The Emishi or Ebisu constituted an ethnic group of people who lived in northeastern Honshū in the Tōhoku region, referred to as michi no oku in contemporary sources. The first mention of them in literature dates to AD 400, in which they are mentioned as "the hairy people" from the Chinese records; some Emishi tribes resisted the rule of the Japanese Emperors during the late Nara and early Heian periods. The origin of the Emishi is disputed, they are thought to have descended from some tribes of the Jōmon people. Some historians believe that they were related to the Ainu people, but others disagree with this theory; the Emishi were represented by different tribes, some of whom became allies of the Japanese and others of whom remained hostile. The Emishi in northeastern Honshū relied on their horses in warfare, they developed a unique style of warfare in which horse archery and hit-and-run tactics proved effective against the slower contemporary Japanese imperial army that relied on heavy infantry.
Their livelihood was based on hunting and gathering as well as on the cultivation of grains such as millet and barley. It has been thought that they practiced rice cultivation in areas where rice could be grown; the first major attempts to subjugate the Emishi in the 8th century were unsuccessful. The imperial armies, which were modeled after the mainland Chinese armies, were no match for the guerrilla tactics of the Emishi, it was the development of horse archery and the adoption of Emishi tactics by the early Japanese warriors that led to the Emishi defeat. The success of the gradual change in battle tactics came at the end of the 8th century in the 790s under the command of the general Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, they either submitted themselves to imperial authority as fushu and ifu or migrated further north, some to Hokkaidō. By the mid-9th century, most of their land in Honshū was conquered, they ceased to be independent. However, they continued to be influential in local politics as subjugated, though powerful, Emishi families created semi-autonomous feudal domains in the north.
In the two centuries following the conquest, a few of these domains became regional states that came into conflict with the central government. The record of Emperor Jimmu in the Nihon Shoki mentions the "Emishi" with ateji—whom his armed forces defeated before he was enthroned as the Emperor of Japan. According to Nihon Shoki, Takenouchi no Sukune in the era of Emperor Keikō proposed that they should subjugate Emishi of Hitakami no Kuni in eastern Japan; the first mention of Emishi from a source outside Japan was in the Chinese Book of Song in 478 which referred to them as "hairy people". The book refers to "the 55 kingdoms of the hairy people of the East" as a report by King Bu—one of the Five kings of Wa. Most by the 7th century AD, the Japanese used this kanji to describe these people, but changed the reading from kebito or mōjin to Emishi. Furthermore, during the same century, the kanji character was changed to 蝦夷, composed of the kanji for "shrimp" and for "barbarian"; this is thought to refer to the long whiskers of a shrimp.
The barbarian aspect described an outsider, living beyond the border of the emerging empire of Japan, which saw itself as a civilizing influence. This kanji was first seen in the T'ang sources that describe the meeting with the two Emishi that the Japanese envoy brought with him to China; the kanji character may have been adopted from China, but the reading "Ebisu" and "Emishi" were Japanese in origin and most came from either the Japanese "yumishi" which means bowman or "emushi", sword in the Ainu tongue. Other origins—such as the word enchiu for "man" in the Ainu tongue—have been proposed. However, the way it sounds is phonetically identical to emushi so it may most have had an Ainoid origin. "Ainoid" distinguishes the people who are related to, or who are ancestors of, the Ainu, who first emerge as "Ezo" in Hokkaido in the Kamakura period and become known as Ainu in the modern period. The Nihon Shoki's entry for Emperor Yūryaku known as Ohatsuse no Wakatakeru, records an uprising, after the Emperor's death, of Emishi troops, levied to support an expedition to Korea.
Emperor Yūryaku is suspected to be King Bu, but the date and the existence of Yūryaku are uncertain, the Korean reference may be anachronistic. However, the compilers felt that the reference to Emishi troops was credible in this context. In 658, Abe no Hirafu's naval expedition of 180 ships reaches Watarishima. An alliance with Aguta Emishi, Tsugaru Emishi and Watarishima Emishi was formed by Abe who stormed and defeated a settlement of Mishihase a people of unknown origin; this is one of the earliest reliable records of the Emishi people extant. The Mishihase may have been another ethnic group who competed with the ancestors of the Ainu for Hokkaidō; the expedition happens to be the furthest northern penetration of the Japanese Imperial army until the 16th century, that settlement was from a local Japanese warlord, independent of any central control. In 709, the fort of Ideha was created close to present day Akita; this was a bold move since the intervening territory between Akita and the northwestern countries of Japan was not under government control.
