The Mohicans are an Eastern Algonquian Indian tribe, Algonquian-speaking. As part of the Eastern Algonquian family of tribes, they are related to the abutting Lenape, who occupied territory to the south as far as the Atlantic coast; the Mohicans occupied the upper tidal Hudson River Valley, including the confluence of the Mohawk River and into western New England centered on the upper Housatonic watershed. After 1680, due to conflicts with the Mohawk during the Beaver Wars, many were driven southeastward across the present-day Massachusetts western border and the Taconic Mountains to Berkshire County around Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Since the forcible relocation of American Indian populations to reservations in the American West during the 1830s, most descendants of the Mohicans are located in Shawano County, Wisconsin. Decades they formed the federally recognized Stockbridge-Munsee Community with registered members of the Munsee people and have a 22,000-acre reservation. Following the disruption of the American Revolutionary War, most of the Mohican descendants first migrated westward to join the Iroquois Oneida on their reservation in central New York.
The Oneida gave them about 22,000 acres for their use. After more than two decades, in the 1820s and 1830s, the Oneida and the Stockbridge moved again, pressured to relocate to northeastern Wisconsin under the federal Indian Removal program. A group of Mohicans migrated to Canada to live with Iroquois Six Nations; the tribe identified by the place: Muh-he-ka-neew. The word Muh-he-kan refers to a great sea or body of water, the Hudson River reminded them of their place of origin, so they named the Hudson River Mahicanituck, or the river where there are people from the continually flowing waters. Therefore, along with other tribes living along the Hudson River, were called "the River Indians" by the Dutch and English; the Dutch heard and wrote the term for the people of the area variously as: Mahigan, Mahinganak and Mawhickon, among other variants, which the English simplified to Mohican or Mahican, in a transliteration to their spelling system. The French, adopting names used by their Indian allies in Canada, knew the Mohicans as the Loups.
Like the Munsee and Wappinger peoples, the Mohicans were related to the Lenape people, who occupied coastal areas from western Long Island to the Delaware River valley to the south. In the late twentieth century, the Mohicans joined other former New York tribes and the Oneida in filing land claims against New York state for what were considered unconstitutional purchases after the Revolutionary War. In 2010, outgoing governor David Paterson announced a land exchange with the Stockbridge-Munsee that would enable them to build a large casino on 330 acres in Sullivan County in the Catskills, in exchange for dropping their larger claim in Madison County; the deal had many opponents. The Mohicans were living in and around the Hudson River at the time of their first contact with Europeans traders along the river in the 1590s. After 1609 at the time of the Dutch settlement of New Netherland, they ranged along the eastern Mohawk River and the Hoosic River. Most of their communities lay along the upper tidal reaches of the Hudson River and along the watersheds of Kinderhook-Claverack-Taghkanic Creek, the Roeliff Jansen Kill, Catskil Creek, adjacent areas of the Housatonic Watershed.
Mohican territory reached along Hudson River watersheds northeastward to Wood Creek just south of Lake Champlain. In their own language, the Mohicans identified collectively as the Muhhekunneuw, "people of the great tidal river". Mohican villages were large. Consisting of 20 to 30 mid-sized longhouses, they were located on hills and fortified, their large cornfields were located nearby. Agriculture and gathering of nuts and roots provided most of their diet, but was supplemented by the men hunting game, fishing. Mohican villages were governed by hereditary sachems advised by a council of clan elders. A general council of sachems met at Shodac to decide important matters affecting the entire confederacy. In his history of the Indians of the Hudson River, Edward Manning Ruttenber described the clans of the Mohicans as the Bear, the Turkey, the Turtle, the Wolf, with the Wolf serving as a defensive shield in the north against the Mohawk. Like their Munsee-speaking relatives to the south, Mohican villages followed a dispersed settlement pattern, with each community dominated by a single lineage or clan.
Consisting of a small cluster of small and mid-sized longhouses, they were located along floodplains. During times of war, they built fortifications in defensive locations as places of retreat, their cornfields were located near to their communities. Horticulture and gathering of nuts and roots provided much of their diet; this was supplemented by fishing. Mohican communities were governed by hereditary sachems advised by a council of clan elders. A general council of sachems met at Schod
A gyroscope was attached, via mechanical linkage, to an optical monocular sight to form the gyro rate unit or GRU. Gyroscopes, when spinning, keep their spin axes pointed in a given direction if they are undisturbed; as the cross-hairs of the optical sight are kept centred on the moving aircraft the mechanical linkage will pull the gyroscope in the direction of the aircraft movement. The force required to move the gyroscope is proportional to the observed target movement across the line of sight; this force was measured by the deflection of a spring-loaded device and the deflection measurement was combined with rangefinder, and/or, radar measured target range and altitude in a specialized computer, the gyro rate unit box. The Royal Navy, after World War I, became concerned with the threat posed by aerial attack. In 1930 the RN began equipping ships with the High Angle Control System, a non-tachymetric anti-aircraft fire control system, that would compute the gun laying orders and the time fuze setting of the anti-aircraft guns, to hit the target.
The HACS marks I through IV depended upon the control officer inputting to the computer an estimated aircraft direction, speed, combined with range and height measurement from an optical coincidence rangefinder to permit the computer to form a solution. The control officer would estimate target speed based upon aircraft type, while target direction could only be crudely measured by aligning the graticule of his binoculars with the aircraft fuselage; these estimates of target speed and direction were in error, it took time for the HACS to correct these estimates through a feedback loop from the director to the computer, thus delaying the generation of a correct fire control solution and reducing the accuracy of the resulting gunfire. In the 1930s the Royal Navy began to investigate the possibility of combining gyroscopes with optical sights to directly and measure target aircraft speed and direction and began development of the GRU in 1937; the gyro rate unit box used the measured target motion and height, to determine the true direction of movement of the target, including its rate of altitude change, passed this information to the HACS computer, which generated the gun laying orders and the correct time fuze setting.
