The Coast Miwok are an indigenous people, the second largest group of Miwok people. The Coast Miwok inhabited the general area of modern Marin County and southern Sonoma County in Northern California, from the Golden Gate north to Duncans Point and eastward to Sonoma Creek; the Coast Miwok included the Bodega Bay Miwok, from authenticated Miwok villages around Bodega Bay, the Marin Miwok. The Coast Miwok spoke their own Coast Miwok language in the Utian linguistic group, they lived by hunting and gathering, lived in small bands without centralized political authority. In the springtime they would head to the coasts including seaweed. Otherwise their staple foods were acorns—particularly from black and tan oak–nuts and wild game, such as deer and cottontail rabbits and black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, a coastal subspecies of the California mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus; when hunting deer, Miwok hunters traditionally used Brewer's angelica, Angelica breweri to eliminate their own scent.
Miwok did not hunt bears. Yerba buena tea leaf were used medicinally. Tattooing was a traditional practice among Coast Miwok, they burned poison oak for a pigment, their traditional houses, called "kotcha" were constructed with slabs of tule grass or redwood bark in a cone-shaped form. Miwok people are skilled at basketry. A recreated Coast Miwok village called; the Coast Miwok language is no longer natively spoken, but the Bodega dialect is documented in Callaghan. The original Coast Miwok people world view included animism, one form of this took was the Kuksu religion, evident in Central and Northern California; this included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual mourning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world and an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms. Kuksu was shared with other indigenous ethnic groups of Central California, such as their neighbors the Pomo Maidu, Ohlone and northernmost Yokuts; however Kroeber observed less "specialized cosmogony" in the Miwok, which he termed one of the "southern Kuksu-dancing groups", in comparison to the Maidu and other northern California tribes.
Coast Miwok mythology and narratives were similar to those of other natives of Central and Northern California. The Coast Miwok believed in animal and human spirits, saw the animal spirits as their ancestors. Coyote was seen as their creator god. In their case the earth began with land formed out of the Pacific Ocean. In their myths, legends and histories, the Coast Miwok participated in the general cultural pattern of Central California; the authenticated Coast Miwok villages are: On Bodega Bay: Helapattai, Hime-takala, Ho-takala, Tiwut-huya, Tokau. In this vicinity: Awachi, Kennekono. On Tomales Bay: Echa-kolum, Shotommo-wi, Utumia At the present-day City of Petaluma: Etem, Petaluma. In this vicinity: Tuchayelin, Meleya, Tulme, Wotoki. At the present-day City of San Rafael: Awani-wi. At the present-day City of Sonoma: Huchi. In this vicinity: Temblek, Wugilwa. At the present-day City of Cotati: Kotati, Lumen-takala. In this vicinity: Payinecha. At the present-day town of Nicasio: Echa-tamal. At the present-day town of Olema: Olema-loke.
At the present-day City of Sausalito: Liwanelowa. Near the present-day town of Bolinas: Bauli-n Near the present-day town of Freestone: Oye-yomi, Patawa-yomi. Near the present-day town of Ignacio: Ewu, Shotokmo-cha. Near the present-day City of Novato: Chokeche, Olompolli. Near the present-day town of Valley Ford: Ewapalt, Uli-yomi. Near the present-day town of Salmon Creek: Pulya-lakum. Documentation of Miwok peoples dates back as early as 1579 by a priest on a ship under the command of Sir Francis Drake. Other verification of occupancy exists from Spanish and Russian voyagers between 1595 and 1808. Over 1000 prehistoric charmstones and numerous arrowheads have been unearthed at Tolay Lake in Southern Sonoma County - some dating back 4000 years; the lake was thought to be a sacred site and ceremonial gathering and healing place for the Miwok and others in the region. Coast Miwok would camp on the coast and bays at peak fishing seasons. After the Europeans arrived in California, the population declined from diseases introduced by the Europeans.