The Emishi of Akita in alliance with Michinoku attacked Japanese settlements in response. Saeki no Iwayu was appointed Sei Echigo Emishi shōgun, he used 100 ships from the Japan sea side countries along with soldi
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is a disabled nuclear power plant located on a 3.5-square-kilometre site in the towns of Ōkuma and Futaba in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The plant suffered major damage from the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, 2011. The chain of events caused radiation leaks and permanently damaged several reactors, making them impossible to restart. By political decision, the remaining reactors were not restarted. First commissioned in 1971, the plant consists of six boiling water reactors; these light water reactors drove electrical generators with a combined power of 4.7 GWe, making Fukushima Daiichi one of the 15 largest nuclear power stations in the world. Fukushima was the first nuclear plant to be designed and run in conjunction with General Electric and Tokyo Electric Power Company; the March 2011 disaster disabled the reactor cooling systems, leading to releases of radioactivity and triggering a 30 km evacuation zone surrounding the plant.
On April 20, 2011, the Japanese authorities declared the 20 km evacuation zone a no-go area which may only be entered under government supervision. In April 2012, Units 1-4 were decommissioned. Units 2-4 were decommissioned on April 19, while Unit 1 was the last of these four units to be decommissioned on April 20 at midnight. In December 2013 TEPCO decided; the sister nuclear plant Fukushima Daini, 12 km to the south, is run by TEPCO. It suffered serious damages during the tsunami at the seawater intakes of all four units, but could be shut down and brought to a safe state through extraordinary actions by the plant crew; the reactors for Units 1, 2, 6 were supplied by General Electric, those for Units 3 and 5 by Toshiba, Unit 4 by Hitachi. All six reactors were designed by General Electric. Architectural design for General Electric's units was done by Ebasco. All construction was done by Kajima. Since September 2010, Unit 3 has been fueled by a small fraction of plutonium containing mixed-oxide fuel, rather than the low enriched uranium used in the other reactors.
Units 1–5 were built with Mark I type containment structures. The Mark I containment structure was increased in volume by Japanese engineers. Unit 6 has a Mark II type containment structure. Unit 1 is a 460 MW boiling water reactor constructed in July 1967, it commenced commercial electrical production on March 26, 1971, was scheduled for shutdown in early 2011. In February 2011, Japanese regulators granted an extension of ten years for the continued operation of the reactor, it was damaged during tsunami. Unit 1 was designed for a peak ground acceleration of 0.18 g and a response spectrum based on the 1952 Kern County earthquake, but rated for 0.498 g. The design basis for Units 3 and 6 were 0.46 g respectively. All units were inspected after the 1978 Miyagi earthquake when the ground acceleration was 0.125 g for 30 seconds, but no damage to the critical parts of the reactor was discovered. The design basis for tsunamis was 5.7 meters. The reactor's emergency diesel generators and DC batteries, crucial components in helping keep the reactors cool in the event of a power loss, were located in the basements of the reactor turbine buildings.
The reactor design plans provided by General Electric specified placing the generators and batteries in that location, but mid-level engineers working on the construction of the plant were concerned that this made the backup power systems vulnerable to flooding. TEPCO elected to follow General Electric's design in the construction of the reactors; the plant is on a bluff, 35 meters above sea level. During construction, however, TEPCO lowered the height of the bluff by 25 meters. One reason for lowering the bluff was to allow the base of the reactors to be constructed on solid bedrock in order to mitigate the threat posed by earthquakes. Another reason was the lowered height. TEPCO's analysis of the tsunami risk when planning the site's construction determined that the lower elevation was safe because the sea wall would provide adequate protection for the maximum tsunami assumed by the design basis. However, the lower site elevation did increase the vulnerability for a tsunami larger than anticipated in design.
