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Mogwai are a Scottish post-rock band, formed in 1995 in Glasgow. The band consists of Stuart Braithwaite, Barry Burns, Dominic Aitchison, Martin Bulloch; the band compose lengthy guitar-based instrumental pieces that feature dynamic contrast, melodic bass guitar lines, heavy use of distortion and effects. The band were for several years signed to Glasgow label Chemikal Underground, have been distributed by different labels such as Matador in the US and Play It Again Sam in the UK, but now use their own label Rock Action Records in the UK, Temporary Residence Ltd. in North America. The band were championed by John Peel from their early days, recorded seven Peel Sessions between 1996 and 2004. Peel recorded a brief introduction for the compilation Government Commissions: BBC Sessions 1996–2003. Stuart Braithwaite and Dominic Aitchison met in April 1991, four years formed Mogwai with old schoolfriend Martin Bulloch; the band's name comes from the name of the creatures in the feature film Gremlins, although guitarist Stuart Braithwaite comments that "it has no significant meaning and we always intended on getting a better one, but like a lot of other things we never got round to it."

The word mogwai "devil" in Cantonese. The band debuted in February 1996 with the "Tuner"/"Lower" single and by the end of the year they received'single of the week' from NME for "Summer", a feat repeated early in 1997 with "New Paths to Helicon". After playing a few shows the band expanded with the introduction of John Cummings on guitar, Teenage Fanclub drummer Brendan O'Hare joined while they recorded their début album Mogwai Young Team; the album, released in October 1997, reached number 75 on the UK Albums Chart, featured a guest appearance from Aidan Moffat of Arab Strap. In 1998 the band had their first singles chart success with a split single with Magoo of Black Sabbath cover versions reaching number 60 in the UK and an EP of "Fear Satan" remixes reaching number 57. In the same year, an album of remixes of the band's tracks by the likes of Kevin Shields, Alec Empire, μ-ziq was issued; the band remixed tracks for David Holmes and Manic Street Preachers. O'Hare was sacked after the release of the album.

Barry Burns was brought in prior to the recording of Come On the band's second album. He had played a few shows with the band, as a flautist and as an occasional pianist. According to Stuart, Barry was invited into the band because he was a "good laugh"; the album reached number 29 in the UK. The band line up remained unchanged from 1998 until November 2015, when John Cummings left to pursue other projects. Fellow Scottish musician Luke Sutherland has contributed violin to Mogwai's records and live performances; the band's 2001 album Rock Action gave them their highest UK album chart placing, reaching number 23. The album was less guitar-led than featuring more electronics. Shortly afterwards the band released "My Father My King", a cacophonous 20-minute song which closed their Rock Action-period shows, was billed as a companion piece to the album. Mogwai's 2003 album Happy Songs for Happy People continued the band's movement into the use of electronica and more spacious arrangements, it was the band's first album to sell in any numbers in the US, reaching No.13 on the Billboard Independent Albums Chart and spending one week in the Billboard 200.

Reviews were favourable, although as Pitchfork Media said in 2008 "... reception ranged from middling to favorable. Some praised the band's scope and willingness to explore beyond the bounds of the quiet-loud-louder dynamic it had mastered. In March 2006, the album Mr Beast was released in a regular format and in a limited deluxe edition package that came with both the album on CD and a DVD documenting the recording process entitled The Recording of Mr Beast; the album was described by Creation Records head Alan McGee as "probably the best art rock album I've been involved with since Loveless. In fact, it's better than Loveless" – referring to the influential 1991 album by My Bloody Valentine. AllMusic called the album "Possibly the most accessible yet sophisticated album Mogwai released"; the band's sixth studio album was recorded from late 2007 until early 2008, was released in September 2008. It was the first Mogwai album not to feature vocals, was the first to be self-produced by the band.

The album spawned an EP, featuring the title track from the album and a collaboration with Roky Erickson, with Erickson providing vocals on "Devil Rides". In 2010 the band live album. Burning contains eight tracks from the band's Brooklyn shows during their 2008/2009 American tour, whilst Special Moves adds nine more tracks from the same source. Special Moves was the first release on Mogwai's own Rock Action records, named after Stooges drummer Scott Asheton, who had h


Wasenbourg, located 400 metres in height on the northwest hillside of Reisberg, is a ruined castle in the North Vosges. It is a recognized historical monument since 1898. Although its origins are obscure, the historians attribute its construction, by 1273, to Conrad de Lichtenberg bishop of Strasbourg; the castle is located on the territory of the commune of Niederbronn-les-Bains. The castle is quoted first time in a charter dated 1335 during a division of the Licthenberg family possessions, it is enfeoffed by these last ones to Guillaume de Born in 1378. In 1398, during a Fehde, Wasenbourg is besieged by the gathered troops of the bishop and the city of Strasbourg. Afterward, it will be used as residence by the vassals of the Lichtenberg, notably Hofwart de Kirchheim and Simon de Zeiskam. With the extinction of the Lichtenberg lineage in 1480, it passes by inheritance to Simon Wecker IV of Two Deux-Ponts-Bitche. Damaged during the Peasants' War in 1525, it will be raised from its ruins by Jacques de Deux-Ponts-Bitche in 1535.

