so long. Leicester reached the FA Cup semi-final in 1973–74. Frank McLintock, a noted player for seven years for Leicester in a successful period from the late Fifties to the mid Sixties, succeeded Jimmy Bloomfield in 1977.

City were relegated at the end of the 1977–78 season and McLintock r

Heart Like a Gun

Heart Like a Gun is the third studio album by singer Fiona, released on October 2, 1989 through Atlantic Records. It remained charted for sixteen weeks; the album features singer/bassist Kip Winger and drummer Rod Morgenstein from the band Winger, with Kip dueting with Fiona on "Everything You Do". Fiona – vocals Kip Winger – vocals, bass Brad Gillisguitar Rod Morgenstein – drums Beau Hill – engineering, production Keith Olsen – engineering, production Gordon Fordyce – mixing Mark Segal – engineering Joel Stoner – engineering Jeff DeMorris – engineering George Counnas – engineering Fred Kelly – engineering Matt Freeman – engineering Ted Jensenmastering