Mob Quad

Mob Quad is a four-sided group of buildings from the 13th and 14th centuries in Merton College, surrounding a small lawn. It is claimed to be the oldest quadrangle in Oxford and elsewhere, although Merton's own Front Quad was enclosed earlier and Corpus Christi College, says that its own Old Court is the oldest structure of its type in either Oxford or Cambridge; the quadrangle pattern has since been copied at universities worldwide. It was built in three distinct phases; the oldest part is the college's Treasury or Muniment Room that stands above and behind the arch in the north east corner. The roof of this part is made of stone in order to protect it from fire; the steep pitch of the roof is necessary to support the weight of the stone. The present roof was restored with new Purbeck stone in 1966; the upper floor has always been used to store the college muniments, while the ground floor was the original bursary. It is not known when the building was completed, but there are references to it in the college accounts for 1288 and 1291.

The fact that the Muniment Room was built above a vaulted arch suggests that the range of buildings to the south was either planned at the time of the original design or replaced an existing building. This range to the south of the Muniment Room was complete by about 1310–1320; the matching North side is slightly earlier and stands on the site of the former church of St John, no longer needed once the new chapel was complete. Evidence shows from the college accounts that the old church was being used as rooms by 1308, it is possible that parts of its structure were incorporated into the new building; these buildings were designed, are still used, as accommodation for members of the college. They consist of three storeys of the third being built in the steeply-pitched attics; the rooms are arranged in sets on either side of central wooden staircases. The walls are thick and faced in rag-finished Cotswold stone. There are no chimneys: they had not been invented when the buildings were first completed, although all the rooms had fireplaces and chimneys by about 1600, they have been removed in modern times as the coal fireplaces have been replaced with electric heating.

The south and west ranges which complete the quadrangle were built in 1373–1378. They were built to house the expanding college library; the old part of the library is still there, still expanding, it now occupies most of the ground floor as well. The large dormer windows were added as part of Warden Savile's rebuilding work which began in 1589; the origin of the name "Mob Quad" is obscure. On older plans and accounts the quad is called variously Little Quadrangle, Old Quadrangle, Bachelors' Quadrangle, Postmasters' Quadrangle, Undergraduates' Quadrangle; the word "mob", derived from the Latin mobile vulgus does not appear in English until the late 17th century, was not used for Mob Quad until the end of the 18th century. It was originally a humorous description of the occupants; the lawn is a 20th-century addition. Merton College, Oxford Merton College Library Bott, Alan. Merton College: A short history of the buildings. Oxford: Merton College. ISBN 0-9522314-0-9. Martin, G. H.. A history of Merton College, Oxford.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920183-8. Saunders, Jennifer; the Buildings of England: Oxfordshire. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-071045-0. Highfield, J. R. L.. "Some thoughts about Mob-Quad in the eighteenth century and at other times". Postmaster: The Merton Record. Oxford: Merton College: 52–59

Iphigénie Decaux-Milet-Moreau

Iphigénie Decaux or Vicomtesse Iphigenie Decaux, née Milet-Moreau was a French flower painter. Decaux was born in Toulon as the daughter of Louis Marie de Milet de Mureau, she took lessons from the flower painter Jan Frans van Dael and became an accomplished painter in her own right, though due to her wealthy connections she painted more as a hobby than for a living. In 1800 she married Louis Victor de Blacquetot de Caux and thereafter went by the name Vicomtesse Iphigenie Decaux. Decaux died in Paris. Painting sold at Christie's in 1999 for $79,316 Still-life with fruit by Iphigenie Milet-Moreau on artnet Iphigenie Decaux on artnet Biography on Jerome Fine Arts

Microcytic anemia

Microcytic anaemia is any of several types of anaemia characterized by small red blood cells. The normal mean corpuscular volume is 80-100 fL; when the MCV is < 80 fL, the red cells are described as microcytic. The MCV is the average red blood cell size. In microcytic anaemia, the red blood cells contain less hemoglobin and are also hypochromic, meaning that the red blood cells appear paler than usual; this can be reflected by a low mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, a measure representing the amount of hemoglobin per unit volume of fluid inside the cell. Therefore, anemia of this category is described as "microcytic, hypochromic anaemia". Typical causes of microcytic anemia include: Childhood Iron deficiency anemia, by far the most common cause of anemia in general and of microcytic anemia in particular Thalassemia Sideroblastic anemia. Rare. In congenital sideroblastic anemia the MCV is either normal. In contrast, the MCV is high in the much more common acquired sideroblastic anemia. Adulthood Iron deficiency anemia Thalassemia Anemia of chronic disease, although this can be normocytic.

Microcytic anemia has been discussed by al.. Lead poisoning - rare. Hyperthyroidism - rare. Vitamin B6 deficiency - rare. Other causes that are thought of as causing normocytic anemia or macrocytic anemia must be considered, the presence of two or more causes of anemia can distort the typical picture. There are five main causes of microcytic anemia forming the acronym TAILS. Thalassemia, Anemia of chronic disease, Iron deficiency, Lead poisoning and Congenital sideroblastic anemia. Only the first three are common in most parts of the world. In theory, these three can be differentiated by their red blood cell morphologies. Anemia of chronic disease shows unremarkable RBCs, iron deficiency shows anisocytosis and elliptocytosis, thalessemias demonstrate target cells and coarse basophilic stippling. In practice though elliptocytes and anisocytosis are seen in thalassemia and target cells in iron deficiency. All three may show unremarkable RBC morphology. Basophilic stippling is one morphologic finding of thalassemia which does not appear in iron deficiency or anemia of chronic disease.

The patient should be in an ethnically at risk group and the diagnosis is not confirmed without a confirmatory method such as hemoglobin HPLC, H body staining, molecular testing or another reliable method. Course basophlic stippling occurs in other cases as seen in Table 1. Hypochromic anemia Emedicine on chronic anemia