Mohamed Mohamed el-Amir Awad el-Sayed Atta was an Egyptian hijacker and one of the ringleaders of the September 11 attacks in which four United States commercial aircraft were commandeered with the intention of destroying specific civilian and military targets. He served as the hijacker-pilot of American Airlines Flight 11 which he crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center as part of the coordinated attacks. At 33 years of age, he was the oldest of the 19 hijackers. Born and raised in Egypt, Atta studied architecture at Cairo University, graduating in 1990, continued his studies in Germany at the Hamburg University of Technology. In Hamburg, Atta became involved with the al-Quds Mosque, where he met Marwan al-Shehhi, Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Ziad Jarrah, together forming the Hamburg cell. Atta disappeared from Germany for periods of time, embarking on the hajj in 1995 but meeting Osama bin Laden and other top al-Qaeda leaders in Afghanistan from late 1999 to early 2000. Atta and the other Hamburg cell members were recruited by bin Laden and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed for a "planes operation" in the United States.
Atta returned to Hamburg in February 2000, began inquiring about flight training in the United States. In June 2000, Atta and Marwan al-Shehhi arrived in the United States to learn how to pilot planes, obtaining instrument ratings in November. Beginning in May 2001, Atta assisted with the arrival of the muscle hijackers, in July he traveled to Spain to meet with bin al-Shibh to finalize the plot. In August 2001, Atta traveled as a passenger on several "surveillance" flights, to establish in detail how the attacks could be carried out. On the morning of September 11, Atta boarded American Airlines Flight 11, which he and his team hijacked. Atta took control of the plane and crashed it into the North Tower of the World Trade Center as planned; the crash led to the deaths of over 1,600 people. Mohamed Atta varied his name on documents using "Mehan Atta", "Mohammad El Amir", "Muhammad Atta", "Mohamed El Sayed", "Mohamed Elsayed", "Muhammad al-Amir", "Awag Al Sayyid Atta", "Awad Al Sayad". In Germany, he registered his name as "Mohamed el-Amir Awad el-Sayed Atta", went by the name Mohamed el-Amir at the Hamburg University of Technology.
In his will, written in 1996, Atta gives his name as "Mohamed the son of Mohamed Elamir awad Elsayed." Atta claimed different nationalities, sometimes Egyptian and other times telling people he was from the United Arab Emirates. Atta was born on September 1968, in Kafr el-Sheikh, located in Egypt's Nile Delta region, his father, Mohamed el-Amir Awad el-Sayed Atta, was a lawyer, educated in civil law. His mother, Bouthayna Mohamed Mustapha Sheraqi, came from a wealthy farming and trading family and was educated. Bouthayna and Mohamed married; the family kept their distance from Bouthayna's family. In-laws characterized Atta's father as "austere and private," and neighbors viewed the family as reclusive. Atta was the only son; when Atta was ten, his family moved to the Cairo neighborhood of Abdeen, situated near the city center. His father, who kept the family insulated, forbade young Atta to fraternize with the other children in their neighborhood. Having little else to do, he studied at home and excelled in school.
In 1985, Atta focused his studies on engineering. He was among the highest-scoring students. After he graduated in 1990 with an architecture degree, he joined the Engineers Syndicate, an organization under the control of the Muslim Brotherhood, he worked for several months at the Urban Development Center in Cairo, where he joined various building projects and dispatched diverse architectural tasks. In 1990, Atta's family moved into the eleventh floor of an apartment building in the Egyptian city of Giza. Atta graduated from Cairo University with marks insufficient for the graduate program; as his father insisted that he go abroad for graduate studies, Atta, to this end, entered a German-language program at the Goethe Institute in Cairo. In 1992, his father had overheard a German couple; the couple explained at dinner that they ran an exchange program and invited Atta to continue his studies in Germany. Mohamed Atta accepted and was in Germany two weeks in July. In Germany, he enrolled in the urban planning graduate program at the Hamburg University of Technology.
Atta lived with two high school teachers. Atta began adhering to the strictest Islamic diet, frequenting the most conservative mosques and acting disdainfully towards the couple's unmarried daughter who had a young child. After six months, they asked him to leave. By early 1993, Atta had moved into university housing in Centrumshause, he stayed there until 1998. During that period, his roommates grew annoyed with him, he bathed, they could not bear his "complete aggressive insularity". He kept to himself to such an extent that he would turn away from a salutation with supercilious silence. At the Hamburg University of Tec
The Republican Front was a coalition of political parties in Burkina Faso. The coalition was launched on January 23, 2014 at a conference held at Hotel Splendid in the capital Ouagadougou; some forty political parties took part in the foundation of the coalition. The coalition emerged in response to popular protests against reform of Article 37; the coalition supported holding a referendum on Article 37 of the Constitution, which would have enabled the president Blaise Compaoré took be re-elected. Amongst the leaders present at the founding of the Republican Front were Assimi Kouanda, Alain Zoubga, Ram Ouédraogo, Hermann Yaméogo, Maxime Kaboré, Toussaint Abel Coulibaly and Diemdoda Dicko. In February 2014 a list of member parties of the Front was released, with 25 parties from the presidential majority and 12 parties from the opposition. At a meeting held in April 2014, twelve parties announced their entry into the Republican Front. On April 12, 2014 the Republican Front organized a mass meeting at Bobo Dioulasso.
