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Moesia

Moesia was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River. It included most of the territory of modern-day Central Serbia and the northern parts of the modern North Macedonia, Northern Bulgaria, Romanian Dobrudja and Southern Ukraine. In ancient geographical sources, Moesia was bounded to the south by the Haemus and Scardus mountains, to the west by the Drinus river, on the north by the Donaris and on the east by the Euxine; the region was inhabited chiefly by Thracians, Dacians and Thraco-Illyrian peoples. The name of the region comes from Moesi, Thraco-Dacian peoples who lived there before the Roman conquest. Parts of Moesia belonged to the polity of Burebista, a Getae king who established his rule over a large part of the northern Balkans between 82 BC and 44 BC, he led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in an inside plot, the empire was divided into several smaller states.

In 75 BC, C. Scribonius Curio, proconsul of Macedonia, took an army as far as the Danube and gained a victory over the inhabitants, who were subdued by M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the triumvir and also proconsul of Macedonia during the reign of Augustus c. 29 BC. The region, was not organized as a province until the last years of Augustus' reign; as a province, Moesia was under an imperial consular legate. In 86 AD the Dacian king Duras ordered his troops to attack Roman Moesia. After this attack, the Roman emperor Domitian arrived in Moesia and reorganized it in 87 AD into two provinces, divided by the river Cebrus: to the west Moesia Superior - Upper Moesia, to the east Moesia Inferior - Lower Moesia; each was governed by a procurator. The chief towns of Upper Moesia in the Principate were: Singidunum, Remesiana, Bononia and Skupi; the last two were Greek towns which formed a pentapolis with Istros and Apollonia. From Moesia, Domitian began planning future campaigns into Dacia and by 87 he started a strong offensive against Dacia, ordering General Cornelius Fuscus to attack.

Therefore, in the summer of 87, Fuscus led six legions across the Danube. The campaign against the Dacians ended without a decisive outcome, Decebalus, the Dacian King, had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace, agreed on at the war's end. Emperor Trajan arrived in Moesia, he launched his first military campaign into the Dacian Kingdom c. March–May 101, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River and defeating the Dacian army near Tapae, a mountain pass in the Carpathians. Trajan's troops were mauled in the encounter, he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus launched a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan's army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later. Trajan was granted the title Dacicus; the victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. However, Decebalus in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against the empire.

Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered part of Dacia in 106. Sometime around 272, at the Moesian city of Naissus or Nissa, future emperor Constantine. After the abandonment of Roman Dacia to the Goths by Aurelian and the transfer of the Roman citizens from the former province to the south of the Danube, the central portion of Moesia took the name of Dacia Aureliana. During administrative reforms of Emperor Diocletian, both of the Moesian provinces were reorganized. Moesia Superior was divided in two, northern part forming the province of Moesia Prima including cities Viminacium and Singidunum, while the southern part was organised as the new province of Dardania with cities Scupi and Ulpiana. At the same time, Moesia Inferior was divided into Scythia Minor. Moesia Secunda's main cities included Marcianopolis, Nicopolis, Durostorum, Sexaginta Prista and Novae, all in Bulgaria today; as a frontier province, Moesia was strengthened by stations and fortresses erected along the southern bank of the Danube, a wall was built from Axiopolis to Tomi as a protection against the Scythians and Sarmatians.

The garrison of Moesia Secunda included Legio I Italica and Legio XI Claudia, as well as independent infantry units, cavalry units, river flotillas. The Notitia Dignitatum lists its units and their

Spanish Jennet Horse

The Spanish Jennet Horse is a modern American horse breed. It is gaited, with either leopard spotting, it is extinct, was, at least in part, absorbed into what is now the Pura Raza Española.:437The Spanish Jennet Horse is a new breed of Jennet type is being created through the efforts of the Spanish Jennet Horse Society. The Registry requires that horse for the Pintado division be of full Paso Fino heritage and the Atigrado division must be at least of 50% Paso blood. Outcrosses are allowed in the first generation to obtain the LP for the Registered Atigrado Spanish Jennet and must result in a minimum of 50% purebred Paso Fino or Peruvian Paso horse. Only one outcross is allowed. All 50% crosses will provide video proof of gait before registration of their offspring; the Spanish Jennet Horse build. Extremes in muscling or bone are considered faults; the optimum appearance is that of refinement with a deep chest, well sprung ribs and a strong, medium length back with broad, well muscled loins. Spanish Jennet Horse Society

Electra Guitars

Electra was a brand of electric guitars and basses manufactured in Japan and distributed in the US by two companies owned by brothers: Saint Louis Music and Pacific Coast Music in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 2013, the brand launched a successful comeback led by renowned luthiers Ben Chafin and Mick Donner. Unlike most other brands of imported guitars which were sourced from a single manufacturer, Electra guitars were ordered from all the Japanese factories and distributors; as a result, early models vary in details and quality. As all models came to be made by Matsumoku, Electra guitars offered high quality at competitive prices. However, the brand never lost its association with inexpensive'copy' guitars and the brand name was transitioned to Electra Westone in 1984 and Westone in 1985; the same qualities make them popular among collectors today. In 2013 Ben Chafin, former head luthier at Dean Guitars, acquired the rights to Electra Guitars and is now producing new Electra Guitars; the first model available was a reissued and updated single cutaway Electra Omega, followed by the Omega Prime.

After rave reviews and a growing roster of artist endorsements, Electra Guitars unveiled a number of new models in 2014 including the Invicta, Phoenix H & S Guitars and the Phoenix Bass. More about the current company and their guitars, basses and merchandise can be found at their official website Electra Guitars In 1976 Electra MPC models featured a pair of cartridge slots in the guitar body, which allowed effect modules to be plugged in and controlled from the front of the guitar. Today the unusual thing is that the effects are on board, but offering electronic effects to consumer musicians was new at the time and offers an interesting alternate way to do it. There were a total of 18 guitar models; the most notable was the Super Rock, a Les Paul copy. There were 12 total MPC modules offered. In the assortment of modules offered was a "Mini Amp" module, which contained no effects but was a headphone amplifier for the guitar; this mini amp was the number 11 Module, Frog Nose. It did nothing except send a weak clean guitar signal to headphones via the jack.

Peter Frampton - Peter Frampton's Official Site Leslie West Electric Light Orchestra Allen "Free Bird" Collins of Lynyrd Skynyrd Outlaws Rick Derringer's brand was the X910 guitar known as the "Derringer" model Marty Friedman Dickey Betts endorsed the X930 MPC model in the October 1981 issue of Guitar Player magazine. "Electra History". Retrieved 2003. Article from the original Electra fan site "MPC". Retrieved 2003. Details of MPC guitar wiring The Electra Guitar Collection 1977. 1977 full line catalog including MPC guitars and modules Electra Guitars Official Website of Electra Guitars The Electra Guitar Page- Index of Models latest known listing of guitar and bass models The Electra Guitar Page archival mirror of original Electra fan site The Electra Forum fan community of collectors and players Matsumoku Industrial- One manufacturer of Electra guitars The Guitars of Matsumoku information on Matsumoku-made guitars