In 1570, a quarrel of inheritance sets Linange against Hanau-Lichtenberg, both of them successors of Deux-Ponts-Bitche. Jean-Jacob Niedheimer, baillif of Hanau, takes advantage of it to occupy the place and assumes the title of nobility "of Wasenbourg"; the castle seems to have been saved during the War of Thirty Years but will be dismantled by the troops of Louis XIV in 1677. The site was outstandingly emphasized of restoration; the castle presents the peculiarity not to possess a keep. An 18 metre high, 14 metre long and 3 metre thick shield walloverhanging a deep ditch is enough to protect the lodging house towards the attack. A plate overhanging the entrance of the castle commemorates the visit of Goethe of 1771. East of the lower yard raises a rock known as "le Wachtfelsen", testimony of a Roman worship dedicated to the god Mercury. Having crossed the lower yard, we penetrate into the enclosure wall itself. An oriel window overhangs the East wall of the castle; the access to the lodging house is made by a door in broken bow overhung by a sculptured head integrated into a Gothic frieze

Intrinsic dimension

In the fields of pattern recognition and machine learning the intrinsic dimension for a data set can be thought of as the number of variables needed in a minimal representation of the data. In signal processing of multidimensional signals, the intrinsic dimension of the signal describes how many variables are needed to generate a good approximation of the signal; when estimating intrinsic dimension however, a broader definition based on manifold dimension is used, where a representation in the intrinsic dimension does only need to exist locally. Such intrinsic dimension estimation methods can thus handle data sets with different intrinsic dimensions in different parts of the data set; the intrinsic dimension can be used as a lower bound of what dimension it is possible to compress a data set into through dimension reduction, but it can be used as a measure of the complexity of the data set or signal. For a data set or signal of N variables, its intrinsic dimension M satisfies 0 ≤ M ≤ N. Let f be a two-variable function, of the form for some one-variable function g, not constant.

This means that f varies, in accordance with the first variable or along the first coordinate. On the other hand, f is constant with respect along the second coordinate, it is only necessary to know the value of one, namely the first, variable in order to determine the value of f. Hence, it is a two-variable function but its intrinsic dimension is one. A more complicated example isf is still intrinsic one-dimensional, which can be seen by making a variable transformation y 1 = x 1 + x 2 y 2 = x 1 − x 2 which gives Since the variation in f can be described by the single variable y1 its intrinsic dimension is one. For the case that f is constant, its intrinsic dimension is zero since no variable is needed to describe variation. For the general case, when the intrinsic dimension of the two-variable function f is neither zero or one, it is two. In the literature, functions which are of intrinsic dimension zero, one, or two are sometimes referred to as i0D, i1D or i2D, respectively. For an N-variable function f, the set of variables can be represented as an N-dimensional vector x: f = f where x = If for some M-variable function g and M × N matrix A is it the case that for all x.

The intrinsic dimension is a characterization of f, it is not an unambiguous characterization of g nor of A. That is, if the above relation is satisfied for some f, g, A, it must be satisfied for the same f and g′ and A′ given by g ′ = g A ′ = B − 1 A where B is a non-singular M × M matrix, since An N variable function which has intrinsic dimension M < N has a characteristic Fourier transform. Intuitively, since this type of function is constant along one or several dimensions its Fourier transform must appear like an impulse along the same dimension in the frequency domain. Let f be a two-variable function, i1D; this means that there exists a normalized vector n ∈ R 2 and a one-variable function g such that f = g for all x ∈ R 2. If F is the Fourier transform of f it must be the case that Here G is the Fourier transform of g, δ is the Dirac impulse function and m is a normalized vector in R 2 perpendicular to n; this means that F vanishes everywhere except on a line which passes through the origin of the frequency domain and is parallel to m.