The Fukushima Daiichi site is divided into two reactor groups, the leftmost group - when viewing from the ocean - contains units 4, 3, 2 and 1 going from left to right. The rightmost group - when viewing from the ocean - contains the newer units 5 and 6 the positions from left to right. A set of seawalls protrude into the ocean, with the water intake in the middle and water discharge outlets on either side. Units 7 and 8 were planned to start construction in April 2012 and 2013 and to come into operation in October 2016 and 2017 respectively; the project was formally canceled by TEPCO in April 2011 after local authorities questioned the fact that they were still included in the supply plan for 2011, released in March 2011, after the accidents. The company stated; the Fukushima Daiichi plant is connected to the power grid by four lines, the 500 kV Futaba Line, the two 275 kV Ōkuma Lines and the 66 kV Yonomori Line to the Shin-Fukushima substation. The Shin-Fukushima substation connects to the Fukushima Daini plant by the Tomioka Line.
Its major connection to the north is the Iwaki Line, owned by
The Nanbu clan was a Japanese samurai clan who ruled most of northeastern Honshū in the Tōhoku region of Japan for over 700 years, from the Kamakura period through the Meiji Restoration of 1868. The Nanbu claimed descent from the Seiwa Genji of Kai Province and were thus related to the Takeda clan; the clan moved its seat from Kai to Mutsu Province in the early Muromachi period, were confirmed as daimyō of Morioka Domain under the Edo-period Tokugawa shogunate. The domain was in constant conflict with neighboring Hirosaki Domain, whose ruling Tsugaru clan were once Nanbu retainers. During the Boshin War of 1868–69, the Nanbu clan fought on the site of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei, supporting the Tokugawa regime. After Meiji Restoration, the Nanbu clan had much of its land confiscated, in 1871, the heads of its branches were relieved of office. In the Meiji period, the former daimyō became part of the kazoku peerage, with Nanbu Toshiyuki receiving the title of hakushaku; the main Nanbu line survives to the present day.
The Nanbu clan claimed descent from the Seiwa Genji of Kai Province. Minamoto no Yoshimitsu was awarded Kai Province following the Gosannen War, his great-grandson Nobuyoshi took the surname Takeda. Another great grandson, took the name "Nanbu", after the location of his estates in Kai Province, which are now part of the town of Nanbu, Yamanashi. Nanbu Mitsuyuki joined Minamoto no Yoritomo at the Battle of Ishibashiyama and served in various mid-level positions within the Kamakura shogunate and is mentioned several times in the Azuma Kagami, he accompanied Yoritomo in the conquest of the Hiraizumi Fujiwara in 1189, was awarded with vast estates in Nukanobu District the extreme northeast of Honshū, building Shōjujidate Castle in what is now Nanbu, Aomori. The area was dominated by horse ranches, the Nanbu grew powerful and wealthy on the supply of warhorses; these horse ranches were fortified stockades, numbered one through nine, were awarded to the six sons of Nanbu Mitsuyuki, forming the six main branches of the Nanbu clan.
During the Nanboku-chō period following the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, Nanbu Motoyuki accompanied Kitabatake Akiie north when he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North, Shugo of Mutsu Province. Nanbu Motoyuki established Ne Castle, intended to be a center for the imperial government administration in the area; this marked the official transfer of the seat of the Nanbu clan from Kai Province to Mutsu. Nanbu Motoyuki was under allegiance to the Southern Court; the two branches of the clan made peace with each other in 1393. Although the Nanbu clan by the time of the 24th hereditary chieftain Nanbu Harumasa controlled seven districts of northern Mutsu province, the clan was more of a loose collection of competing branches without strong central authority; this weakness was exploited by the Ōura clan, a cadet branch of the Nanbu, who revolted in 1572. Ōura Tamenobu was vice-district magistrate under the Nanbu clan's local magistrate Ishikawa Takanobu. Tamenobu attacked Kitabatake Akimura and took Namioka Castle.
