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Model year

The model year is a method of describing the version of a product, produced over multiple years. The model year may or may not be the same as the calendar year in which the product was manufactured. Automobiles in the United States and Canada are identified and regulated by model year, whereas other markets use production date to identify specific vehicles, model codes in place of the "year" in the North American make-model-year identifier. In technical documents generated within the auto industry and its regulating agencies such as the U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and United States Environmental Protection Agency and Transport Canada and Environment Canada, the letters "MY" precede the year. Without this prefix, however, in the North American context it is the model year rather than the vehicle's calendar year of production, being referred to; the new model year begins in August to September of the preceding calendar year. This was due to the advertising of a new model being coordinated with the launch of the new television season in late September, because of the heavy dependence between television to offer products from automakers to advertise, the car companies to launch their new models at a high-profile time of year.

Imported cars use the model year convention in the U. S. and Canada when this system is not used for the same cars when sold in other countries. The concept of yearly styling updates was introduced to General Motors' range of cars by Alfred P. Sloan in the 1920s; this was an early form of planned obsolescence in the car industry, where yearly styling changes meant consumers could discern a car's newness, or lack of it. Other major changes to the model range coincided with the launch of the new model year; the practice of beginning production of next year's model before the end of the year is a long standing tradition in America, for example the 1928 model year of the Ford Model A began production in October 1927 and the 1955 model year of the Ford Thunderbird began production in September 1954. For purposes such as VINs and emissions control, regulations allow cars of a given model year to be sold starting on January 1 of the previous calendar year. For example, a 2019 model year vehicle can go on sale starting January 1, 2018.

This has resulted in a few cars in the following model year being introduced in advertisements during the NFL Super Bowl in February. A notable example of an early model year launch would be the Ford Mustang, introduced as an early 1965 model in April 1964 at the World's Fair, several months before the usual start of the 1965 model year in August 1964. For recreational vehicles, the U. S. Federal Trade Commission allows a manufacturer to use a model year up to two years before the date that the vehicle was manufactured. In other countries, it is more common to identify specific vehicles by their year and month of production, cars of a particular type by their generation, using terms such as "Mark III" or by the manufacturer's code for that kind of car. In Europe, the lesser use of model years as a descriptor is because since the 1980s many vehicles are introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March, the Frankfurt Motor Show in September or the Paris Motor Show in September. New models have been launched in June or July.

The standardized format of the vehicle identification number used in the United States and Canada includes the model year of the vehicle as the 10th digit. The actual date that the vehicle was produced is not part of the VIN, but it is required to be shown on vehicle safety certification label. In addition to automobiles, some other products that have model years include: Car model Emission standard

Jamie Bevan

Gareth Jamie Bevan is a Welsh language campaigner from Merthyr Tydfil, Wales and a prominent member of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg. Bevan refused to pay fines and costs to Merthyr Tydfil Magistrate's Court for breaking into Conservative Party offices in north Cardiff the day before a visit from David Cameron in a demonstration against cuts to S4C. Bevan was sentenced to 35 days in prison by Merthyr Tydfil magistrates in 2012, he has said that he is using the case to draw attention to the lack of Welsh language correspondence from the courts. He had complained three times about a monolingual English correspondence from the courts service but received a court summons in English only. Bevan is a Welsh folk singer-songwriter, performing solo and with bands Y Betti Galws and Jamie Bevan a’r Gweddillion, he has performed alongside Welsh language folk stalwarts Meic Stevens and Dafydd Iwan and his music has been played on BBC Radio Wales, Radio Cymru and S4C. He has performed live at the National Eisteddfod of Wales and at Welsh language and other political benefit gigs, together with regular appearances at Red Poets events alongside poet Mike Jenkins and others.

Y Betti Galws - Self-titled, CD. Jamie Bevan a’r Gweddillion - Torri'r Cerffiw, CD Jamie Bevan a’r Gweddillion - Ei Fab aeth o'i Flaen, Download. Jamie Bevan a’r Gweddillion - Bach Yn Ryff, CD

Gamma Virginis

Gamma Virginis named Porrima, is a binary star system in the constellation of Virgo. It consists of two identical main sequence stars at a distance of about 38 light years. Γ Virginis is the star's Bayer designation. The traditional name Porrima derives from Ancient Rome, Porrima was one of the Camenae or goddesses of prophecy. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalog and standardize proper names for stars; the WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN. In the catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, this star was designated Laouiyet al Aoua, translated into Latin as Angulus Latratoris, meaning'the angle of the barker'; this star, along with Beta Virginis, Eta Virginis, Delta Virginis and Epsilon Virginis, were Al ʽAwwāʼ, the Barker. In Chinese, 太微左垣, meaning Left Wall of Supreme Palace Enclosure, refers to an asterism consisting of Gamma Virginis, Eta Virginis, Delta Virginis, Epsilon Virginis and Alpha Comae Berenices.