Along this line F varies according to G. Let f be an N-variable function which has intrinsic dimension M, that is, there exists an M-variable function g and M × N matrix A such that f = g ∀ x, its Fourier transform F can be described as follows: F vanishes everywhere except for a subspace of dimension M The subspace M is spanned by the rows of the matrix A In the subspace, F varies according to G the Fourier trans

Lilium maculatum

Lilium maculatum is a plant in the lily family native to Japan. Its Japanese namesukashi-yuri "see-through lily" or "openwork lily", originates from the gaps between its tepals; the plant is called iwato-yuri or iwa yuri referring to its rocky habitat, or hama yuri from growing on the seashore. In the Japanese horticultural trade, cultivated types are referred to as sukashiyuri while the wild-growing ones are called iwatoyuri. Furthermore, plants growing along the Pacific Ocean are called iwatoyuri, distinguished from iwayuri that grow on the coasts of the Sea of Japan. L. maculatum is native to the central and northern regions of Japan cultivated as an ornamental. The perennial plan grows on rocky areas, or cliff-tops, it is a stem rooting lily, its bulbs are white, lacking bitterness. Parts of the scales on the bulb may be jointed; the stalk grows from 20 to 60 centimetres tall, bears a number of orange, red, or yellow flowers with darker spots. Sometimes the yellow lilies exhibit spotlessnessIn Japan, plants growing on the Pacific coast bloom from the latter half of June until to early August, much than the lilies on the coasts of the Sea of Japan that bloom from the latter half of May to early June.

This species used to be considered one of the more important in food consumption as lily bulb or yuri-ne around the turn of the 20th century. Recognized cultivarsLilium maculatum var. bukosanense H. Hara Lilium maculatum var. maculatumThe variety bukosanense was discovered on Mount Bukō in Saitama Prefecture near Tokyo, with scattered populations found in Ibaraki Prefecture. The variety is unusual, as it is a "hanging" or "weeping" type with a pendulous stem, but is listed as critically endangered by Saitama's Red Data Book; the mountain has been quarried for limestone by the cement industry, which now collaborates in the plant's conservation efforts in captivity. Japanese literature c. 1900 writes of several yellow varieties grown which had no spots, but a warning was written against their export, while only spotted or spotted varieties of these yellow lilies were being shipped to the West. Years the spottless yellow lilies were still considered few and elusive. IncludedLilium maculatum subsp.

Dauricum H. Hara, now considered a synonym of Lilium pensylvanicum Ker Gawl. Lilium maculatum var. monticola H. Hara, now considered a synonym of Lilium maculatum var. maculatum Citations Bibliography

List of Michigan state game and wildlife areas

The following is a list of Michigan state game and wildlife areas found throughout the U. S. state of Michigan. The state has a system of publicly-owned lands managed for wildlife conservation, wildlife observation, recreational activities, hunting; some areas provide opportunities for camping, cross-country skiing, bird watching, bicycling and off-road vehicle trails. Activities, as well as rules and regulations, vary among individual areas; the Michigan Department of Natural Resources oversees the properties through subdivisions including the Forestry Division and Recreation Division, Grouse Enhanced Management System, the Wildlife Division. Local municipalities may enforce their own rules and regulations, some portions may be private property; some units are managed cooperatively on the national level with the National Park Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or U. S. Forest Service. Depending on their purpose, the units are divided into four categories: state game areas, state wildlife management areas, state wildlife areas, state wildlife research areas.

GEMS and designated waterfowl production areas are categorized as state wildlife management areas. There are a total of 211 distinct units, which account for a total approximate land area of 688,000 acres or 1,075 square miles; some units encompass large areas, with the largest being the Allegan State Game Area at 51,250 acres or 80 square miles. The smallest unit is the Mud Creek Flooding State Wildlife Management Area at only 18 acres. List of Michigan state parks Michigan Department of Natural Resources Protected areas of Michigan Homepage for the Michigan Department of Natural Resources State Wildlife/Game Areas Summary List of State Wildlife/Game Areas of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources

Draycott railway station

For the station in Derbyshire, see Draycott and Breaston railway station. Draycott railway station was a station on the Bristol and Exeter Railway's Cheddar Valley line in Draycott, Somerset; the station was opened with the extension of the broad gauge line from Cheddar to Wells in April 1870, converted to standard gauge in the mid-1870s and linked up to the East Somerset Railway to provide through services from Yatton to Witham in 1878. All the railways involved were absorbed into the Great Western Railway in the 1870s; the Yatton to Witham line closed to passengers in 1963, though goods traffic passed through to Cheddar until 1969. Draycott station, one of the smaller stations on the line, is now in residential use and still boasts many of the original Bristol and Exeter Railway features. Oakley, Mike. Somerset Railway Stations. Wimborne: Dovecote Press. P. 52. ISBN 1-904349-09-9