Beginning in 1783, mission ecclesiastical records show that Coast Miwok individuals began to join Mission San Francisco de Asis, now known as Mission Dolores. They started joining that mission in large numbers in 1803, when the marriages of 49 couples from their Huimen and Guaulen local tribes appeared in the Mission San Francisco Book of Marriages. Local tribes from farther and farther north along the shore of San Pablo Bay moved to Mission San Francisco through the year 1812. In 1814 the Spanish authorities began to split the northern groups—Alagualis, Chocoimes and Petalumas—sending a portion of each group to Mission San Francisco and another portion to Mission San Jose in the southeast portion of the San Francisco Bay Area. By the end of
Ione is a city in Amador County, United States. The population was 7,918 at the 2010 census, up from 7,129 in 2000. Once known as "Bed-Bug" and "Freeze Out," Ione was an important supply center on the main road to the Mother Lode and Southern Mines during the California Gold Rush. Ione is the historical home of an indigenous people of California. In 1840, the future town site became part of the Mexican land grant Rancho Arroyo Seco in Alta California; the town is located in the fertile Ione Valley, believed to have been named by Thomas Brown around 1849 after one of the heroines in Edward Bulwer-Lytton's drama The Last Days of Pompeii, but conflicting legends and sources for the name exist. During the days of the Gold Rush, the miners knew the town by the names of "Bedbug" and "Freezeout." Unlike other communities in Amador County, which were founded on gold mining, Ione was a supply center and rail stop, agricultural hub. The town of Ione continued to prosper after its gold rush founding; the first school was built in 1853.
The historic Methodist Church was organized in 1853 and the structure was completed in 1862. The first flour mill was built in 1855; the first brick building was built by Daniel Stewart, D. Stewart Company Store, in 1855 for his general merchandise store and is still owned and operated by the same family. In March 1865, Camp Jackson was built nearby, garrisoned by Company D, 2nd California Volunteer Cavalry, who stayed for three months until moving on to a new post. At the centennial of 1876, Ione had a population of about 600 which included about 100 Chinese who lived in Ione's Chinatown; the town included one public school, 4 churches, 4 general stores, one meat market, one laundry, one brewery, a restaurant, millinery shop, an art gallery, six saloons, a drug store and barber shop, many other business establishments. The centennial celebrated the completion of the railroad to the town of Ione; the centennial celebration was the beginning of. This annual celebration has been held during the month of May every year since that first Centennial celebration in 1876 and is now held on the second full weekend in May every year.
The first post office opened in 1852. The City of Ione was incorporated as a General Law City in 1953. Ione has historical points of interest. Three are listed as California Historical Landmarks: The Preston School of Industry, known as The Castle, was built between 1890-1894 to serve as a school for juveniles referred by the courts; the Castle is not in use, but the Preston Castle Foundation is working to help restore it. Community Methodist Church of Ione D. Stewart Company Store Dave Brubeck, the famous jazz pianist, was raised in Ione and in 1998 scored a video tour of the castle called "A Castle's Song", sold through KVIE to help fund the restoration efforts. Ione is located at 38°21′10″N 120°55′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, of which 4.8 square miles is land and 0.015 square miles is water. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ione has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Ione had a population of 7,918. The population density was 1,656.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Ione was 5,826 White, 824 African American, 173 Native American, 110 Asian, 21 Pacific Islander, 678 from other races, 286 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,991 persons; the Census reported that 3,746 people lived in households, 12 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 4,160 were institutionalized. There were 1,466 households, out of which 482 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 810 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 159 had a female householder with no husband present, 77 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 84 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 335 households were made up of individuals and 143 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56. There were 1,046 families; the population was spread out with 1,060 people under the age of 18, 648 people aged 18 to 24, 2,880 people aged 25 to 44, 2,550 people aged 45 to 64, 780 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 310.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 366.5 males. There were 1,635 housing units at an average density of 342.1 per square mile, of which 1,466 were occupied, of which 1,026 were owner-occupied, 440 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.2%. 2,574 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,172 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,129 people, 1,081 households, 780 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,502.6 people per square mile. There were 1,155 housing units at an average density of 243.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.90% White, 17.83% Black or African American, 2.30% Native American, 1.68% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 18.12% from
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about 7.5 miles long and 3000–3500 feet deep, surrounded by high granite summits such as Half Dome and El Capitan, densely forested with pines. The valley is drained by the Merced River, a multitude of streams and waterfalls flow into it, including Tenaya, Illilouette and Bridalveil Creeks. Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in North America, is a big attraction in the spring when the water flow is at its peak; the valley is renowned for its natural environment, is regarded as the centerpiece of Yosemite National Park, attracting visitors from around the world. The Valley is the main attraction in the park for the majority of visitors, a bustling hub of activity during tourist season in the summer months. Most visitors pass through the Tunnel View entrance. Visitor facilities are located in the center of the valley. There are both hiking trail loops that stay within the valley and trailheads that lead to higher elevations, all of which afford glimpses of the park's many scenic wonders.
