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Mohammed Rafi

Mohammed Rafi was an Indian playback singer. He is considered as one of the greatest and most influential singers of the Indian subcontinent. Rafi was notable for his voice and range, he was known for his ability to mould his voice to the persona and style of an actor, lip-syncing the song on screen in the movie. He received one National Film Award. In 1967, he was honoured with the Padma Shri award by the Government of India. In 2001, Rafi was honoured with the "Best Singer of the Millennium" title by Hero Honda and Stardust magazine. In 2013, Rafi was voted for the Greatest Voice in Hindi Cinema in the CNN-IBN's poll, he has recorded songs for over a thousand Hindi films and has sung songs in various regional Indian languages as well as foreign languages, though in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi over which he had a strong command. He has recorded as many as 7405 songs in many languages, he has sung in many regional Indian languages including Konkani, Bhojpuri, Punjabi, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, Magahi, Maithili.

Apart from Indian languages, he sang songs in many foreign languages including English, Arabic, Sinhala and Dutch. Mohammed Rafi was the second eldest of six brothers born to Haji Ali Mohammad; the family belonged to Kotla Sultan Singh, a village near present-day Majitha in Amritsar district of Punjab, India. Rafi, whose nickname was Pheeko, began singing by imitating the chants of a fakir in the streets of his native village Kotla Sultan Singh where his family lived. Rafi's father moved to Lahore in 1935. Rafi learnt classical music from Pandit Jiwan Lal Mattoo and Firoze Nizami, his first public performance came at the age of 13. In 1941, under Shyam Sundar, made his debut in Lahore as a playback singer in the duet "Soniye Nee, Heeriye Nee" with Zeenat Begum in the Punjabi film Gul Baloch under music director Shyam Sunder. In that same year, Rafi was invited by All India Radio Lahore station to sing for them, he made his Hindi film debut in Gaon Ki Gori in 1945. Rafi moved to Bombay, Maharashtra in 1944.

He and Hameed Sahab rented a ten-by-ten-feet room in the crowded downtown Bhendi Bazar area. Poet Tanvir Naqvi introduced him to film producers including Abdur Rashid Kardar, Mehboob Khan and actor-director Nazeer. Shyam Sunder was in Bombay and provided the opportunity to Rafi to sing a duet with G. M. Durrani, "Aji dil ho kaabu mein to dildar ki aisi taisi..." for Gaon Ki Gori, which became Rafi's first recorded song in a Hindi film. Other songs followed. Rafi's first song with Naushad was "Hindustan Ke Hum Hain" with Shyam Kumar and others, from A. R. Kardar's Pehle Aap. Around the same time, Rafi recorded another song for the 1945 film Gaon Ki Gori, "Aji Dil Ho Kaaboo Mein", he considered this song to be his first Hindi language song. Rafi appeared in two movies. In 1945, he appeared on the screen for the song "Tera Jalwa Jis Ne Dekha" in the film Laila Majnu, he sang a number of songs for Naushad as part of the chorus, including "Mere Sapnon Ki Rani, Roohi Roohi" with K. L. Saigal, from the film Shahjahan.

Rafi sang "Tera Khilona Toota Balak" from Mehboob Khan's Anmol Ghadi and a duet with Noor Jehan in the 1947 film Jugnu, "Yahan Badla Wafa Ka". After partition, Rafi had the rest of his family flown to Bombay. Noor Jehan made a pair with playback singer Ahmed Rushdi. In 1949, Rafi was given solo songs by music directors such as Naushad Shyam Sunder and Husnalal Bhagatram. Besides K. L. Saigal, whom he considered his favourite, Rafi was influenced by G. M. Durrani. In the early phase of his career, he followed Durrani's style of singing, but evolved his own, unique style, he sang with Durrani in some of the songs such as "Humko Hanste Dekh Zamana Jalta Hai" and "Khabar Kisi Ko Nahiin, Woh Kidhar Dekhte". In 1948, after the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, the team of Husanlal Bhagatram-Rajendra Krishan-Rafi had overnight created the song "Suno Suno Ae Duniyawalon, Bapuji Ki Amar Kahani", he was invited by Jawaharlal Nehru, to sing at his house. In 1948, Rafi received a silver medal from Jawaharlal Nehru on Indian Independence Day.

In his early career, Rafi associated with many contemporary music directors, most notably Naushad Ali. In the late 1950s and 1960s, he worked with other composers of the era such as O. P. Nayyar, Shankar Jaikishan, S. D. Burman and Roshan; as per Naushad, Rafi came to him with a letter of recommendation from Naushad's father. Rafi's first song for Naushad Ali was "Hindustan Ke Hum Hain" for the film Pehle Aap in 1944; the first song for the duo was the soundtrack of the movie Anmol Ghadi. Rafi's association with Naushad helped the former establish himself as one of the most prominent playback singers in Hindi cinema. Songs from Baiju Bawra like "O duniya ke rakhwale" and "Man tarpat hari darshan ko aaj" furthered Rafi's credentials. Rafi ended up singing a total of 149 songs for Naushad. Before Rafi, Naushad's favourite singer was Talat Mahmood. Once Naushad found Talat smoking during a recording, he was annoyed, hired Rafi to sing all the songs of the movie Baiju Bawra. S. D. Burman used Rafi as a singing voice of Guru Dutt.

