The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
Interstate 40 is a major east-west Interstate Highway running through the south-central portion of the United States north of I-10, I-20 and I-30 but south of I-70. The western end is at I-15 in California. S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina, it is the third-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, behind I-80 and I-90. Much of the western part of I-40, from Oklahoma City to Barstow parallels or overlays the historic US 66, east of Oklahoma City the route parallels US 64 and US 70. I-40 runs through many major cities including New Mexico. Though I-40 is a cross-country east-west interstate, it does not nearly touch both oceans or coasts like I-10, I-80 and I-90 does; the eastern terminus touches near the Atlantic Ocean, but the western terminus doesn't touch the Pacific Ocean. Interstate 40 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, its western end is in California. Known as the Needles Freeway, it heads east from Barstow across the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County to Needles, before it crosses into Arizona southwest of Kingman.
I-40 covers 155 miles in California. A sign in California showing the distance to Wilmington, North Carolina has been stolen several times. Interstate 40 is a main route to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, with the exits leading into Grand Canyon National Park in Williams and Flagstaff. I-40 covers 359 mi in Arizona. Just west of exit 190, west of Flagstaff, is its highest elevation along I-40 in the U. S. as the road crosses just over 7,320 ft. I-40 passes through the Navajo Nation, the largest Indian reservation in the U. S. I-40 covers 374 miles in New Mexico. Notable cities along I-40 include Gallup, Albuquerque, Santa Rosa, Tucumcari. I-40 travels through several different Indian reservations in the western half of the state, it reaches its highest point of 7,275 feet at the Continental Divide in western New Mexico between Gallup and Grants. Arizona, New Mexico, Texas are the only three states where I-40 has a speed limit of 75 mph instead of 70 mph which happens in California, Arkansas and North Carolina.
In the west Texas panhandle area, there are several ranch roads connected directly to the interstate. One of the marked at-grade crossings is shown to the right; the only major city in Texas, directly served by I-40 is Amarillo, which connects with Interstate 27 that runs south toward Lubbock. I-40 has only one welcome center in the state, located in Amarillo at the exit for Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport, serving both sides of the interstate. Interstate 40 goes through the heart of the state, passing through many Oklahoma cities and towns, including Erick, Elk City, Weatherford, El Reno, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Okemah, Checotah and Roland. I-40 covers 331 miles in Oklahoma. In Downtown Oklahoma City, Interstate 40 was rerouted a mile south of its former alignment and a 10–lane facility replaced the former I-40 Crosstown Bridge. Interstate 40 runs for 284 miles in Arkansas; the route passes through Van Buren, where it intersects the southbound Interstate 540/US 71 to Fort Smith.
The route continues east to Alma to intersect Interstate 49 north to Arkansas. Running through the Ozark Mountains, I-40 serves Ozark, Russellville and Conway; the route turns south after Conway and enters North Little Rock, which brings high volume interchanges with Interstate 430, I-30/US 65/US 67/US 167, I-440/AR 440. The interstate continues east through Lonoke and West Memphis on the eastern side. Interstate 40 overlaps Interstate 55 in West Memphis before it crosses the Mississippi River on the Hernando de Soto Bridge and enters Memphis, Tennessee. More of Interstate 40 passes through 455 miles, than any other state; the interstate goes through all of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee and its three largest cities, Memphis and Knoxville. Jackson, Cookeville and Newport are other notable cities and/or towns through which I-40 passes. Before leaving the state, I-40 enters the Great Smoky Mountains towards North Carolina; the section of Interstate 40 which runs between Memphis and Nashville is referred to as the Music Highway.