Yosemite Valley is located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 150 miles due east of San Francisco. It stretches for 7.5 miles in a east–west direction, with an average width of about 1 mile. Yosemite Valley represents only one percent of the park area, but this is where most visitors arrive and stay. More than half a dozen creeks tumble from hanging valleys at the top of granite cliffs that can rise 3000–3500 feet above the valley floor, which itself is 4000 ft above sea level; these streams combine into the Merced River, which flows out from the western end of the valley, down the rest of its canyon to the San Joaquin Valley. The flat floor of Yosemite Valley holds both forest and large open meadows, which have views of the surrounding crests and waterfalls. Below is a description of these features, looking first at the walls above, moving west to east as a visitor does when entering the valley visiting the waterfalls and other water features, returning east to west with the flow of water.
The first view of Yosemite Valley many visitors see is the Tunnel View. So many paintings were made from a viewpoint nearby that the National Park Service named that viewpoint Artist Point; the view from the lower end of the Valley contains the great granite monolith El Capitan on the left, Cathedral Rocks on the right with Bridalveil Fall. Just past this spot the Valley widens with the Cathedral Spires the pointed obelisk of Sentinel Rock to the south. Across the Valley on the northern side are the Three Brothers, rising one above the other like gables built on the same angle – the highest crest is Eagle Peak, with the two below known as the Middle and Lower Brothers. To this point the Valley has been curving to the left. Now a grand curve back to the right begins, with Yosemite Falls on the north, followed by the Royal Arches, topped by North Dome. Opposite, to the south, is Glacier Point, 3,200 feet above the Valley floor. At this point the Valley splits in two, one section slanting northeast, with the other curving from south to southeast.
Between them, at the eastern end of the valley, is Half Dome, among the most prominent natural features in the Sierra Nevada. Above and to the northeast of Half Dome is Clouds Rest. Snow melting in the Sierra forms lakes. In the surrounding region, these creeks flow to the edge of the Valley to form cataracts and waterfalls. A fan of creeks and forks of the Merced River take drainage from the Sierra crest and combine at Merced Lake; the Merced flows down to the end of its canyon, where it begins what is called the Giant Staircase. The first drop is Nevada Fall. Below is one of the most picturesque waterfalls in the Valley; the Merced descends rapids to meet Illilouette Creek, which drops from the valley rim to form Illilouette Fall. They combine at the base of the gorges that contain each stream, flow around the Happy Isles to meet Tenaya Creek at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley proper. Tenaya Creek flows southwest from Tenaya Lake and down Tenaya Canyon flowing between Half Dome and North Dome before joining the Merced River.
The following falls tumble from the Valley rim to join it at various points: Yosemite Falls 2,425 feet Upper Yosemite Fall 1,430 feet, the middle cascades 670 feet, Lower Yosemite Fall 320 feet. Snow Creek Falls 2,140 feet Sentinel Falls 1,920 feet Ribbon Fall 1,612 feet Royal Arch Cascade 1,250 feet Lehamite Falls 1,180 feet Staircase Falls 1,020 feet Bridalveil Fall 620 feet. Nevada Fall 594 feet Silver Strand Falls 574 feet Vernal Fall 318 feet The features in Yosemite Valley are made of granitic rock emplaced as plutons miles deep during the late Cretaceous. Over time the Sierra Nevada was uplifted; the oldest of these granitic rocks, at 114 million years, occur along the Merced River Gorge west of the valley. The El Capitan pluton intruded the valley, forming most of the granitic rock that makes up much of the central part of the valley, including Cathedral Rocks, Three Brothers, El Capitan; the youngest Yosemite Valley pluton is the 87-million-year-old Half Dome granodiorite, which makes up most of the rock at
Wilton Rancheria is a federally recognized Native American tribe of Miwok people. They were formed from Wilton Rancheria Miwok and the Me-Wuk Indian Community of the Wilton Rancheria; the Wilton Rancheria has more than 700 enrolled members, 62% of the enrolled population resides in Southern Sacramento County. The rancheria consists of 38.5 acres of land located in the Sacramento Valley, near the city of Elk Grove, CA in the census-designated place of Wilton, California. The tribe is headquartered in California; the tribe has nine elected tribal officials. There are four branches of government, which are the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, Judicial Branch, the General Council; each play an important role in how the Tribe is run and the governing laws and rules are decided. The general council consists of all eligible voters of the Wilton Rancheria Tribe. Meetings of the general council are held annually or whenever one is needed; the current elected officials are as follows: Chair: Raymond Hitchcock Vice-Chair: Cammeron Hodson Tribal Council Spokesperson: Tonya Caldwell Tribal Council Vice Spokesperson: David Andrews Tribal Council Members: Mark Andrews, Jesus Tarango, Elizabeth Singh, Annette Williams, Joseph Rangel Branches of Government The Wilton Rancheria Tribe has four branches of government, which are the: Executive Branch, Legislative Branch, Judicial Branch, the General Council.