The HACS computer could not directly use rate of altitude change information, so the GRUB would calculate the target altitude and apparent speed for a short interval of time, equal to the loading cycle of the guns, in advance of the actual time and feed this to the HACS computer allowing it to generate correct gunlaying and fuze setting orders. The GRUB thus converted the HACS into a tachymetric fire control system; the GRU and the GRUB began to appear on RN ships in 1940. The GRU/GRUB could calculate target speed and direction for targets with a maximum speed of 360 knots, or 6 degrees of target motion per second and was most accurate at shorter ranges where apparent target motion was highest. GRU/GRUB was used on The Pom-Pom Director, Mark IV, with the Fuze Keeping Clock. Media related to QF 2 pounder pom-pom at Wikimedia Commons List of anti-aircraft guns The Pom-Pom Director, Mark IV in The Gunnery Pocket Book, B. R. 224/45, 1945 placed online courtesy of Historic Naval Ships Association Illustration of the Pom-Pom Director, Mark IV in The Gunnery Pocket Book, B.
R. 224/45, 1945 placed online courtesy of Historic Naval Ships Association BRITISH MECHANICAL GUNNERY COMPUTERS OF WORLD WAR II
The NRW School of Governance is a central institution within the Institute for Political science at the University Duisburg-Essen and was founded in 2006 under the direction of Karl-Rudolf Korte. It aims, through research and teaching, to promote the scientifically sound understanding of political processes and does so by educating and training students in three main programs: A masters program, titled, "Political management, Public policy and Public administration", a part-time masters program and a doctoral program. On 8 November 2006, the NRW School of Governance was opened in a ceremony by Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia, Jürgen Rüttgers; the launch of the institution was made possible through sponsoring by the Germany company RAG. The company donated €100,000 over the course of two years, to help start the NRW School of Governance. In May 2016 the school celebrated its 10th anniversary, attended by President of the Bundestag Prof. Dr. Norbert Lammert. Karl-Rudolf Korte is the Director of the NRW School of Governance.
Markus Hoffmann is the General Manager. At the NRW School of Governance there are two "core professorships". Christoph Bieber is the holder of the Welker Endowed Professorship for Ethics in Political Management and Society, which focuses on ethical issues in the political decision-making process as well as questions about responsibility, trust and transparency in politics, the public and society; the chair of the public policy and state politics professorship is Andreas Blätte. Experts from politics, the media and science are integrated into the teaching in order to impart the study contents as as possible to the students. Guest lecturers of the NRW School of Governance include: Rupert Antes – managing director Haniel Foundation Moritz Ballensiefen – Personal advisor to the chief executive officer at Forschungszentrum Jülich Frank Bätge – Professor of Public Law at the University of Applied Sciences North Rhine-Westphalia Klaus Beck – Head of WDR-Studio Duisburg Fritz Behrens MdL – Member of the North Rhine-Westphalian Landtag.
D.. K – Ideas for Communication, Berlin. D. Michael Eilfort – Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and Board of the Stiftung Marktwirtschaft Frank Fischer – Professor of Political Science and Public Administration at Rutgers University, New Jersey Thomas Fischer – Head of the Brussels office of the Bertelsmann Stiftung Wolfgang Clement Federal Minister a. D. Prime Minister a. D. Rüdiger Frohn Secretary of State a. D. Eckart Gaddum Head of the main editorial office Neue Medien at ZDF Manuela Glaab Head of the Research Group Germany Richard Hilmer managing director infratest dimap Bodo Hombach managing director of the WAZ Media Group Hannelore Kraft party chairman of the NRW-SPD Norbert Lammert President of the German Bundestag Werner Müller Federal Minister a. D. and chief executive officer of Evonik Industries Wolfgang Nowak Head of the Alfred Herrhausen Society Frank Plasberg TV presenter Peter Radunski Senator a. D. and campaign manager Sabine Scholt moderator WDR-TV Jörg Schönenborn editor-in-chief WDR television Hajo Schumacher journalist and author The "Visiting Professorship for Political Management of Stiftung Mercator" is awarded once a year by the NRW School of Governance at the University of Duisburg-Essen.
In 2011, the Federal Minister of Finance a. D. and former Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia, Peer Steinbrück, has been awarded the visiting professorship for policy management. As experts of political practice, the visiting professors are available to the Master's students in seminars as part of the study program, but there are public events for those interested in the University of Duisburg-Essen. Previous holders of the Mercator professorship were: 2018 – Rita Süssmuth – Bundestag President a. D. Federal Minister a. D. 2016 – Christian Wulff – Federal President a. D. Prime Minister a. D. 2015 – Christine Bergmann – Federal Minister for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens and Youth a. D. 2014 – Günter Verheugen – Vice-President of the European Commission a. D. 2013 – Jutta Limbach – former President of the Federal Constitutional Court 2012 – Bernhard Vogel – former Prime Minister of Rhineland-Palatinate 2011 – Peer Steinbrück – Federal Minister of Finance a. D. and former Prime Minister of NRW 2010 – Stefan Aust – former editor-in-chief of the Spiegel 2009 – Antje Vollmer – Vice President of the German Bundestag a. D. and former group leader of the German Green Party 2008 – Fu-Chang Chang – Professor at the Institute for European Studies at Tamkang University in Taipei 2007 – Wolfgang Clement – former Prime Minister of NRW Currently the NRW School of Governance offers two master programs: Since the winter semester 2006/2007, the Master program "Political Management, Public Policy and Public Administration" has been offered at the NRW School of Governance.
Hundreds of students apply for the 30 annual slots. The program lasts a total of six semesters and is designed to prepare th