Chantal Compaoré, the first lady of the Republic, addressed the meeting. On October 8, 2014 the Republican Front announced the entry of three new political parties into the front.
Subhi Sa'id al-Khadra was a Palestinian Arab politician and newspaper columnist. As an Istiqlal leader, he helped organize anti-British and anti-Zionist activities in Palestine, including the 1936–39 Arab revolt, which resulted in his three-year imprisonment. Al-Khadra was born in Safed, northern Palestine in 1895 as the sixth child of his family; the Khadra were a rural family of notables. When he was born, his 16-year-old brother Faris died. In 1901, his father died. Subhi received his primary and secondary education in Safed and studied at the Ottoman Sultanate School of Beirut, his teachers included Rafiq al-Tamimi and Adil al-Azma. After graduating, he attended the Imperial War College in Istanbul where he graduated with a commission in the Ottoman Army. During the beginning of World War I in 1916, he fought with the Ottomans in southern Palestine, but deserted by surrendering to the British south of Gaza. After interrogation and debriefing in Cairo, where he provided several articles to the magazine Al-Kawkab, he joined Sharif Hussein bin Ali's forces in the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans.
He was wounded several times while fighting Ottoman troops. He was among the Arab forces led by Emir Faisal, son of Sharif Hussein, that entered Damascus in 1918 after driving out the remaining Ottoman forces. In Damascus, he joined al-Fatat. From 1918 to 1920, he worked in the Directorate of Public Security in Faisal's administration. Towards the end of this period, he married the sister of his Lebanese colleague in the Revolution, Fu'ad Saleem. During the Battle of Maysalun with the French Army on July 24, 1920, al-Khadra served as a combatant. After the French deposed Faisal's Damascus-based government following their victory in Maysalun, al-Khadra returned to Palestine. There, he studied law and opened his own practice, he wrote an article in 1930 that claimed Zionism was an "imperial British tool" and part of its divide-and-conquer method in the Arab world. He supported Iraqi-Syrian unity and stressed that Palestine was the southern part of Syria. British Police investigations found that al-Khadra led Palestinian Arabs in the 1929 Palestine riots in Safed.
As an attorney and a director of the Waqf in the Galilee, he helped establish the Young Men's Muslim Associations in the area. Al-Khadra became one of the nine founders of the Istiqlal Party in 1932, he explained in an article in al-'Arab that the party's purpose was to counter factionalism and self-interest in Palestinian politics which had left the liberation movement without direction. He asserted the Palestinian national movement for independence from Britain deviated from its goals; the leading Istiqlal member in the Galilee, he proposed holding annual anti-British rallies on the anniversary of the Battle of Hattin when Saladin's Muslim forces decisively defeated the Crusaders, restoring Palestine to the Islamic domain. The proposal was adopted after receiving Rashid al-Haj Ibrahim's support. Al-Khadra assisted Arab guerrilla leader Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam with forming paramilitary units and increasing membership in his anti-Zionist movement. Following al-Qassam's death in Ya'bad by British forces, al-Khadra, among others, organized the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine against the British Mandate.
He was arrested and incarcerated in prison at Acre, Jerusalem and al-Manshiyya Farms for over three years until his release in mid-1940. In September 1947, he was set to be the Palestinian Arab representative in the Military Commission of the League of Arab States, but was replaced by fellow Istiqlal member, Wasif Kamal. Al-Khadra died in Damascus on 4 July 1954, he was survived by his son Faisal al-Khadra and daughters, Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Bouran. Faisal was a banker in Damascus, Kuwait and Amman, an investment manager in the latter until his retirement in 2005. Salma is a writer and literary trend leader of outstanding international fame. Kedourie, Elie and Arabism in Palestine and Israel, Routledge, ISBN 0714631698 Levenberg, Military Preparations of the Arab Community in Palestine, 1945-1948, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7146-3439-5 Massad, Joseph Andoni, Desiring Arabs, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-50958-3 Matthew, Weldon C. Confronting an empire, constructing a nation: Arab nationalists and popular politics in mandate Palestine, I.
B. Tauris, ISBN 1-84511-173-7 Sekaily, Haifa: Transformation of an Arab Society 1918-1939, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 1-86064-556-9