Each of which are responsible for different aspects of the tribe. The Executive Branch is responsible for proposing legislation and annual tribal budget to the Legislative Branch and negotiating and entering into treaties; this branch is headed by the Chairperson and the Vice-Chairperson. The Legislative Branch is responsible for making laws and regulations, authorizing expenditures, promoting social advancement of the tribe as a whole; the members of the tribal council serve in staggered four-year terms. The Judicial Branch acts as the tribe's Tribal Court, responsible for jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases. Though the Tribal Court has not yet been implemented, the framework for its structure has been laid out by the Constitution and the laws of the tribe. There is the General Council which consists of all the eligible voters of Wilton Rancheria; the General Council is able to propose amendments to the Constitution, approving them and removing tribal officials. For many years, ancestors of the Wilton Rancheria Miwok lived along the Cosumnes River until 1958.
The tribal members are descendants of the Plains and Sierra Miwok who lived and prospered in the Sacramento Valley. In their own language, mi-wuk means "people"; the tribe was re-recognized as a federal tribe on June 13, 2009, after being terminated in 1958 under the California Rancheria Act, an Indian termination policy. Between March 1851 and January 1852, three commissioners negotiated eighteen treaties with representatives of some of the indigenous population in California, but were never discussed in Congress and were hidden away for more than 50 years. After termination, the Wilton Rancheria Tribe suffered long-term effects such as a: 62% unemployment rate, median annual income of $2,000, 38% without health insurance, a college graduation rate of 14%. In the 1970s, the Wilton Rancheria's policy of termination was reconsidered by Congress in favor of Indian self-determination; the Tribe reorganized their government in the 90s and requested the US to formally restore their federal recognition.
They didn't receive a decision until 10 years from the US District Court Judge. A Constitution was passed in 2011 for their tribe, which set up the framework for a structural government; the Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 176, Notices 55731, states that the Tribe is designated boundaries of the Service Delivery Area of Sacramento County in the State of California. From here, the Tribe has only been growing and will soon be establishing their Wilton Rancheria Elk Grove Resort and Casino; this will bring them more income as well as an influx of visitors. Yosemite National Park Official website "Youth Make Miwok Pride Video: ‘We Don’t Need a Gang, We Have a Tribe’ "
Plains and Sierra Miwok
The Plains and Sierra Miwok were once the largest group of Native American Miwok people, indigenous to California. Their homeland included regions of the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley, the Sierra Nevada; the Plains and Sierra Miwok traditionally lived in the western Sierra Nevada between the Fresno River and Cosumnes River, in the eastern Central Valley of California, in the northern Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta region at the confluences of the Cosumnes River, Mokelumne River, Sacramento River. In the present day, many Sierra Miwok live in or close to their traditional territories and Indian rancherias, including at: Buena Vista Rancheria Chicken Ranch Rancheria Jackson Rancheria Sheep Ranch Rancheria Shingle Springs Rancheria Tuolumne Rancheria; the Plains and Sierra Miwok lived by hunting and gathering, lived in small local tribes, without centralized political authority. They continue the traditions today; the original Plains and Sierra Miwok people world view included Shamanism.
