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Modified Mercalli intensity scale

The Modified Mercalli intensity scale, descended from Giuseppe Mercalli's Mercalli intensity scale of 1902, is a seismic intensity scale used for measuring the intensity of shaking produced by an earthquake. It measures the effects of an earthquake at a given location, distinguished from the earthquake's inherent force or strength as measured by seismic magnitude scales. While shaking is driven by the seismic energy released by an earthquake, earthquakes differ in how much of their energy is radiated as seismic waves. Deeper earthquakes have less interaction with the surface, their energy is spread out across a larger area. Shaking intensity is localized diminishing with distance from the earthquake's epicenter, but can be amplified in sedimentary basins and certain kinds of unconsolidated soils. Intensity scales empirically categorize the intensity of shaking based on the effects reported by untrained observers and are adapted for the effects that might be observed in a particular region. In not requiring instrumental measurements, they are useful for estimating the magnitude and location of historical earthquakes: the greatest intensities correspond to the epicentral area, their degree and extent can be compared with other local earthquakes to estimate the magnitude.

The Italian volcanologist Giuseppe Mercalli formulated his first intensity scale in 1883. It had six degrees or categories, has been described as "merely an adaptation" of the standard Rossi–Forel scale of ten degrees, is now "more or less forgotten". Mercalli's second scale, published in 1902, was an adaptation of the Rossi–Forel scale, retaining the ten degrees and expanding the descriptions of each degree; this version "found favour with the users", was adopted by the Italian Central Office of Meteorology and Geodynamics. In 1904, Adolfo Cancani proposed adding two additional degrees for strong earthquakes, "catastrophe" and "enormous catastrophe", thus creating the 12-degree scale, his descriptions being deficient, August Heinrich Sieberg augmented them in 1912 and 1923, indicated a peak ground acceleration for each degree. This became known as the "Mercalli–Cancani scale, formulated by Sieberg", or the "Mercalli–Cancani–Sieberg scale", or "MCS", used extensively in Europe; when Harry O. Wood and Frank Neumann translated this into English in 1931, they called it the "Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931".

Some seismologists prefer to call this version the "Wood–Neumann scale". Wood and Neumann had an abridged version, with fewer criteria for assessing the degree of intensity; the Wood–Neumann scale was revised in 1956 by Charles Francis Richter and published in his influential textbook Elementary Seismology. Not wanting to have this intensity scale confused with the magnitude scale he had developed, he proposed calling it the "Modified Mercalli scale of 1956". In their 1993 compendium of historical seismicity in the United States, Carl Stover and Jerry Coffman ignored Richter's revision, assigned intensities according to their modified interpretation of Wood and Neumann's 1931 scale creating a new but undocumented version of the scale; the basis by which the U. S. Geological Survey assigns intensities is nominally Wood and Neumann's "Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931". However, this is interpreted with the modifications summarized by Stover and Coffman because in the decades since 1931 it has been found that "some criteria are more reliable than others as indicators of the level of ground shaking."

Construction codes and methods have evolved, making much of built environment stronger. And it is now recognized that some of the original criteria of the higher degrees, such as bent rails, ground fissures, etc. are "related less to the level of ground shaking than to the presence of ground conditions susceptible to spectacular failure."The "catastrophe" and "enormous catastrophe" categories added by Cancani are used so infrequently that current USGS practice is merge them into a single "Extreme" labeled "X+". The lower degrees of the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale deal with the manner in which the earthquake is felt by people; the higher numbers of the scale are based on observed structural damage. This table gives Modified Mercalli scale intensities that are observed at locations near the epicenter of the earthquake; the correlation between magnitude and intensity is far from total, depending upon several factors including the depth of the hypocenter, distance from the epicenter. For example, a 4.5 magnitude quake in Salta, Argentina, in 2011, 164 km deep had a maximum intensity of I, while a 2.2 magnitude event in Barrow in Furness, England, in 1865, about 1 km deep had a maximum intensity of VIII.

The small table is a rough guide to the degrees of the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale. The colors and descriptive names shown here differ from those used on certain shake maps in other articles. Dozens of so-called intensity prediction equations have been published to estimate the macroseismic intensity at a location given the magnitude, source-to-site distance and other parameters; these are similar to ground motion prediction equations for the estimation of instrumental strong-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration. A summary of intensity prediction equations is available; such equations can be used

Canossa Castle

The Castle of Canossa is a castle in Canossa, province of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy. It is known as the seat of the Walk to Canossa, the meeting of Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy; the castle was built around 940 by Adalberto Atto, son of Sigifredo of Lucca, a Lombard prince, on the summit of a rocky hill. Apart from Adalberto's residence, it included a convent with 12 Benedictine monks and the church of Sant'Apollonio, it was protected by a triple line of walls. During the Middle Ages, it was one of the most impregnable castles in Italy. Here in 950 Adelaide of Italy, the widow of King Lothair II, took refuge; the next most relevant episode is the famous reconciliation between Henry IV and Gregory VII, a friend of Matilda of Tuscany, who had inherited the castle, the centre of an impressive chain of watch towers and castles. Matilda established that her lands would be assigned to the Church after her death, but her heirs did not accept it. In 1255 the men of Reggio destroyed the church.

It was returned to the Canossa family. After the death of Giberto da Correggio in 1321, it was again a possession of Reggio until 1402, when Simone and Alberto Canossa gained it back. In 1502 Ercole I d'Este named the poet Ludovico Ariosto castellan, he resided here for six months. In 1593 Canossa was assigned as fief to the Counts Rondinelli. In 1642 Duke Francesco I entrusted it to the Valentini; the latter were ousted in 1796 by the rebellious local population, who joined the Republic of Reggio. After being returned to the Valentini, in 1878 the Castle was acquired by the Italian State, was declared a national monument. Media related to Castello di Canossa at Wikimedia Commons

Castle Hill, Wolverley

Castle Hill or Baron Hill is about a mile from the hamlet of Kingsford in the civil parish of Wolverley and Cookley, Worcestershire. In 1912 the site consisted of "a small ruinous timber-framed building, used as a cowshed of 15th century date but bearing traces of earlier features. On the hillside itself is a segment of a moat encircling a third of the hill and the embankments of three communicating fishponds covering about 4 acres; the two lower ponds still contain water while the upper is used as an orchard". In 1913 it was thought to be the ruins of a castle, a possibility which David Cathcart-King mentions in his 1983 work Castellarium anglicanum. After surveying the site, Duignan suggested that it was the remains of a late 12th century hunting lodge, but Brown and Taylor publishing in 1963 showed that Duigan was mistaken, the royal hunting lodge to which he referred—one in the Forest of Kinver —was located at Stourton Castle. However, there was another earlier royal hunting lodge at Kinver, the site of, unknown and which could have been at Castle Hill.

Inspectors from English Heritage visited the site in 1997 and although the site is ruinous confirmed its importance and "regarded as having a high archaeological potential". English Heritage staff, Castle Hill, English Heritage's PastScape website, archived from the original on April 15, 2013, retrieved July 15, 2012Brown, R Allen.

Darwin Medal

The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity". First awarded in 1890, it was created in memory of Charles Darwin and is presented with a £2000 prize. Since its creation the medal has been awarded over 60 times, the recipients including Francis Darwin, Charles Darwin's son, two married couples and Yolande Heslop-Harrison in 1982 and Peter and Rosemary Grant in 2002; the medal was first awarded to Alfred Russel Wallace, a noted biologist and naturalist who had independently developed the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Source: Royal Society List of biology awards "Award winners: Darwin Medal"; the Royal Society. Retrieved 21 July 2016. Royal Society: Darwin Medal