During reconstruction, a long section of I-40 through downtown Knoxville near the central Malfunction Junction was closed to traffic from May 1, 2008 and not reopened until June 12, 2009 with all traffic redirected via Interstate 640, the northern bypass route. The redesigned section now has additional lanes in each direction, is less congested, has fewer accidents. In North Carolina, I-40 travels 421 miles, it enters the state as a winding mountain freeway through the Great Smoky Mountains which closes due to landslides and weather conditions. It enters the state on a north-south alignment, turning to a more east-west alignment upon merging with U. S. Route 74 at the eastern terminus of the Great Smoky Mountains Expressway. From there the highway passes through Asheville and Statesville before reaching the Piedmont Triad. Just east of the Triad city of Greensboro, North Carolina it merges with I-85 and the two roads split again
Mohave County, Arizona
Mohave County is in the northwestern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 200,186; the county seat is Kingman, the largest city is Lake Havasu City. Mohave County includes the Lake Havasu City-Kingman, Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Las Vegas-Henderson, Nevada-Arizona Combined Statistical Area. Mohave County contains parts of Grand Canyon National Park and Lake Mead National Recreation Area and all of the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument; the Kaibab, Fort Mojave and Hualapai Indian Reservations lie within the county. Mohave County was the one of four original Arizona Counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and north of the Bill Williams River. Pah-Ute County was created from it in 1865 and was merged back into Mohave County in 1871 when much of its territory was ceded to Nevada in 1866; the county's present boundaries were established in 1881.
The county is notable for being home to a large polygamous Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints sect located in Colorado City. Mohave County has had five county seats: Mohave City, Cerbat, Mineral Park, Kingman. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 13,461 square miles, of which 13,311 square miles is land and 150 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by area in Arizona and the fifth-largest in the contiguous United States. The county consists of two sections divided by the Grand Canyon, with no direct land communication between them; the northern section and less populated, forms the western part of the Arizona Strip, bordering Utah and Nevada. The larger southern section borders Nevada and California across the Colorado River, which forms most of the county's western boundary; the southern section includes Kingman, the county seat, other cities, as well as part of the Mojave Desert. Washington County, Utah - north Kane County, Utah - northeast Coconino County - east Yavapai County - east La Paz County - south San Bernardino County, California - southwest Clark County, Nevada - west Lincoln County, Nevada - northwestMohave County and its adjacent counties form the largest such block of counties outside of Alaska.
Their combined land area is larger than that of the state of Idaho. They include the #1, #2, #5, #7 largest counties outside of Alaska. Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge Grand Canyon National Park Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Kaibab National Forest Lake Mead National Recreation Area Pipe Spring National MonumentThere are 18 official wilderness areas in Mohave County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral parts of the preceding protected areas, or have shared jurisdiction with the BLM; some extend into neighboring counties All wilderness areas within Grand Canyon-Parashant NM are managed by BLM, although the National Monument shares management with the National Park Service: Arrastra Mountain Wilderness in Yavapai County, AZ and La Paz County, AZ Aubrey Peak Wilderness Beaver Dam Mountains Wilderness in Washington County, UT Cottonwood Point Wilderness Grand Wash Cliffs Wilderness managed by BLM Havasu Wilderness in San Bernardino County, CA Kanab Creek Wilderness in Coconino County, AZ Mount Logan Wilderness managed by BLM Mount Nutt Wilderness Mount Tipton Wilderness Mount Trumbull Wilderness managed by BLM Mount Wilson Wilderness Paiute Wilderness managed by BLM Rawhide Mountains Wilderness in La Paz County, AZ Swansea Wilderness in La Paz County, AZ Upper Burro Creek Wilderness in Yavapai County, AZ Wabayuma Peak Wilderness Warm Springs Wilderness As of the 2000 census, there were 155,032 people, 62,809 households, 43,401 families residing in the county.
The population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 80,062 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.06% White, 0.54% Black or African American, 2.41% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 4.00% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. 11.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 62,809 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 24.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.10% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 20.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,521, the median income for a family was $36,311. Males had a median income of $28,505 versus $20,632 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,788. About 9.80% of families and 13.90% o
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
Lake Mead is a man made lake that lies on the Colorado River, about 24 mi from the Las Vegas Strip, southeast of the city of Las Vegas, Nevada, in the states of Nevada and Arizona. It is the largest reservoir in the United States in terms of water capacity. Formed by the Hoover Dam on September 30, 1935, the reservoir serves water to the states of Arizona and Nevada, as well as some of Mexico, providing sustenance to nearly 20 million people and large areas of farmland. At maximum capacity, Lake Mead is 112 miles long, 532 feet at its greatest depth, has a surface elevation of 1,221.4 feet above sea level and 247 square miles of surface area, contains 26.12 million acre feet of water. The lake has not reached full capacity, since 1983 due to a combination of drought and increased water demand; as of August 2017, Lake Mead was at 40% of full capacity with 10 million acre feet of held water. It has been smaller than Lake Powell since 2013; the lake was named after Elwood Mead, the commissioner of the U.