One form this took was the Kuksu religion, evident in Central and Northern California, which included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual morning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world, an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms. Kuksu was shared with other indigenous ethnic groups of Central California, such as the Pomo, Ohlone and northernmost Yokuts. However, Kroeber observed less "specialized cosmogony" in the Miwok, which he termed one of the "southern Kuksu-dancing groups", in comparison to the Maidu and other northern California tribes; the record of myths, legends and histories from the Plains and Sierra Miwok is one of the most extensive in the state. These groups participate in the general cultural pattern of Central California. Miwok mythology is similar to other natives of Northern California; the Plains and Sierra Miwok believe in animal and human spirits, see the animal spirits as their ancestors.
Coyote is seen as their creator god. There were four definite regional and linguistic sub-divisions: Plains Miwok, Northern Sierra Miwok, Central Sierra Miwok, Southern Sierra Miwok; the Plains Miwok inhabited a portion of the Central Valley's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and adjacent plains in modern southern Sacramento County, eastern Solano County, northern San Joaquin County. They spoke a language of the Miwokan branch of the Utian language family. Classical anthropologists recorded a number of specific Plains Miwok villages, but it remained for work by Bennyhoff in the 1950s and 1960s to recognize multi-village territorial local tribes as the signature land-use organization of the Plains Miwok; the published specific village locations were: On the Cosumnes River: Chuyumkatat, Mayeman, Mokos-unni, Supu, Yomit Near the Cosumnes River: Umucha, Yumhui. By 1815 they represented 14% of the Indian people at that mission, by 1830 they had reached 42% of the mission's population. In 1834 and 1835, hundreds of Plains Miwok survivors of the Central Valley's 1833 malaria epidemic were baptized at Mission San José.
By the end of 1835, Plains Miwok was the native language of 60% of the Indian people at the mission. Between 1834 and 1838 the Alta California missions were secularized. Many Plains Miwoks moved back to their home areas, where between 1839 and 1841 John Sutter played the local groups off against one another in order to gain control of the lower Sacramento Valley. Other Plains Miwok families remained in the San Francisco Bay area, intermarried with Ohlone and Yokuts peoples, found work on local Mexican ranchos; the Northern Miwok inhabited the upper watersheds of the Calaveras River. One settlement site is within the present day Indian Grinding Rock State Historic Park near Volcano, they spoke a language in the Utian linguistic group. The authenticated Northern Sierra Miwok villages are: At present-day San Andreas: Huta-sil At present-day Jackson: Tukupe-su Near present-day Jackson: Pola-su On the Calaveras River Headwaters: Kechenti, Mona-sti Between Calaveras River and Mokelumne Rivers: Apautawilti, Ketina On the Cosumnes River: Noma, Yule On the Mokelumne River.
A sweat lodge is a low profile hut dome-shaped or oblong, made with natural materials. The structure is the lodge, the ceremony performed within the structure may be called a purification ceremony or a sweat. Traditionally the structure is simple, constructed of saplings covered with blankets and sometimes animal skins, it was only used by some of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, notably the Plains Indians, but with the rise of pan-Indianism, numerous nations that did not have the sweat lodge ceremony have adopted it. This has been controversial. In all cases, the sweat is intended as a religious ceremony – it is for prayer and healing, the ceremony is only to be led by elders who know the associated language, songs and safety protocols. Otherwise, the ceremony can be dangerous. Sweat lodges have been imitated by some non-natives in North America and internationally, resulting in responses like the Lakota Declaration of War and similar statements from Indigenous Elders declaring that these imitations are dangerous and disrespectful misappropriations and need to stop.
Native Americans in many regions have sweat lodge ceremonies. For example, Chumash peoples of the central coast of California build sweat lodges in coastal areas in association with habitation sites; the ancient Mesoamerican tribes of Mexico, such as the Aztec and Olmec, practiced a sweat bath ceremony known as temazcal as a religious rite of penance and purification. Traditions associated with sweating vary culturally. Ceremonies include traditional prayers and songs. In some cultures drumming and offerings to the spirit world may be part of the ceremony, or a sweat lodge ceremony may be a part of another, longer ceremony such as a Sun Dance; some common practices and key elements associated with sweat lodges include: Training – Indigenous cultures with sweatlodge traditions require that someone go through intensive training for many years to be allowed to lead a lodge. One of the requirements is that the leader be able to pray and communicate fluently in the indigenous language of that culture, that they understand how to conduct the ceremony safely.