Rafi worked with Burman in 37 films, including Pyaasa, Kaagaz Ke P

Constance Jones

Emily Elizabeth Constance Jones known as Constance Jones or E. E. Constance Jones, was educator, she worked in logic and ethics. Emily Elizabeth Constance Jones was born at Langstone Court, Herefordshire, to John Jones and his wife, daughter of Thomas Oakley JP, of Monmouthshire, she was the eldest of ten children. Constance was tutored at home, she spent her early teenage years with her family in Cape Town, South Africa, when they returned to England in 1865 she attended a small school, Miss Robinson's, in Cheltenham, for a year. She was coached for the entrance examination for Girton College, Cambridge by Miss Alice Grüner, a former student of Newnham at her home in Sydenham, Kent, she went up to Girton in 1875 where, prompted by having read Henry Fawcett's Political Economy and Mill's Logic, she chose the Moral Sciences Tripos. However, she immediately had to withdraw in order to look after the aunt with whom she lived, her undergraduate career was interrupted because the education of her younger brothers took precedence over her own, but despite this in 1880 she was awarded a first class in the Moral Sciences Tripos.

She returned to Girton in 1884 as a resident lecturer in Moral Sciences. Having studied with Henry Sidgwick, James Ward and J. N. Keynes, she completed the translation of Lotze's Mikrokosmus initiated by Elizabeth Hamilton, she edited Henry Sidgwick's Methods of Ethics and his Ethics of Green and Martineau. She was Mistress of Girton College, from 1903 until her retirement in 1916. Jones was one of the first women to join the Aristotelian Society in 1892, serving on the Society's Executive Committee from 1914 to 1916, she was the first woman recorded as having delivered a paper to the Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club. She spoke about James Ward's Naturalism and Agnosticism on 1 December 1899, with the philosopher Henry Sidgwick chairing the meeting, her views were influenced her colleagues. She spent her career developing the idea that categorical propositions are composed of a predicate and a subject related via identity or non-identity. Constance Jones' most significant contribution to philosophy was in logic and she was regarded to be an authority in this area by her contemporaries.

Her major work is A New Law of its Logical Bearings. She was chiefly concerned with the interpretation of propositions. G. F. Stout says of her: "She did good service in insisting on the distinction between interpretation from the point of view of the speaker and that of the hearer". In her autobiography, Jones wrote of an early fascination with issues related to the nature and structure of content: "This unsettled question—what is asserted when you make a statement, what is the proper form of statement?—had interested me from the time when I was a student and puzzled over Mill's and Jevons' accounts of propositions". Jones published several textbooks on logic and numerous articles on logic and ethics on Sidgwick's ethical hedonism. However, despite her contribution to analytic philosophy she has become forgotten; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Ostertag, Gary. "Emily Elizabeth Constance Jones".

In Zalta, Edward N.. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "Works of E. E. Constance Jones". PhilPapers

Isagani Cruz

Isagani A. Cruz was a Filipino judge who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1986 to 1994, he retired from the Supreme Court on October 11, 1994, due to the court's mandatory retirement age of 70 years. Cruz was from Manila, he graduated from Manuel L. Quezon School of Law in 1951, he placed eighth in the 1951 Philippine Bar Examination with a score of 90.12%. He married his wife, Salvacion, on May 3, 1952. Prior to his appointment to the High Court, Justice Cruz served, among others, as Chair of the Code Commission of the Department of Justice, he was a full professor and/or bar reviewer in Political Law, Constitutional Law and International Law in the University of the East, San Beda College, Ateneo de Manila University, University of Santo Tomas, San Sebastian College, Adamson University, University of Manila. He wrote a column called "Separate Opinion" for the Philippine Daily Inquirer from 1995 to 2010 after retiring from the Supreme Court. Isagani A. Cruz died in his sleep on March 21, 2013, at the age of 88.

He was survived by his wife of 60 years and six children - Cesar, Celso, Isagani Jr. and Cynthia. Javier v. Comelec – "where the Court ruled in favor of Evelio Javier, a rival of Marcos’ KBL party member Arturo Pacificador, in the Batasan polls in May 1984 in Antique. In 1986, Javier was killed in an ambush during the pendency of the case." People v. Carmina the high court held "Even if treachery were not present in this case, the crime would still be murder because of the dismemberment of the dead body. One of the qualifying circumstances of murder under Article 248, par. 6, of the Revised Penal Code is "outraging or scoffing at person or corpse" of the victim."