S. Bureau of Reclamation from 1924 to 1936, during the planning and construction of the Boulder Canyon Project that created the dam and lake. Lake Mead was established as the Boulder Dam Recreation Area in 1936 administrated by the National Park Service; the name was changed to the Lake Mead National Recreation Area in 1964, Lake Mohave and the Shivwits Plateau were added to its jurisdiction. Both lakes and the surrounding area offer year-round recreation options; the accumulated water from Hoover Dam forced the evacuation of several communities, most notably St. Thomas, whose last resident left the town in 1938; the ruins of St. Thomas are sometimes visible. Lake Mead covered the sites of the Colorado River landings of Callville and Rioville and the river crossing of Bonelli's Ferry, between Arizona and Nevada. At lower water levels, a high-water mark or "bathtub ring" is visible in photos that show the shoreline of Lake Mead; the bathtub ring is white because of the leaching of minerals on submerged surfaces.
Nine main access points to the lake are available. On the west are three roads from the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Access from the northwest from Interstate 15 is through the Valley of Fire State Park and the Moapa River Indian Reservation to the Overton Arm of the lake; the lake is divided into several bodies. The large body closest to the Hoover Dam is Boulder Basin; the narrow channel, once known as Boulder Canyon and is now known as The Narrows, connects Boulder Basin to Virgin Basin to the east. The Virgin River and Muddy River empty into the Overton Arm, connected to the northern part of the Virgin Basin; the next basin to the east is Temple Basin, following, Gregg Basin, connected to the Temple Basin by the Virgin Canyon. When the lake levels are high enough, a section of the lake farther upstream from the Gregg Basin is flooded, which includes Grand Wash Bay, the Pearce Ferry Bay and launch ramp, about 55 miles of the Colorado River within the lower Grand Canyon, extending to the foot of 240 Mile Rapids.
In addition, two small basins, the Muddy River Inlet and the Virgin River Basin, are flooded when the lake is high enough where these two rivers flow into the lake. As of February 2015, these basins remain dry. Jagged mountain ranges surround the lake, offering a scenic backdrop at sunset. Two mountain ranges are within view of the Boulder Basin, the River Mountains, oriented northwest to southeast and the Muddy Mountains, oriented west to northeast. Bonelli Peak lies to the east of the Virgin Basin. Las Vegas Bay is the terminus for the Las Vegas Wash, the sole outflow from the Las Vegas Valley. Lake Mead receives the majority of its water from snow melt in the Colorado and Utah Rocky Mountains. Inflows to the lake are moderated by the upstream Glen Canyon Dam, required to release 8.23 million acre feet of water each year to Lake Mead. Hoover Dam is required to release 9 million acre feet of water each year, with the difference made up by tributaries that join the Colorado below Glen Canyon or flow into Lake Mead.
Outflow, which includes evaporation and delivery to Arizona, California and Mexico from Lake Mead are in the range of 9.5 to 9.7 million acre feet, resulting in a net annual deficit of about 1.2 million acre feet. Before the filling of Lake Powell behind Glen Canyon Dam, the Colorado River flowed unregulated into Lake Mead, making Mead more vulnerable to drought. From 1953 to 1956, the water level fell from 1,200 to 1,085 feet. During the filling of Lake Powell from 1963 to 1965, the water level fell from 1,205 to 1,090 feet. Multiple wet years from the 1970s to the 1990s filled both lakes to capacity, reaching a record high of 1,225 feet in the summer of 1983. In these decades prior to 2000, Glen Canyon Dam released more than the required 8.23 million acre feet to Lake Mead each year. This allowed Lake Mead to maintain a high water level despite releasing more water than it is contracted for. However, since 2000, the Colorado River has experienced persistent drought, with average or above-average conditions occurring in only five years in the first 16 years of the 21st century.
Although Glen Canyon was able to meet its required minimum release until 2014, the water level in Lake Mead has declined. The decreas
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
Bullhead City, Arizona
Bullhead City is a city located on the Colorado River in Mohave County, United States 90 mi south of Las Vegas and directly across the Colorado River from Laughlin, whose casinos and ancillary services supply much of the employment for Bullhead City. Bullhead City is located on the southern border of Lake Mohave. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 39,540; the nearby communities of Laughlin, California, Fort Mohave and Mohave Valley bring the Bullhead area's total population to about 100,000, making it the largest micropolitan area in Mohave County. With over 59 square miles, Bullhead City is the largest city in Mohave County in terms of total land area. In 2011, the Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport was named Airport of the Year by the Arizona Department of Transportation; the latest figures indicate that "...more than 115,000 people flew into Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport on casino-sponsored charters in 2010." In the 1980s the airport was home to the helicopters of the TV show Airwolf.
The earliest inhabitants of the Colorado River Valley were the Mojave people. The rich soil and plentiful water provided the valley's natives with the necessities to create a prosperous farming community. According to Mojave legend, life began on Spirit Mountain, the highest peak visible from the Bullhead City area; the first account of European contact was with Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz. He documented his travels in Northwestern Mohave County in 1540, he accounts of meeting a large population of natives who referred to themselves as the Pipa Aha Macav, meaning "People by the River". From "Aha Macav" came the shortened name "Mojave". While Mohave County uses the modern English spelling, the tribe retains the traditional Spanish spelling "Mojave". Both are correct, both are pronounced "Moh-hah-vee". Father Francisco Garces crossed the Colorado River in the Bullhead City area in 1774. In March 1864 the current site of Bullhead City was the location of a settlement called Hardyville, it was named for William Harrison Hardy.
A New York native and an entrepreneur, Hardy established, with the support of George Alonzo Johnson's steamboat company, a ferry service and a steamboat landing where the Mojave Road crossed the Colorado River. He built and owned the Hardyville - Prescott Road, a toll road from Hardyville to the new Arizona territorial capital of Prescott and raised Angora goats, he was a somewhat controversial figure. He was the town's first postmaster from January 17, 1865, is credited with the invention of the riveted mail sack, he was a Mohave County supervisor and a member of the Arizona Territorial Legislature. In 1864 his personal worth was over $40,000. From 1864 to 1883, steamboats made regular trips up the Colorado River from Port Isabel, Sonora and, after the arrival of the railroad from Yuma, stopping at Hardyville to deliver supplies to the mines of the surrounding mining districts and those to the east in the interior of Arizona and carry out their ore for processing and sale; these stern-wheeler riverboats played an important part in the early development of the areas bordering the Colorado River and Hardyville was considered the low water limit of navigation for the steamboats.
Steamboat travel above that point to places in like El Dorado Canyon and Rioville was possible only during the few months of the late spring to early summer flood caused by snow melt in the upper Colorado River watershed. Hardyville was the starting point for wagon roads and pack trails to the mines and other settlements in the upper region of the river, it was the port for flatboats that ascended the river as far as Callville in the extreme low water time of the year. In April 1866, Brevet Brigadier General James Fowler Rusling visited the settlement and described it: Hardyville received a boost in 1867, when it became the county seat of Mohave County and the mills at Eldorado Canyon began operating stimulating trade up river again. Hardyville had a population of 20 in 1870; the 1870s saw a population boom in Hardyville. With the end of hostilities with the Native Americans in Mohave County, mines in the interior boomed again and the small town grew with the addition of the construction of a general store, a saloon, a blacksmith shop, a billiard hall, a respectable public hall.
However, in 1873, the county seat was moved to the mining boomtown of Cerbat. In 1877, the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived at Yuma, it bought out Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, by 1878 had built rails into Maricopaville resulting in wagon traffic moving to that railhead, closer to the mines in the northern interior than Hardyville. Traffic on the road to the interior mines of the east from Hardyville waned except for that to Cerbat, Mineral Park, Chloride. In May 1881, Issac Polhamus, captain of one of the Southern Pacific-owned Colorado Steam Navigation Company steamboats, went into competition with Hardy for the trade to those mines establishing Polhamus Landing, a rival landing five miles up river, closer to the mines, taking away most of its river trade. Worse yet, the construction of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad to its bridge crossing on the Colorado River near Needles, in May 1883, saw the remaining interior mining trade move away from the Colorado River and Hardyville.
The Hardyville post office was discontinued in favor of the one in Mohave City on February 19, 1883. As the silver price declined in the late 1880s and early 1890s, the Hardyville mill, its only remaining economic resource, became idle and the remaining population of the town left, leaving it to become a gho