This leadership role is granted by the Elders of the community, not self-designated. This leadership is only entrusted to those who are full members of the community, who live in community, it is never given to outsiders who leave to sell ceremony. Orientation – The door may face a sacred fire; the cardinal directions may have symbolism in the culture, holding the sweating ceremony. The lodge may be oriented within its environment for a specific purpose. Placement and orientation of the lodge within its environment are considered to facilitate the ceremony's connection with the spirit world, as well as practical considerations of usage. Construction – The lodge is built with great care and knowledge, with respect for the environment and for the materials being used. Clothing – In Native American lodges participants wear a simple garment such as shorts or a loose dress. Modesty is important, rather than display. People who are experienced with sweats, attending a ceremony led by a properly trained and authorized traditional Native American ceremonial leader, could experience problems due to underlying health issues.
It is recommended by Lakota spiritual leaders that people only attend lodges with authorized, traditional spiritual leaders. There have been reports of lodge-related deaths resulting from overexposure to heat, smoke inhalation, or improper lodge construction leading to suffocation. If rocks are used, it is important not to use river rocks, or other kinds of rocks with air pockets inside them. Rocks must be dry before heating. Rocks with air pockets or excessive moisture could crack and explode in the fire or when hit by water. Used rocks may absorb humidity or moisture leading to cracks or shattering; the following is a list of reported deaths related to non-traditional "New Age" sweat rituals: Gordon Reynolds, 43 Kirsten Babcock, 34 David Thomas Hawker, 36 Rowen Cooke, 37 Paige Martin, 57 Kirby Brown, 38, of Westtown, NY Lizbeth Neuman, 49, of Prior Lake, MN James Shore, 40, of Milwaukee, WI In October 2009, during a New Age retreat organized by James Arthur Ray, three people died and 21 more became ill while attending an overcrowded and improperly set up sweat lodge containing some 60 people and located near Sedona, Arizona.
Ray was arrested by the Yavapai County Sheriff's Office in connection with the deaths on February 3, 2010, bond was set at $5 million. In response to these deaths, Lakota spiritual leader Arvol Looking Horse issued a statement reading in part: Our First Nations People have to earn the right to pour the mini wic'oni upon the inyan oyate in creating Inikag'a – by going on the vision quest for four years and four years Sundance. You are put through a ceremony to be painted – to recognize that you have now earned that right to take care of someone's life through purification, they should be able to understand our sacred language, to be able to understand the messages from the Grandfathers, because they are ancient, they are our spirit ancestors. They teach the values of our culture. What has happened in the news with the make shift sauna called the sweat lodge is not our ceremonial way of life! On November 2, 2009, the Lakota Nation filed a lawsuit against the United States, Arizona State, James Arthur Ray, Angel Valley Retreat Center site owners, to have Ray and
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U. S. Department of the Interior, it is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives. The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to 48,000 Native Americans; the BIA’s responsibilities included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health and Welfare, it is now known as the Indian Health Service. Located in Washington, D. C. the BIA is headed by a bureau director. The current assistant secretary is Tara Sweeney; the BIA oversees 567 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices: Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian Self-Determination, Indian Reservation Roads Program.
Office of Justice Services: directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS; the office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, Program Management. The OJS provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested, it operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, Law Enforcement. Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands and resources; the Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices. Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.
S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, the U. S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade" within the War Department, charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade; the post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822; the government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade. The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U. S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C.
Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, with an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages and cultures, it emphasized being educated to European-American culture. The bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947. With the rise of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s and increasing demands for enforcement of treaty rights and sovereignty, the 1970s were a turbulent period of BIA history.
The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement worried the U. S. government. As a branch of the U. S. government with personnel on Indian reservations, BIA police were involved in political actions such as: The occupation of BIA headquarters in Washington, D. C. in 1972: On November 3, 1972, a group of around 500 American Indians with the AIM took over the BIA building, the culmination of their Trail of Broken Treaties walk. They intended to bring attention to American Indian issues, including their demands for renewed negotiation of treaties, enforcement of treaty rights and improvement in living standards, they occupied the Department of Interior headquarters from November 3 to November 9, 1972. Feeling the government was ignoring them, the protesters vandalized the building. After a week, the protesters left. Many records were lost, destroyed or stolen, including irreplaceable treati