The Ōura clan's fight against the Nanbu clan, beginning with Nanbu Nobunao, would continue in the ensuing two centuries. In 1590, Tamenobu pledged fealty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi; as the Ōura fief had been in the Tsugaru region on the northwestern tip of Honshū, the family changed its name to "Tsugaru". After the death of Nanbu Harumasa in 1582, the clan split into several competing factions. In 1590, the Sannohe faction led by Nanbu Nobunao organized a coalition of most of the Nambu clans and pledged allegiance to Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Siege of Odawara. In return, he was recognized as chieftain of the Nanbu clans, confirmed as daimyō of his existing holdings. However, Kunohe Masazane, who felt that he had a stronger claim to the title of clan chieftain rose in rebellion; the Kunohe Rebellion was swiftly suppressed and Hideyoshi compensated the Nanbu for the loss of Tsugaru with the addition of the districts of Hienuki and Waga as compensation. Nanbu Nobunao relocated his seat from Sannohe Castle to the more central location of Morioka, began work on Morioka Castle and its surrounding castle town in 1592.
The Nanbu clan sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu's Eastern Army during the Battle of Sekigahara. In the wake of Ieyasu's victory, the Nanbu clan was confirmed in its lordship of Morioka Domain; the kokudaka of the domain was 100,000 koku, but in the Edo era, was doubled in amount. The Nanbu clan retained its holdings for the entirety of the Edo period, surviving until the Meiji Restoration. During the Edo period, two new branches of the Nanbu clan were founded, one at Hachinohe, the other one at Shichinohe. In 1821, the old tensions between the Nanbu and Tsugaru flared once more, in the wake of the Sōma Daisaku Incident, a foiled plot by Sōma Daisaku, a former retainer of the Nanbu clan, to assassinate the Tsugaru lord; the Nanbu clan's territories were among those effected by the Tenpō famine of the mid-1830s. As with many other domains of northern Honshū, the Morioka Domain was assigned by the shogunate to policing portions of the frontier region of Ezochi (
The Sengoku period is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China, it was initiated by the Ōnin War, which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under the Ashikaga shogunate, came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu. During this period, although the Emperor of Japan was the ruler of his nation and every lord swore loyalty to him, he was a marginalized and religious figure who delegated power to the shōgun, a noble, equivalent to a generalissimo. In the years preceding this era the Shogunate lost influence and control over the daimyōs. Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura shogunate and instituted a warrior government based on the same social economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232, it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyōs those whose domains were far from the capital, Kyoto.
Many of these Lords began to fight uncontrollably with each other for control over land and influence over the shogunate. As trade with Ming China grew, the economy developed, the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. This, combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, led to the desire for greater local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy; as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the suffering caused by earthquakes and famines served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt and taxes. The Ōnin War, a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over shogunal succession, is regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period; the "eastern" army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the "western" army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city completely destroyed; the conflict in Kyoto spread to outlying provinces. The period culminated with a series of three warlords, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who unified Japan.
After Tokugawa Ieyasu's final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into several centuries of peace under the Tokugawa shogunate. The Ōnin War in 1467 is considered the starting point of the Sengoku period. There are several events which could be considered the end of it: Nobunaga's entry to Kyoto or abolition of the Muromachi shogunate, the Siege of Odawara, the Battle of Sekigahara, the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, or the Siege of Osaka; the upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, throughout Japan regional lords, called daimyōs, rose to fill the vacuum. In the course of this power shift, well-established clans such as the Takeda and the Imagawa, who had ruled under the authority of both the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu, were able to expand their spheres of influence. There were many, whose positions eroded and were usurped by more capable underlings; this phenomenon of social meritocracy, in which capable subordinates rejected the status quo and forcefully overthrew an emancipated aristocracy, became known as gekokujō, which means "low conquers high".
One of the earliest instances of this was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from humble origins and seized power in Izu Province in 1493. Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Late Hōjō clan remained a major power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Other notable examples include the supplanting of the Hosokawa clan by the Miyoshi, the Toki by the Saitō, the Shiba clan by the Oda clan, in turn replaced by its underling, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a son of a peasant with no family name. Well-organized religious groups gained political power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance and rebellion against the rule of the daimyōs; the monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki, the most successful of which, in Kaga Province, remained independent for nearly 100 years. After nearly a century of political instability and warfare, Japan was on the verge of unification by Oda Nobunaga, who had emerged from obscurity in the province of Owari to dominate central Japan, when in 1582 Oda was assassinated by one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide.