Lampsi was the longest running series in Greek television, among the most famous in Greece and Bulgaria. It was aired for more than 14 years by the Greek television station ANT1 nearly every day. Bulgarian television network Nova Television aired "Shine", dubbed in Bulgarian from 2000 to 2010, it began broadcasting on 16 September 1991 and the last episode was released on 29 July 2005. In total 3,457 episodes were broadcast in 14 years. A total of 150,000 dialogues pages were written for 190 stories, involving 1,500 actors, seven directors and countless technicians; the script was written by Nikos Foskolos and on the filming of the episodes directors were Nikos Foskolos, Spyros Foskolos and five other directors. Ιστορίες με... Δράκους τέλος!, της Κατερίνας Ζάννη. Ελευθεροτυπία, 28 Ιουλίου 2005, ανακτήθηκε στις 13 Ιανουαρίου 2008. «Έλαμψε» 3.457 φορές, των Μ. Πετρούτσου, Σ. Μανιάτη, Κ. Τσιγώνια, Ελευθεροτυπία, 28 Ιουλίου 2005, ανακτήθηκε στις 13 Ιανουαρίου 2008. Το «σαπούνι» φέρνει δάκρυα, Ελεύθερος Τύπος, 7 Ιουλίου 2007, ανακτήθηκε στις 13 Ιανουαρίου 2008.

«Η Λάμψη έγραψε ιστορία...» Νίκος Φώσκολος, της Τζένης Θεοδωρίδου, 7 Μέρες TV, 22 Ιουλίου 2005, ανακτήθηκε στις 20 Μαΐου 2010

Pamela Moore (author)

Pamela Moore was an American novelist best known for her debut novel Chocolates for Breakfast. She published her first novel, Chocolates for Breakfast, at age eighteen, which garnered her critical attention for its provocative themes involving its teenage protagonist, she was born on the daughter of Don and Isabel Moore, both writers. Her parents divorced in the mid-1940s, her father relocated to Los Angeles, where he worked as a story editor for Warner Brothers and RKO Pictures. Between schooling, Moore spent her childhood splitting her time between Los Angeles, she was educated at Barnard College. Her first book, Chocolates for Breakfast, was published when she was 18 and became an international bestseller. At the time, it was associated with Bonjour Tristesse, a novel published two years earlier in France by 18-year-old Françoise Sagan. Since its publication in 1956, Chocolates for Breakfast appeared in 11 languages, including French, Spanish, Hebrew and German. According to the Bantam paperback edition, the book went through 11 printings in the U.

S. and sold over one million copies. Chocolates for Breakfast gained notoriety for its frank depiction of sexuality at a time when 18-year-old girls were not expected to read about such topics, let alone write about them; the protagonist is a young girl named Courtney, coming of age as her parents divorce, splitting her time between two coasts. Her father is a member of the genteel New York publishing world, while her mother pursues a fading acting career in Hollywood; the book portrays a privileged and jaded set of characters who drink and pride themselves on their sexual sophistication. After an unrequited crush on one of her boarding-school teachers leads to heartbreak, Courtney beds a bisexual Hollywood actor and a dissolute European aristocrat living out of a New York hotel; as Robert Clurman noted in The New York Times Book Review "...not long ago, it would have been regarded as shocking to find girls in their teens reading the kind of books they're now writing." The book includes discussion of homosexuality, gender roles and sexual exploration that was, for the era, uncommon.

Moore went on to write four more novels, including Pigeons of St. Mark's Place, The Exile of Suzy-Q, The Horsy Set, but none of these enjoyed the success of the first. Dan Visel speculates that this may be explained by the change in the tone of the books: "... What stands out most about The Horsy Set is the unrelenting darkness it presents. Mud is never far from Brenda's mind. In 1963 Moore gave birth to a son, Kevin. Nine months in 1964, working on her final, unpublished novel Kathy on the Rocks, she committed suicide by gunshot. In 1958, Moore married Adam Kanarek, a lawyer of Polish-Jewish origin who had "very little in common with the residents of Beverly Hills, the Westchester horse set, the habitues of'21' and the Stork Club." On June 7, 1964, Moore's husband left to go to work, while she stayed home with their small child Kevin, while working on her next book, tentatively entitled Kathy. When he returned home from work, he found Moore dead on the floor next to her typewriter of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head.

Chocolates for Breakfast was republished in paperback and e-book editions in June 2013, with a new foreword by author Emma Straub. Chocolates for Breakfast / Pamela Moore archives Pamela Moore in the New York Times From "With Hidden Noise" by Dan Visel Pamela Moore Papers at the Columbia University Rare Book & Manuscript Library