The Chinese name for Gamma Virginis itself is 太微左垣二, representing 東上相, meaning The First Eastern Minister. 東上相, westernized into Shang Seang by R. H. Allen and the meaning is "the High Minister of State". Gamma Virginis is a binary star, consisting of two stars of nearly equal apparent magnitudes 3.65 and 3.56, of spectral type F0V. With an orbital period of 168.93 years, it was an easy object for amateur astronomers until the beginning of the 1990s, but in 2011 the smaller apparent distance between the stars requires a larger telescope or special techniques such as speckle interferometry, adaptive optics or optical interferometry to resolve the individual components. The last time they were at periapsis was in 1836; the distance will again be wide enough in 2020 to view with a small telescope. The star system has a combined apparent magnitude of 2.9. The system is 39 light years away from the Sun. Gamma Virginis is 2.8 degrees north of the ecliptic, so it can be occulted by the Moon and by planets.

In June 2011 Saturn passed a quarter of a degree south of Porrima. Based upon X-ray emissions—an indicator of the strength of the stellar magnetic field—this system has an estimated age of 1.14 billion years. This table shows the apparent distance between the two stars and their relative position angle: first three columns show data predicted from an orbit calculated in 1937, the next two columns show in 2006, the next three columns show observations reported by the Hanwell Community Observatory


WVOL is a radio station broadcasting an Urban Oldies format. Licensed to the Nashville suburb of Berry Hill, United States, the station serves the Nashville area; the station is owned by Heidelberg Broadcasting, LLC. The station and transmitter are co-located just north of downtown Nashville in the Cumberland Heights district; the station was founded in 1951 as WSOK. WSOK's original format was urban gospel music. WSOK was the first station in the Nashville market to program to the city's African-American community. After a change in ownership in 1957, the call letters were changed to WVOL, but the station continued its focus on the local African-American community. In 1980, The Phoenix Communication Group acquired WVOL; the station dropped live programming and affiliated with Satellite Music Network in 1988. The network, impressed with the station, launched a format based on WVOL's sound. WVOL aired satellite-fed programming until 1993. Around that time, the station was sold to Dickey Brothers Broadcasting.

In a transaction that closed in April 2000, WVOL was purchased by John Heidelberg, an African-American entrepreneur, a former employee of both WVOL and WSM, from Dickey Brothers Broadcasting in exchange for cash and an FM construction permit that would become WRQQ. WVOL's format was urban gospel during the day, jazz overnight. In 1970, when Heidelberg was acting program director of WVOL, he was the first person to employ Oprah Winfrey a local high school student, as a broadcaster. Becoming a news anchor on WVOL, Winfrey launched her TV career as an anchor with WLAC-TV in Nashville, before becoming an iconic national talk show host. WVOL switched to its current format of urban adult contemporary, urban oldies and talk shows in March 2001. In March 2011, WVOL suffered $1 million in damage when vandals cut the transmission lines to all six of the station's towers. Official website The History Makers - John Heidelberg Query the FCC's AM station database for WVOL Radio-Locator Information on WVOL Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WVOL

Jokha al-Harthi

Jokha Alharthi spelt al-Harthi, is an Omani writer and academic. She was educated in the United Kingdom, she obtained her PhD in classical Arabic literature from Edinburgh University. She is an associate professor in the Arabic department at Sultan Qaboos University. Alharthi has published three collections of short stories, three children's books, three novels, she has authored academic works. Her work has been translated into English, Korean and German and published in Banipal magazine, she was one of eight participants in the 2011 IPAF Nadwa. Alharthi won the Sultan Qaboos Award for Culture and Literature, for her novel Narinjah in 2016. Narinjah will be published in English translation in 2021. Sayyidat el-Qamar was shortlisted for the Zayed Award 2011. An English translation by Marilyn Booth was published in the UK by Sandstone Press in June 2018 under the title Celestial Bodies, won the Man Booker International Prize 2019. Sayyidat el-Qamar was the first work by an Arabic-language writer to be awarded the Man Booker International Prize, the first novel by an Omani woman to appear in English translation.

The Man Booker International Prize judges heralded the book as "A richly imagined and poetic insight into a society in transition and into lives obscured." As of 2020, translation rights to Sayyidat el-Qamar have been sold in Azerbaijani, Brazilian Portuguese, Catalan, Croatian, French, Hungarian, Malayalam, Persian, Romanian, Sinhalese, Swedish, Turkish. In March 2020 she appeared in a panel discussion at Adelaide Writers' Week, along with Iranian-American journalist Azadeh Moaveni and Lebanese-British journalist Zahra Hankir

Harry Yates (RAF officer)

Harry Alexander Yates, AFC was a Canadian pilot and chiropractor. He was best known for flying Lawrence of Arabia and Harry St. John Philby to Cairo, breaking a speed record for that flight. Yates was born on 1 August 1896 in Ontario; as a young boy he and his family moved to Toronto when his father George was offered a job with the Toronto Globe. They moved to Ottawa, where George became private secretary to Prime Minister Robert Borden. Harry attended Ottawa Collegiate Institute and joined cadets, learning telegraphy and automobile repair, he was nicknamed "Steamboat" because of his size: he was 6 feet 1 inch and 170 pounds. During the First World War, Yates volunteered for the Canadian Army Service Corps in 1916 but switched to the Royal Naval Air Service after learning he was to be posted to a supply depot, he arrived in Liverpool on a troop convoy on 6 February 1917 and began basic training as a flying officer. He was among the 10 best candidates from the 65 in his training course and was sent for "phase-one" training at Vendôme.

After a replacement instructor confused him with another H. Yates, he was allowed to fly solo after just over two hours of dual flight – a centre record, he underwent seven forced landings without causing any significant damage to his aircraft, which he compared to the other trainees who "had crashed up to five machines each". However, just two hours of flight time short of qualification for phase-two training, he was hospitalized for two weeks with ptomaine poisoning. Upon being released from hospital Yates completed his phase-one training and returned to England, where he was recommended for the top pilot rating, but he was again hospitalized, this time for eight weeks at Chatham Royal Naval Hospital, ten days before graduating from training. Doctors surgically removed half of his stomach, but still gave him only six months to live and forbade him from flying, his father appealed to Prime Minister Borden on his behalf, the flight restriction was amended to allow him to fly bombers. Yates served as a bomber pilot with the Royal Air Force, where he achieved the rank of flight lieutenant and was assigned to No. 1 Communications Squadron.

He was the second pilot chosen to fly the newly designed Handley Page bomber, flew thirty other types of aircraft for over 400 total hours during his career. After the armistice, he was chosen to convey delegates, government ministers, members of the royal family from London to the Paris Peace Conference, he set a record for multi-engine flight from London to Paris in early June 1919. On 20 June 1919, Yates was selected by the British Foreign Office to transport Harry St. John Philby, a Foreign Office agent and father of double agent Kim Philby, to Cairo, Egypt. Philby had been commissioned to end the increasing Arab unrest in Egypt resulting from the failure of Britain to uphold the promises it had made at the Paris Peace Conferences to support Arab independence throughout much of the Middle East; because of the danger of long-distance flying at the time, the use of a torpedo boat to transport Philby was considered, but it was decided that increased speed of the Handley Page bomber was worth the risk of flight.

Yates and Philby took off from Lympne on 21 June, along with co-pilot Lieutenant Jimmy Vance and airmen mechanics Hand and Steadman. They were promised British ground support en route; the plane stopped first in Paris to be refuelled by British Air Ministry ground staff, but at the next stop in Lyons, these staff did not appear, forcing Yates and the other airmen to refuel alone. The airfield at Marseilles was covered with boulders, blowing two of the plane's tires on landing, during lunch the crew's map was stolen, they next went to Pisa, where Yates was forced to navigate based on the Leaning Tower due to the heavy cloud cover. The crew stayed up all night to overhaul the plane's engine. Cloud cover complicated landings at Rome and Taranto, on several occasions en route the plane nearly struck Italian mountain ranges; the next day Yates intended to fly directly to Suda Bay, but a fuel pump malfunction forced an emergency landing in a riverbed 8 kilometres east of Aigion. Locals provided food and assistance to repair damage to the plane, which took six hours, after which Yates flew to Athens to refuel.

An engine failed shortly after taking off from Athens, requiring the crew to return and spend 10 hours siphoning and straining all of the fuel from the plane. On their second attempt, a propeller cracked in-flight and the plane's wing clipped the edge of the volcanic crater in which the crew landed at Suda Bay. Yates was able to convince another stranded RAF pilot to relinquish a propeller for the plane, he gained a new passenger: Colonel T. E. Lawrence known as Lawrence of Arabia. Lawrence had been en route to Cairo in April when his plane crashed in Rome, killing his pilots and breaking his collarbone, he had left a Roman hospital and boarded a bomber to continue his journey, but his plane too had become stranded in Crete. Taking off three times from Suda Bay because of a maladjusted carburetor, in a process Yates described as "riding a motorcycle around the inside of a barrel", the crew headed across the Mediterranean Sea towards Sollum, on the border of Egypt and Libya; the fuel pump failed again, but rather than land and requisition a new part, Yates ordered Hand and Steadman to hand-pump the fuel for the next 450 kilometres.

An Air Ministry flying boat sent to accompany the plane tried to redirect Yates to a new course, but he was convinced that the pilot had "a monkey on his shoulder"