This in turn provided Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who had risen through the ranks from ashigaru to become one of Oda's most trusted generals, with the opportunity to establish himself as Oda's successor. Toyotomi consolidated his control over the remaining daimyōs and, although he was ineligible for the title of Sei-i Taishōgun because of his common birth, ruled as Kampaku. During his short reign as Kampaku, Toyotomi attempted two invasions of Korea; the first spanning from 1592 to 1596 was successful but suffered setbacks to end in stalemate. When Toyotomi died in 1598 without leaving a capable successor, the country was once again thrust into political turmoil, this time Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of the opportunity. Toyotomi had on his deathbed appointed a group of the most powerful lords in Japan—Tokugawa, Maeda Toshiie, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, Mōri Terumoto—to govern as the Council of
Echigo Province was an old province in north-central Japan, on the shores of the Sea of Japan. It bordered on Uzen, Iwashiro, Kōzuke and Etchū Provinces, it corresponds the island of Sado. Its abbreviated form name was Esshū, with Etchū Provinces. Under the Engishiki classification system, Echigo was ranked as one of the 35 "superior countries" in terms of importance, one of the 30 "far countries" in terms of distance from the capital. Echigo and Kōzuke Province were known as the Jōetsu region. In the late 7th century, during the reign of Emperor Monmu, the ancient province of Koshi Province was divided into three separate provinces: Echizen, Etchū, Echigo; the new Echigo Province consisted of Iwafune and Nutari Districts, was one of two border provinces of the Yamato state with the Emishi. In 702, Echigo was given the four districts of Kubiki, Koshi and Kanbara from Etchū; when Japan extended its territory northward in 708, Dewa District was established under Echigo. But this district was transformed into Dewa Province in 712.
Sado Province was temporarily merged with Echigo between 743 and 752. Since the division of Sado in 752, the territory of Echigo remained constant to the Meiji period; the provincial capital of Echigo was located in Kubiki District, in what is now the city of Jōetsu, but its exact location is now unknown. The temple of Gochikokubun-ji in Jōetsu, claims to be the successor of the provincial temple of Echigo Province. Two Shinto shrines vie for the title of ichinomiya of Echigo Province: Yahiko Shrine in Yahiko, Kota Shrine in Jōetsu. Echigo was ruled directly by the Hōjō clan during the Kamakura period, followed by the Uesugi clan from the start of the Muromachi period to the late Sengoku period. Under the Tokugawa shogunate of the Edo period, Echigo was divided among several feudal domains; the Hokurikudō highway passed through the province, numerous post stations were established. The port of Niigata was of major importance in the coastal kitamaebune trading system; the area became a battleground during the Battle of Hokuetsu in the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration.
Following the establishment of the Meiji government, the various domains became prefectures with the abolition of the han system in 1871. These various prefectures merged to form Niigata Prefecture in 1876. Echigo Province Dewa District - split off to become Dewa Province Iwafune District Kanbara District Higashikanbara District Kitakanbara District Minamikanbara District Nakakanbara District - dissolved Nishikanbara District Koshi District - part of Etchū Province. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Echigo Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903 Echigo on "Edo 300 HTML"
Yoshihiro Murai is a Japanese politician and current governor of Miyagi Prefecture. A native of Toyonaka and former serviceman of Japan Self-Defense Forces, he was first elected governor in 2005 after serving in the assembly of the prefecture since 1995. In July 2017 Murai approved the online publication of a tourism promotion video, created using 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami reconstruction funds and starred actress and gravure idol Mitsu Dan. Female members of the Miyagi Prefectural Assembly, along with members of the public, claimed that the video was sexually suggestive and demanded that it be taken down. Murai defended the video on the grounds that it brought attention to the prefecture, but hundreds of complaints were filed in the month after publication, he ordered the video withdrawn in August 2017
A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin